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Flashcards in Test 4-7: All Deck (93):
1

which cells in the heart have the fastest firing rate

SA node

2

Where are Beta1 adrenergic receptors found

1. cardiac tissues
2. renal juxtaglomerular cells

3

MOA for atenolol

selective Beta 1 antagonist

4

MOA for propranolol

nonselective beta blocker

5

Glycolysis of a single glucose molecule always yields pyruvate but sometimes generates no net ATP? What cell am i in?

Erythrocytes

6

Role of 2,3-BPG

decrease hemoglobin affinity for oxygen

7

What molecule makes 2,3-BPG, via? What is special about this reaction

- 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate via mutase
- bypasses ATP generating step of glycolysis, causing no net gain in ATP

8

What is used to measure GFR

creatinine and inulin

9

PAH is used to calculate what

renal plasma flow

10

How is G6PD deficiency inherited

X-linked recessive disorder

11

Role of viral encoded surface glycoprotein

mediates vision attachment to target host cell

12

A reduced Left ventricular heart compliance is what type of heart failure

diastolic dysfunction

13

What type of cardiomyopathy causes diastolic dysfunction

restrictive/infiltrative cardiomyopathy

14

Decreased protein/albumin levels in capillaries change what pressures

- lowers plasma oncotic pressure
- increases net plasma filtration in capillary beds

15

Pulmonary tuberculosis infection is controlled through the action of what cells

- CD4+ TH1 lymphocytes
- macrophages

16

Hematocrit

ratio of RBC to total volume of blood

17

In patients with sickle cell anemia and other chronic hemolytic disorders, the most common viral infection of erythroid progenitor cells is what

parvovirus B19

18

What is the difference between aplastic crisis and aplastic anemia

crisis: Sickle cell patient, Parvovirus, infection of erythroid precursor cell

anemia: pancytopenia not just anemia

19

genome for Parvovirus B19

non-envoloped single-stranded DNA virus

20

Both adenosine and dipyridamole have what same MOA

vasodilators of coronary vessels

21

What is coronary steal syndrome

- blood flow in ischemic ares is reduced due to arteriolar vasodilation in nonischemic areas .

22

Epicardial vessles

Large coronary arteries of heart, RC, LAD, LCA

23

How many patients need to be treated with Superstation to prevent one additional myocardial infarction. What calculation is this asking for

- Number needed to treat
- number of patients who need to be exposed to be treated for 1 patient to benefit

24

equation for number needed to treat

1/ARR

25

arrangement in which a payor pays a fixed, predetermined fee to provide all the services required by the patient

Capitation

26

payment arrangement in which an insurer pays a provider for each individual service provided at a pre-arranged, discounted rate

Discounted fee-for-service

27

arrangment in which an insurer pays a provider a single payment to cover all expenses associated with an incident of care

Global payment

28

patients have access to personal physician who coordinates care and sees the patient through all aspects of care
- can include captivated or fee-for-service

Patient-centered medical home

29

- patients must have primary care provider and obtain referrals for specialty consultations
- allows patients to see providers outside the network, (different from HMO)

Point-of-service

30

Most common site for unilateral fetal hydronephrosis

ureteropelvic junction

31

All 3 prokaryotic DNA polymerases have what same job

- remove misatched nucleotides via their 3' to 5' exonuclease ( "proofreading") activity

32

What unique function does DNA polymerase I have

excises RNA primer with 5' to 3' exonuclease

33

What is the Electron microscopy for acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis

- subepithelial immune complex humps

34

T-lymphocyte, moncytes and eosinophilic infiltration may be seen in what kidney problem

Acute interstitial nephritis

35

Prominent fibrin deposition is characteristic of what kidney disease

rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

36

Hyaline, acellular deposits composed of plasma protein deposited in kidney is seen in what

Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules of diabetic nephropathy

37

How is chronic granulomatous disease inherited

X-linked recessive

38

How can one test for Chronic granulomatous disease

1. abnormal dihydrorhodamine (flow cytometry) test
- decrease green fluorescence
2. Nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test obsolete

39

Left anterior descending artery arises from what

left main artery

40

How does the left anterior descending artery course on the heart

-Anterior aspect of the anterior inter ventricular groove toward apex of heart

41

Where is coronary sinus located

runs transversely in the left AV groove on the posterior side of the heart

42

Deletion of a single nucleotide from the DNA sequence can cause what type of mutation

frameshift mutation

43

conservative mutation

- type of missense
- one amino acid is replaced with another amino acid similar in chemical structure

44

Missense mutation

- point mutation (nucleotide substitution) resulting in change in amino acid

45

Nonsense mutation

- single base substitution that introduces a premature stop codon

46

Silent mutation

- single base substitution within a codon that does not change amino acid coded for by codon

