Test 26: Immunology/Microbiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 26: Immunology/Microbiology Deck (59):
1

Neurofibrillary tangles in neocortex are seen in what disease

Alzheimer

2

Loss of neurons in substantia nigra is characteristic of what disease

Parkinson disease

3

Atrophy of caudate nucleus is seen in what disease

Huntington disease

4

Posterior column degeneration is seen in what

Vitamin B12 deficiency
Syphilis

5

Presence of Lewy bodies is characteristic of what

Parkinsonism

6

Ataxia-Telangiectasia
- how is it inherited

autosomal recessive

7

Ataxia-Telangiectasia clinical symptoms

- cerebellar ataxia
- oculocutaneous telangiectasias
- repeated sinopulmonary infections
- increased incidence of malignancy

8

What is the most common eye-related complication of congenital cytomegalovirus

Chorioretinitis

9

When is the highest risk of transmission of CMV during pregnancy

first trimester

10

What is choroidal nevus

- eye freckle
- non hereditary
- benign pigmented area underneath the retina

11

classic triad for rubella infection

1. congenital cataracts
2. Sensory neural defect
3. Patent ductus arteriosus

12

How do humans get Schistosomoiasis

freshwater sources that contain snails infected with Schistosoma larvae.

13

what do
S. Japonicum
S. Mansoni
S haematobium cause

S. Japonicum and S. Mansoni cause intestinal and hepatic schistosomiasis

S. haematobium causes urinary schistosomiasis (mild bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder wall thickening)

14

what is the immune response for Schistosomiasis

Th2-mediated granulomatous response directed against the egg

15

Bata are a major reservoir for what virus

rabies virus

16

What dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the most common cause of what

hydatid cysts in humans

17

Infection of human tapeworm usually results in

Vitamin B12 deficiency and megaloblastic anemia

18

Location of S. Haematobium

North Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Middle East

19

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine are strongly immunogenic in who and what response do they get

infancy due to B and T cell recruitment

20

Insect sting results in what type of hypersensitivity reaction

Type I

21

Describe the cutaneous findings consistent with a wheal

single lesion of urticaria ( erythematous papule or plaque with central pallor)

22

In insect sting, Antibody class switches to what

IgE

23

Where can lysozymes be found

tears
saliva
granules in neutrophils

24

function of lysozyme

hydrolyzing bonds in the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacterial organisms

25

who produces TNF-alpha

macrophages and mast cells

26

Function of TNF-alpha

- signal for apoptosis of tumor cells
- activation of inflammatory cell

27

MOA of Infliximab and Etanercept

humanized anti-TNF immunoglobulins
- reduce inflammation by binding TNF

28

C3b plays a role in what type of hypersensitivity

Type III

29

IL-2 is a cytokine produced by who?

Th1-lymphocytes

30

IL-2 signals for what

proliferation of increased activity of Th and TC lymphocytes, NK cells

31

role of Th1 cells

inducing macrophage and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte mediated inflammation

32

role of TH2 cells

induce humoral immunity

33

What cytokine signals for TH2 cells

IL-4

34

Which Ig crosses breast milk

IgA

35

What initiates IgM to switch to IgE

Il-4 from B-lymphocytes

36

What is the key immunoglobulin in providing immunity against bacterial toxins

IgG

37

common clinical results for Hyper-IgM syndrome

- lymphoid hyperplasia
- recurrent sinopulmonary infections

38

What can cause Hyper-IgM syndrome

- genetic absence of CD-40 ligand on T-lymphocytes
- genetic deficiency in enzymes responsible for DNA modification during isotype swtiching

39

Role of IL-10

- anti-inflammatory
- immunomodulatory
- inhibits Th1 cytokines
- reduces MHC-II expression
- suppression of activated macrophages and dendritic cells

40

Who secretes IL-10

Regulatory T cells

41

Who produces IL-1

macrophages and epithelial cells

42

Role of IL-1

- Fever
- endothelium activation ( express adhesion molecules)
- increased chemokine expression (promoting leukocyte recruitment)

43

Who secretes IL-5

Th2 Cells

44

role of IL-5

- promotes humoral response by stimulating B cells and increasing IgA production

45

role of IL-12

- induces differentiation of Th1 cells
- activation of NK cells

46

who secretes IL-12

macrophages

47

Who secretes Interferon-gamma

Th1

48

Who produces TNF-alpha

macrophages, NK, T cells

49

CD8+ cells recognize foreign antigens presented with what protien

MHC class I proteins

50

Each MCH class I molecule consists of what

heavy chain
Beta2- microglobulin

51

Structure of MCH Class II

alpha and beta polypeptide chaines

52

antigen presentation of MHC class I results in

apoptosis of the presenting cell

53

Antigen presentation of MHC class II results in

- activation of TH cells --> stimulate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses

54

What is cold agglutinins

antibodies specific from red blood cells that only cause agglutination, or clumping, of red cells at low temperatures

55

What illnesses cause cold agglutinins

Mycoplasma penumoniae
EBC infection
hematologic malignancy

56

What is the most common cause of febrile seizures

Human herpesvirus 6 (Roseola)

57

clinical presentation for Human herpesviurs 6 (roseola)

fever for 3-5 days
followed by truncal rash

58

What is the most common presentation of Cryptococcus neoformans infections

Meningoencephalitis

59

How is Cryptococcal pneumonia diagnosed

mucicarmine staining of lung tissue and bronchoalveolar washings