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Flashcards in Test 73: All Deck (83):
1

branches of celiac trunk

1. common hepatic
2. splenic
3. left gastric

2

MOA for Bordetella pertussis

overactivates adenylate cyclase ( increase cAMP)

3

MOA for Bacillus anthracis

mimics adenylate cyclase enzyme ( increase cAMP)
- neutrophil and macrophage dysfunction

4

Efficacy

measure of maximum pharmacodynamic effect achievable with a drug

5

Potency

dose of drug that is required to produce a given effect

6

Lower the ED50 of a drug, what is its potency

more potent

7

What receptors do Epinephrine work at

high doses: alpha1 vasoconstriction
low doses: beta2 vasodilation , increases heart rate and contractility

8

What receptors do Epinephrine work on

Alpha 1 and 2
Beta

9

Phenylephrine MOA

selective alpha-adrenergic agonist

10

MOA Phentolamine

non-specific alpha-1 and alpha 2 blocker

11

Isoproterenol MOA

non-selective Beta adrenergic agonist

12

Atropine MOA

competitive antagonist at post-junctional muscarinin receptors of the heart

13

MOA of Amphotericin B

binds ergosterol of fungal cell membranes
- can also bind cholesterol in humans

14

toxicity of Amphotericin B

1. nephrotoxicity
2. hypokalemia
3. hypomagnesemia

15

MOA of Griseofulvin

binding of micro tubular proteins

16

When is Griseofulvin used

against dermatophytes

17

patient has flank pain, hematuria, elevated lactate dehydrogenase ( cell necrosis) and wedge-shaped kidney on CT has what

renal infarction

18

Most common cause of renal infarction

thromboembolism

19

3rd week of pregnancy, yolk sac turns into what

allantois

20

What is urachus

duct between bladder and yolk sac

21

Allantois forms what

urachus

22

What is patent urachus? clinical presntation

total failure of urachus to obliterate
- straw-colored urine discharge from umbilicus

23

Where can ulnar nerve be injured

1. medial epicondyle of humerus ( funny bone)
2. Guyon's canal near hook of hamate
3. pisiform bone in wrist

24

clinical presentation for ulnar nerve injury

- sensory loss over medial 1.5 digits
- hypothenar eminence
- weakness of wrist flexion/adduction
- flexion of 4th/5th digits

25

What nerve innervates coracobrachialis muscle

musculocutaneous nerve

26

Fracture of surgical neck of humerus causes what nerve injury

axillary nerve

27

Fracture of mid shaft of humerus results in what nerve injury

radial nerve

28

Subluxation of radial head can hurt what nerve

deep branch of radial nerve

29

Where does splenic artery originate from

celiac artery

30

branches from splenic artery go where

stomach and pancreas
- pancreatic
- short gastric
- left gastroepiploic arteries

31

if splenic artery isn't getting a good supply which branch would get the least supply of blood

short gastric ( no anastomoses )

32

Define sensitivity

ability to correctly identify those with the disease

33

pinna

visibile portion of ear

34

Cutaneous sensation to the posterior external auditory canal via same auricular branch

vagus nerve, rest of canal done by mandibular division of trigeminal nerve

35

5-month baby consuming honey probably has what

C. botulinum spores

36

how do adults and infants consume botulinum

infants: consuming C. botulinum spores
adults: consuming preformed toxin

37

List some common features of Turner syndrome

1. primary amenorrhea
2. short stature
3. high arched palate
4. widely spaced nipples

38

define Primary amenorrhea

- absence of menses by age 15 with normal female
- absence of messes by age 13 with absent secondary sex characteristics

39

Normal epithelium of bronchi

pseudo stratified ciliated columnar cells

40

what does smoking do to bronchi

squamous cell metaplasia

41

equation for Filtration fraction

GFR/RPF

42

equation for determining renal plasma?

1-hematocrit

43

Majority of left ventricular blood flow occurs during what time

diastole

44

What portion of Left ventricle is prone to ischemia

subendocardial region

45

GI ulcer is unlikely to be malignant in which location

duodenum

46

Colonic adenocarcinomas at a young age along with predisposition for extra intestinal malignancies

Lynch syndrome
hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

47

mutation in MSH2, MLH1

Lynch syndrome

48

If cardiovascular examination shows a cardiac point of maximal impulse that is palpated at the right 5th intercostal space, what does that mean

Situs inversus

49

If patient has Bronchiectasis, recurrent sinusitis and situs inverses >

Kartagener syndrome

50

What are common etiologies for dilated cardiomyopathy

ABCCCD
-alcohol abuse
- wet beriberi
- Coxsackie B
- Cocaine
- Chagas
- Doxorubicin

51

classic histo finding for tropheryma whippelii?

PAS + foamy macrophages in intestinal lamina propria

52

What are classic symptoms for Whipple disease

Cardiac, arthralgia and neurologic symptoms

53

treatment of amino salicylic acid derivatives are used for wht

Ulcerative colitis

54

treatment for whipple diseae

antibiotics

55

Cortisol increases the conversion of what in the adrenal medulla via?

norepinephrine to epinephrine
- Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase

56

Role of Smooth ER

has enzymes for steroid and phospholipid biosynthesis

57

what organs are rich in smooth ER

- adrenal cortex
- gonads
- liver

58

Growth hormone binds to cell receptors and activates what pathway

JAK-STAT pathway

59

Ductus arteriosus is derived from what embryonic arch

- sixth embryonic aortic arch

60

Where is ductus arteriosus murmur heard

left infraclavicular region

61

bulbus cords gives rise to what

smooth parts of left and right ventricle

62

Primitive atrium forms what

rough portions of left and right atria

63

Left horn of suns venosus forms what

coronary sinus

64

right horn of sinus venosus forms what

smooth part of right atrium

65

India ink staining of CSF shows what for cyptococus neoformans

round or oval budding yeast

66

Treatment for narcolepsy

1. daytime naps
2. Modafinil for daytime sleepiness first line
3. second line: amphetamines

67

What type of murmur is aortic stenosis

Crescendo-decrescendo murmur

68

When does aortic stenosis start and stop

- starts after first heart sound
- ends before A2 component of second heart sound

69

Patients with chronic aortic stenosis and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, what contributes significantly to left ventricular filling

atrial contraction

70

1-day-old infant has flat facial profile, protruding tongue, and small ears? what does baby have

Down syndrome

71

what is the number one cause for Down syndrome

meiotic nondisjunction

72

Reduced pulmonary parenchymal compliance is hallmark of what disease

pulmonary fibrosis

73

Antibodies to citrullinated peptides/proteins have a high specificity for what disease

rheumatoid arthritis

74

Anti-centromere antibodies are found in what

CREST syndrome

75

Anti-dsDNA is found in what

systemic lupus erythematosus

76

what is rheumatoid factor

autoantibodies targeting the Fc portion of human IgG

77

Where does hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis occur

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

78

most important virulence factor that uropathogenic E. coli express

P. fimbriae

79

ovarian torsion usually involves what ligament

infundibulopelvic ligament

80

what does ovarian ligament contain

nothing

81

what does infundibulopelvic ligament contain

ovarian vessels

82

chronic opioid users do not develop tolerance to what side effects

constipation and miosis

83

what is rheumatoid factor

IgM antibody