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Flashcards in ID 16 Deck (56):
1

Difference in presentation between chlamydia and gonorrhoa with PID

Chlamydia --> subacute and often undiagnosed.
Gonorrhoeae --> acute.

2

most common bacterial STI in US?

chlamydia

3

chandelier sign?

cervical motion tenderness

4

PID presentation

chandelier sign
purulent cervical discharge

5

PID may include...

salpingitis
endometritis
hydrosalpinx
*tubo-ovarian abscess

6

Most common causes of nosocomial infection?

E coli (UTI)
S aureus wound infections

7

C diff presentation

watery diarrhea
*leukocytosis

8

usual pathogens with aspiration

polymicrobial
*gram negatives
anaerobes

9

aspiration pneumonia findings

1) right lower lobe infiltrate or right upper/middle lobe if recumbent
2) purulent malodorous sputum

10

decubitus ulcers usually caused by

1) s aureus
2) gram negative anaerobes

11

long term IV catheter associated pathogen

s epidermidis

12

other pathogens associated with IV catheters

s aureus
*enterobacter

13

pathogens associated with mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation?

Late onset:
P aeruginosa,
klebsiella
acinetobacter
S aureus

14

Findings with mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation infection?

New infiltrate on CXR.
Increased sputum production.

15

common nosocomial infection with renal dialysis?

HBV

16

urinary catheterization pathogens?

E coli
Klebsiella
Proteus

17

Rash in an unimmunized child think..

Rubella
Measles

18

epiglottitis presentation

fever with dysphagia, drooling, difficulty breathing.

19

caveat about h flu type b epiglottitis

can cause epiglottitis in immunized children too

20

Infection in asplenic patient think...

encapsulated microbes

21

Infection in neutropenic pt think..

candida
aspergillus

22

empyema think...

s aureus

23

infection with traumatic open wound think...

clostridium perfringens

24

nalidixic acid

quinolone

25

bacitracin

glycopeptide. inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis.

26

streptogramins?

quinupristin
dalfopristin

27

monobactams?

aztreonam

28

1st generation cephalosporin?

cefazolin

29

2nd generation cephalosporin?

cefoxitin

30

3rd generation cephalosporin?

ceftriaxone

31

4th generation cephalosporin?

cefepime

32

5th generation cephalosporin?

ceftaroline

33

Penicillin clinical uses

Gram positives (S pneumo, s pyogenes, actinomyces)
Gram negatives (n mengitidis)
spirochetes (t pallidum)

34

penicillin bacteriostatic/cidal?

usually bactericidal

35

penicillin resistance

penicillinase in bacteria cleaves beta-lactam ring

36

penicillinase?

Type of beta-lactamase

37

What are step penicillinase-sensitive penicillins?

amoxicillin, ampicillin; aminopenicillins

38

point of adding clavulanic acid?

protect against beta-lactamse

39

amoxicillin vs. ampicillin

amoxicillin has greater oral bioavailability

40

penicillinase-sensitive penicillins use

H flu
H pylori
E coli
Listeria
Proteus
Salmonella
Shigella
Enterococci

41

amoxicillin/ampicillin AE's

1) Hypersensitivity reactions
2) rash
3) C diff

42

penicillinase-sensitive penicillins resistance

penicillinase cleaves beta lactam ring

43

What are penicillinase-resistant penicillins?

Nafcillin
Oxacillin
*Dicloxacillin

44

How do penicillinase-resistant penicillins resist penicillinase?

Bulky R group blocks access of beta-lactamase to beta-lactam ring

45

penicillinase-resistant penicillin uses

S aureus (EXCEPT MRSA; resistant because of altered penicillin-binding protein target site) (Use naf for staph)

46

penicillinase-resistant penicillin AE's

1) hypersensitivity reactions
2) interstitial nephritis

47

What are the antipseudomonal penicillins?

Piperacillin
Ticarcillin

48

Spectrum of penicillinase-resistant penicillins?

narrow

49

Spectrum of antipseudomonal penicillins?

broad spectrum

50

antipseudomonal penicillins uses

pseudomonas
gram negative rods

51

antipseudomonal penicillins resistance

penicillinase

52

antipseudomonal penicillins caveat

usually used with beta-lactamase inhibitors

53

antipseudomonal penicillins AE's

hypersensitivity reactions

54

Beta-lactamase inhibitors

Clavulanic acid
Sulbactam
tazobactam

55

hydrosalpinx

Distally blocked fallopian tube filled with serous or clear fluid.

56

tuba-ovarian abscess

Late complication of PID. Capsule pocket of pus occurring during infection of fallopian tube and ovary.