Flashcards in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Diseases and Developmental Defects Deck (24):
True or false: IBD, Crohn's and Helicobacter gastritis do not occur until adolescence.
False. They can occur in kids as young as 3 months.
Just note that this lecturer said all the exam questions will come from the PowerPoint, not the PDF (in case the PDF is super long).
Tracheo-esophageal fistulas have what incidence?
1/3,000 - 1/10,000 live births
Most children with tracheo-esophageal fistula also have _______________.
Tracheo-esophageal fistula presents with ____________ during pregnancy.
What kind of tracheo-esophageal fistula is most common?
The proximal esophagus just stops, and the distal esophagus is connected to the trachea.
True or false: bilious vomit comes from the gut.
False. It comes from the duodenum.
Meckel diverticulum most often presents in the ____________.
distal small intestine – 2 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction; the mnemonic for this is the "rule of 2s": it presents in 2% of the population 2 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction
Meckel diverticulum results from abnormal _____________.
remnant of vitelline duct (which connects the fetal intestine to the yolk sac)
Which intestine (small or large) is fixed to the retroperitoneum?
The large intestine
What increases risk of the disorder in which the intestines fail to return to the body?
Advanced maternal age
What is the distinction between gastroschisis and omphalocele?
Gastroschisis also presents with intestines outside the abdomen, but there is no amniotic covering (as there is in omphalocele).
Gastrointestinal duplications may or may not ____________ and are usually benign.
communicate with the true bowel
What is the incidence of imperforate anus?
How is Hirschsprung disease treated?
Surgical removal of the aganglionic segment
Why is the distal colon the most commonly affected site in Hirschsprung's disease?
Because the ganglion cells migrate from the mediastinum to the gut. The distal colon is the farthest site of migration, and thus the most likely area to be affected.
What can cause neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis?
- enteric feeds
- poor immune system (leading to bacterial destruction of tissue)
The most common form of tracheo-esophageal fistula is ____________.
when the distal esophagus connects to the trachea and there is no connection between the top and bottom esophagus
The disorder that resembles omphalocele but lacks the amniotic covering results from what?
Defect in the congenital abdominal wall
Hirschsprung's is more common in ________.
A neonate with ARDS develops bloody diarrhea and abdominal bloating. What treatment might he need?
- antibiotics and bowel rest (if mild)
- surgical resection (if severe)
The stem describes NEC.
The trachea and esophagus develop from the ______________.
The developmental abnormality that presents with heterotopic pancreatic and gastric tissue can lead to what symptoms?
Obstruction and bleeding