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Flashcards in Neuro VII Deck (70):
1

What inhibits primitive reflexes?

Frontal lobe development. This is why frontal lobe lesions can lead to loss of inhibition of these reflexes.

2

plantar reflex

dorsiflexion of large toe and fanning of other toes with plantar stimulation

3

Location of CN nerves

FA 477

4

Location of infundibulum

FA 477

5

location of mammillary body?

FA 477

6

location of CN nerves in midbrain/pons/medulla ETC

Rule of 4s
4 above pons (I-IV)
4 in pons (V-VIII)
4 in medulla (IX-XII)
4 CN nuclei

7

medial CN nuclei

III, IV, VI, XII "factors of 12"

8

Location of pineal body, superior and middle cerebellar peduncles

FA 477

9

Pineal gland function

1) melatonin secretion
2) circadian rhythms

10

Superior colliculi function

conjugate vertical gaze center

11

Inferior colliculi function

auditory

12

Parinaud syndrome

paralysis of conjugate vertical gaze due to lesion in superior colliculi

13

Parinaud syndrome causes

1) pinealoma
2) stroke
3) hydrocephalus

14

Where are CN nuclei generally located?

Tegmentum portion of brain stem.

15

CN XI nucleus location?

spinal cord

16

CN VII nucleus location?

pons

17

CN XII nucleus location?

medulla

18

CN IV nucleus location?

midbrain

19

CN IX nucleus location?

medulla

20

CN III nucleus location?

midbrain

21

CN V nucleus location?

pons

22

CN VI nucleus location?

pons

23

CN X nucleus location?

medulla

24

CN VIII nucleus location?

pons

25

lateral vs medial CN nuclei

lateral nuclei = sensory (aLar palte)
--- sulcus limitans---
medial nuclei = motor (basal plate)

26

cribriform plate transmits...

CN I

27

optic canal transmits

CN II + ophthalmic artery

28

SOF transmits...

CN III, IV, VI, V1

29

Foramen rotundum transmits...

V2

30

Foramen ovale transmits...

V3

31

foramen spinosum transmits...

middle meningeal artery

32

internal auditory meatus transmits

VII + VIII

33

jugular foramen transmits...

CN IX, X, XI

34

foramen magnum transmits...

brainstem

35

CN XII location of exit

hypoglossal canal

36

oculomotor innervates

SR + IR + MR + IO

37

oculomotor functions

1) eye movement
2) pupillary constriction
3) accommodation
4) eyelid opening (elevator palpebrae)

38

Edinger-Westphal nucleus?

PS pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and ciliary muscle.

39

trochlear innervates

SO

40

trigeminal functions

1) mastication
2) facial sensation
3) somatosensation from anterior 2/3 of tongue.

41

abducens innervates

LR

42

facial nerve functions

1) facial movement
2) taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
3) lacrimation
4) salivation (submandibular and sublingual glands)
5) eyelid closing (orbicularis oculi)
6) auditory volume modulation (stapedius)

43

Glossopharyngeal functions

1) taste and sensation from posterior 1/3 of tongue
2) swallowing
3) salivation (parotid gland)
4) monitoring carotid body and sinus chemo- and baroreceptors
5) elevation of pharynx/larynx (sylopharyngeus)

44

Vagus functions

1) taste from supraglottic region
2) swallowing
3) soft palate elevation
4) midline uvula
5) talking
6) coughing
7) PS to thoracoabdominal viscera
8) monitoring aortic arch chemo- and baroreceptors

45

nucleus solitarius function

Visceral sensory information (taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)

46

nucleus solitarius houses

VII, IX, X

47

nucleus ambiguus functions

Motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, upper esophagus (eg swallowing, palate elevation)

48

nucleus ambiguus houses..

IX, X, XI (cranial portion

49

dorsal motor nucleus function

Sends autonomic (PS) fibers to heart, lungs, upper GI

50

dorsal motor nucleus houses...

X

51

corneal reflex: afferent, efferent

- nasociliary branch of V1
- temporal branch: orbicularis oculi of VII

52

lacrimation reflex: afferent, efferent

V1, VII

53

jaw jerk reflex: afferent, efferent

- V3 sensory--muscle spindle from masseter
- V3 (motor to masseter)

54

pupillary reflex: afferent, efferent

II, III

55

Gag reflex: afferent, efferent

IX, X

56

location of CN XII nucleus

medulla

57

location of CN VI nucleus

pons

58

location of CN VIII nucleus

pons

59

location of CN III nucleus

midbrain

60

location of CN IX nucleus

medulla

61

location of CN XI nucleus

spinal cord

62

location of CN IV nucleus

midbrain

63

location of CN V nucleus

pons

64

location of CN VII nucleus

pons

65

location of CN X nucleus

medulla

66

preseptal cellulitis

/infection of soft tissue anterior to the orbital septum. Eye itself is not involved. /can progress to orbital cellulitis if untreated leading to proptosis + compromised extraocular motility. /cavernous sinus thrombosis is a major dangerous complication of orbital cellulitis.

67

Memorize foramen of skull

FA 478

68

Brain stem dorsal and ventral view

FA 477

69

Foramen from inside of skull

https://www.google.com/search?q=optic+canal&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi_0--TlOXLAhXGmoMKHTZCBAEQ_AUIBygB&biw=1067&bih=576#imgrc=NbeuhrDLrgKE-M%3A

70

Foramen of external skull

https://www.google.com/search?q=vegas&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjajK_RqubLAhUFuoMKHdbcBrwQ_AUICSgD&biw=1067&bih=576#tbm=isch&q=optic+canal&imgrc=W0hHf13RlarVTM%3A