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Cutoff for anion gap

Greater than 12


Affect of lowering threshold

Increase NPV
Increase seNsitivity


When would you use filgrastim sargramostim?

Both are used to recover bone marrow, but Filgrastim is G-CSF, and Sargramostim is GM-CSF, so use sargramostim if you need to recover monocytes/macrophages.


non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathophys

metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance); obesity --> fatty infiltration of hepatocytes --> cellular "ballooning" and eventual necrosis. NOT ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL USE, but can lead to cirrhosis and HCC.


inverse agonist

Drug that binds to the same receptor but induces the opposite response.