Test 35: Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 35: Pathology Deck (34):
1

N-myc oncogene is seen in what

Neuroblastoma
- see increased number of n-myc

2

K-ras protooncogene mutation is responsible for what in colorectal cancer

increase in size of adenomatous polyps

3

mutation of WT-1 leads to development of what

Wilms tumor

4

role of p53 in colorectal cancer

malignant transformation of preexisting large adenomatous polyps

5

What is the clinical feature of fat embolism syndrome

1. long bone and/or pelvic fracture
2. acute-onset neurologic abnormalities
3. hypoxemia
4. petechial rash

6

axonal reaction

- increased protein synthesis that facilitates axon repair
- enlarged rounded cells with peripherally located nuclei
- dispersed finely granular nissel substance are seen

7

Irreversible neuronal injury looks like what

- shrinkage of the neuronal body
- deep eosinophilia of cytoplasm
- pyknosis of nucleus
- loss of nissl substances

8

A paraneoplastic syndrome of hypercoagulability may be seen in some patients with what

adenocarcinomas of pancreas, colon, or lung

9

Trousseau syndrome? what is it? what does it indicate?

- Superficial venous thromboses ( migratory superficial thrombophlebitis)
- indicates visceral cancer

10

What is mutated in congenital long QT syndrome

mutations in K+ channels
- decrease outflow K during phase 3
- prolonged action potential

11

how can a congenital long QT syndrome present

Torsades de pointes
syncope
seizure
sudden cardiac death

12

genetic defect in asymmetric hypertrophy of left ventricle occurring in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

1. cardiac myosin-binding protein C
2. cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain gene

13

2 characteristics of dilated cardiomyopathy

1. left ventricle dilation
2. systolic dysfunction

14

What is key clinical finding for acute tubular necrosis

granular "muddy brown" casts

15

oliguria

low urine output

16

what part of the kidney and most likely to become impacted by acute tubular necrosis

- straight proximal tubules
- thick ascending limb of Henle's loops located in outer medulla

17

Brown pigment stones are associated with what

-biliary tract infection

18

Black pigment stones are associated with

- chronic hemolytic anemia
- increased enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin

19

Fever, progressive weakness, and dyspnea
presence of vegetations on mitral valve
what do i have?

infective endocarditis

20

predisposing factor for infective endocarditis

valvular abnormalities and bacteremia/fungemia
- rheumatic heart disease
- mitral valve prolapse
- prosthetic valves
- congenital heart disease

21

Chronic valvular inflammation and scarring associated with rheumatic heart disease predispose to an increase risk of what

infective endocarditis.

22

vegetations caused by bacterial colonization in infective endocarditis grow on what

sterile fibrin-platelet nidus that forms damaged/disrupted endothelial surface of the valvular apparatus

23

Epidural hematoma occurs due to a tear of what? between what layers

meningeal artery
- bone and dura matar

24

clinical presentation of epidural hematoma

- "lucid interval" followed by loss of consciousness

25

What bone is usually impacted with epidural hematoma

temporal bone

26

CT for epidural hematoma

-hyperdense biconvex (lentiform) blood collection
- does not cross suture lines

27

Blood vessel involved with subdural hematoma

- bridging cortical veins

28

blood vessel involved with subarachnoid hemorrhage

Aneurysm or AV malformation of anterior and posterior communicating arteries

29

subdural hematoma between what layers

dura and arachnoid

30

between what layers subarachnoid hemorrhage

arachnoid and pia mater

31

Clinical manifestation of subdural hematoma

gradual onset of headache and confusion

32

clinical manifestation of subarachnoid hemorrhage

severe headache "worst headache of my life"
- fever and nuchal rigidity

33

CT scan of subarachnoid hemorrhage

blood in basal cistern

34

CT scan of subdural hematoma

crescent-shaped hematoma