Osteoporosis and Other Metabolic Bone Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Osteoporosis and Other Metabolic Bone Disorders Deck (33):
1

What happens first in bone remodeling?

The osteoclasts secrete enzymes and acids that degrade bone. They then secrete messenger molecules that activate osteoblasts.

2

Osteoblasts secrete _______________.

osteoid

3

Where do osteocytes come from?

Osteoblasts

4

Osteoclasts are activated by the ligand ____________.

RANK

5

Osteoblasts are activated by the __________ pathway.

Wnt

6

Osteoporosis predisposes people to fragility fractures. What are those?

Fractures due to minor trauma

7

Osteoporosis is more severe than _____________.

osteopenia

8

In wedge fractures of the vertebra, the __________ side is narrower.

anterior (leading to kyphosis)

9

Once you've had one fragility fracture, your risk of having another is ______________.

fivefold

10

What is the most common critical period for bone resorption?

Menopause

11

What formula needs to be satisfied to mineralize bone?

[Ca] x [PO4] must be greater than 24

12

95% of all genetic rickets is _____________.

congenital hypophosphatemic rickets (resistant to vitamin D)

13

The pathognomonic radiologic finding for osteomalacia is _________________.

pseudofractures – lines of demineralization where arteries press against bone

14

What two things are thought to cause Paget's disease?

- Genetic predisposition
- Paramyxovirus infection

15

________________ is usually the gene implicated in familial Paget's.

SQSTM (sequestasome)

16

______________ ownership has been linked to Paget's disease.

Dog

17

What symptoms are typical of Paget's?

Bone pain
Fractures
Osteoarthritis
Bone deformity

18

Paget's can cause ___________ by two ways.

deafness (the ways being ossification of the foramen through which the cochlear nerve exits and ossification of the ossicles)

19

Alkaline phosphatase is secreted by osteo-_________.

blasts

20

What are the radiologic signs of Paget's disease?

"Blade of grass" lesions in long bones and punched-out lesions in flat bones

21

On pathologic slides, the bone of someone with Paget's will display _______________.

disorganized trabeculae and expanded cortex

22

How might you hear osteoclasts histologically described?

Multinucleated giant cells

23

_______________ function as the mechanoreceptors in bone, increasing deposition of minerals when stress increases.

Osteocytes

24

Binding to ____________ stimulates bone resorption.

RANK

25

What densitometry scores correspond to osteopenia and osteoporosis?

Osteopenia: less than 1.0 SD below average
Osteoporosis: less than 2.5 SD below average

26

What doses of calcium and vitamin D are recommended in those with osteoporosis?

1,500 mg of calcium and 1,000 units of vitamin D

27

Bisphosphonates and SERMs are classified as ______________ agents.

anti-resorptive

28

What causes vitamin D-dependent Rickets types 1 and 2?

Type 1: defect of 1-alpha hydroxylase (type 1 = 1-alpha)
Type 2: defect of vitamin D receptor

29

Hypophosphatemic Rickets is also called _______________.

vitamin D resistant Rickets

30

What are the three phases of Paget's disease?

- Osteoclast predominance (5 years; high N-telopeptides)
- Osteoblast predominance (10 years; alk phos elevated)
- Osteoclast predominance ( indefinite; high N-telopeptides)

31

The most frequent kind of osteoporosis fracture is __________.

spinal

32

The incidence of Paget's disease went down, perhaps due to the introduction of the _________ vaccine.

measles

33

Those with ____________ also have cardiovascular features.

Paget's

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