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Flashcards in ID 12 Deck (51):
1

rhabdovirus structure

enveloped, single strand, negative sense, helical

2

filoviruses

Ebola
Marburg hemorrhagic fever

3

filovirus structure

*enveloped
SS, negative sense, linear, helical

4

Arena viruses...

LCMV - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Lassa fever encephalitis

5

Lassa fever encephalitis transmission

spread by rodents

6

arenavirus structure

enveloped, SS positive or negative, circular, 2 segments, helical capsid

7

Bunyaviruses

1) california encephalitis
2) Sandfly/Rift Valley fevers
3) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
4) Hantavirus-

8

Bunyavirus structure

*enveloped
SS negative sense, circular, 3 segments, helical capsid

9

Delta virus structure

*enveloped
SS negative sense, circular

10

segmented viruses

1) bunyaviruses
2) orthomyxoviruses
3) arena viruses
4) reoviruses

11

picornavirus memory trick

picoRNAvirus = small RNA virus

12

picornavirus characteristics

1) all enteroviruses (fecal-oral) except rhinovirus
2) RNA is translated into 1 large polypeptide that is cleaved by proteases into functional viral proteins.

13

rhinovirus characteristics

1) over 100 serotypes
2) acid labile (explains why it doesn't affect GI tract)

14

yellow fever virus vector

Aedes mosquito

15

yellow fever reservoir

monkeys or humans

16

councilman bodies

eosinophilic apoptotic globules

17

rotavirus season

winter

18

rotavirus pathophys

villous destruction with atrophy leads to decreased absorption of sodium and loss of potassium

19

most common pathogens with flu superinfection

1) s aureus
2) s pneumonia
3) h flu

20

other name for genetic shift

antigenic shift

21

genetic shift causes...

pandemics

22

other name for genetic drift

antigenic drift

23

cause of genetic drift

random mutation in hemagglutinin or neuraminidase genes

24

rubella presentation and rash characteristic

1) fever
2) post auricular or other lymphadenopathy
3) arthralgia
4) fine, confluent rash starting on face and spreading centrifugally to involve trunk and extremities.

25

croup cough description

seal-like barking cough + inspiratory stridor

26

shared characteristics of paramyxoviruses...

1) F, fusion protein

27

Croup other name

acute laryngotracheobronchitis

28

croup on CXR

narrowing of upper trachea and sub glottis leads to characteristic steeple sign

29

croup sequela..

Can result in pulses paradoxus secondary to upper airway obstruction.

30

measles prsentation

1) prodromal fever with cough
2) coryza
3) conjunctivitis
4) koplik soos
5) followed 1-2 days later by a maculopapular rash starting at head/neck and spreading downward

31

Warthin-Finkeldey description

Giant cells (fused lymphocytes) in a background of paracortical hyperplasia.

32

koplik spot description

bright red spots with blue-white center on buccal mucosa

33

sequela of measles...

1) SSPE
2) encephalitis
3) giant cell pneumonia (rarely, in immunosuppressed)

34

treatment for measles

Vitamin A can reduce morbidity and mortality, especially in malnourished

35

mumps symptoms

Parotitis
Orchitis
aseptic meningitis
pancreatitis

36

negri body description

cytoplasmic inclusions commonly found in Purkinje cells of cerebellum and in hippocampal neurons

37

classic example of passive-active immunity...

rabies

38

postexposure prophylaxis for rabis

1) wound cleaning + immunization w/ killed vaccine + rabies immunoglobulin

39

rabies pathophys

travels retrograde to CNS after binding to ACh receptors

40

rabies disease progression

fever, malaise --> agitation, photophobia, hydrophobia, hyper salivation --> paralysis, coma --> death

41

common sources of rabies infection

More commonly from bat, raccoon, and skunk bites than from dog bites in the US. Aerosol transmission in bat caves also possible.

42

what does ebola target?

endothelial cells + phagocytes + hepatocytes

43

ebola virus pathogenesis

incubation period of up to 21 days then abrupt onset of flu-like symptoms + diarrhea/vomiting + high fever + myalgia. Then can progress to DIC --> diffuse hemorrhaging --> shock.

44

ebola diagnosis

RT-PCR within 48 hours of symptom onset

45

ebola transmission

1) direct contact with bodily fluids OR fomites (dead bodies) OR infected bats or primates.
2) high incidence of nosocomial infection

46

treatment for ebola?

supportive. strict isolation and barrier practices for healthcare providers.

47

hepatitis viruses lacking envelope? characteristics?

HAV and HEV. They are not destroyed by the gut. Vowels hit your bowels.

48

HBV lifecycle

enters nucleus --> polymerase completes partial dsDNA --> host RNA polymerase transcribes mRNA from viral DNA to make viral proteins --> DNA polymerase reverse transcribes viral RNA to DNA, which is the genome of the progeny virus.

49

HCV genetics

lacks 3'-5' exonuclease activity. This is what causes variation in antigenic structures of HCV envelope proteins. Host antibody production lags behind production of new mutants strains of HCV.

50

Common sources of HAV...

1) shellfish
2) travelers
3) day care

51

Hantavirus causes...

hemorrhagic fever + pneumonia