47

What are stop codons

UAA
UAG
UGA

48

What is minute ventilation? equation

total volume of gas entering lungs per minute
= tidal volume * Respiratory rate

49

how does increased elastic resistance in lung impact minute ventilation

- increase respiratory rate (rapid shallow breaths)
- decrease tidal volume

50

how does high airflow resistance in lung impact minute ventilation

- increase tidal volume
- decrease respiratory rates ( slow, deep breaths)

51

Leads I and aVL corresponds to what on the heart

Lateral Circumflex

52

What does lateral circumflex supply

- lateral and posterior walls of left ventricle, anterolateral papillary muscles

53

Anterior chest leads V1-V4 refer to what part of the heart and blood supply

- Left anterior descending artery
- anterior aspect of left ventricle and inter ventricular septum

54

Right coronary artery corresponds an ST elevation in what leads

II, III, aVF

55

Ureteric bud gives rise to what

collecting system of kidney
( collecting tubule and ducts, major and minor calyces, real pelvis, and ureters)

56

The metanephric mesoderm (blastema) gives rise to

-Glomeruli
- Bowman's space
- proximal tubules
- Loope of Henle
- distal convoluted tubules

57

In phenotypically normal parents, the probability that a female sibling of male affected by an X-linked recessive disease will give birth to an affected child is what

1/8

58

Who produces interleukin-2

All T cells

59

What does IL-2 activate

- CD4 and CD 8 T cells
- B cells
- Natural killer cells
- monocytes

60

What part of the immune system is responsible for it's anti-cancer effect on metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma

T cells release IL-2 to activated natural killer cells release

61

pulmonary elastase enzyme is derived from what cell

alveolar macrophage and neutrophils

62

What gets rid of pulmonary elastase

antiprotease

63

Where are club cells found

terminal portions of bronchioles

64

What do club cells secrete

1. proteins ( protect against airway inflammation)
2. surfactant components

65

Name the 5 dimorphic fungi

1. sporothrix
2. coccidioides
3. histoplasma
4. blastomyces
5. paracoccidioides

66

What is the form os Aspergillus

mold

67

What is the form of candidia

budding yeast or forming pseudohyphae

68

Cyrptococcus is in what form

yeast

69

What is the FEV1/FEC ration, TLC, and diffusing capacity in emphysema

1. decreased ( FEV1/FVC)
2. increased ( TLC )
3. decreased ( diffusing capacity)

70

What happens to the diffusing capacity in asthma

increased

71

What is the diffusing capacity for intrinsic restrictive lung disease and extrinsic

intrinsic: decrease
extrinsic: increase

72

What does carbon monoxide bind to in body and what is it called

- heme iron in hemoglobin
- carboxyhemoglobin

73

If only 1 out of the 4 heme sites has a CO molecule, how are the 3 remaining groups changed

increase oxygen affinity

74

At the cellular level, what does CO bind to

cytochrome oxidase

75

The probability that a child of parents from 2 populations with different mutant alley carrier frequencies will inherit an autosomal recessive disease is what

25% * carrier frequencies

76

What is the principal stabilizing force for the secondary structure of proteins

hydrogen bonds

77

A proteins' primary structure is a sequence of amino acids linked by what bonds

covalent

78

disulfide bond connects what

2 cysteine residues

79

What is SaO2 lab value tell you

oxygen saturation of hemoglobin

80

what does PaO2 tell you

partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in blood

81

What are oxygen lab values for anemia

1. decrease [Hb]
2. normal SaO2 and PaO2

82

What are oxygen lab values for cyanide

All normal

83

What causes tetralogy of fallout

anterosuperior displacement of infundibular septum

84

Primary infection with HSV-1 can cause

-gingivostomaitis
- dehydration

85

How does latent HSV-1 present

mild perioral vesicles

86

Homozygous DeltaF508 mutation is what disease

cystic fibrosis

87

What is sweat content of someone with cystic fibrosis

sweat high with sodium and high chloride

88

Which electrolyte disturbance is most likely to cause symptoms in cystic fibrosis

hyponatremia

89

Lesion in optic tract cuases

- contralateral homonymous hemianopia
- afferent pupillary defect ( marcus Gunn pupil) in pupil contralateral to tract lesion

90

18 year old college student as fever, petechial rash on trunk and extremities, including palms and soles. What does she have

Neisseria species

91

Deficiency of complement factors that form membrane attack complex results in recurrent infections of ?

Neisseria species

92

Some vaccines have what conjugated to them , enhancing immunogenicity by promoting T-cell activation and class swtiching

polysacharide capsule antigens

93

KRAS mutations are seen in what diseases

colon cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer