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Flashcards in Test52: pathology Deck (64):
1

Episodic headache, tachycardia, and diaphoresis highly suggests

pheochromocytoma

2

diaphoresis

sweating

3

Describe Cheyne-stroke breathing

cyclic breathing: apnea is followed by gradually increasing then decreasing tidal volumes until next apnea period

4

Enteric bacteria of gut can produce what

vitamin K and folate

5

What is small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

overproduction of vitamin K and folate,

6

The small bowel mucosa of patients with primary lactase deficiency have what histology

normal

7

Nasal mucosal ulcerations and glomerulonephritis is characteristic of what

granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)

8

antibodies against what is found in Wegener's

neutrophils

9

Patients history of recurrent fever and abdominal pain along with dilated calyces with overlying cortical atrophy bilaterally, mostly in upper and lower poles suggests

Recurrent pyelonephritis

10

what causes vesicoureteral reflux

retrograde urine flow from bladder into ureter

11

Patient has postprandial epigastric pain and food aversion/weight loss in setting of coronary artery bypass ( atherosclerosis ) , ?

chronic mesenteric ischemia ( atherosclerosis of mesenteric artery)

12

histo for Silicosis

- calcification of rim of hillier nodes ( eggshell calcification)
- birefringent silica particles surrounded by fibrous tissue

13

Silicosis impairs what, increase risk for what

- impairs macrophages
- increase risk for TB

14

what is compound nevi and what layers does it involve

- benign proliferations of melanocytes
- both dermis and epidermis

15

What anatomical problem is almost always necessary for development of acute pyelonephritis

vesicoureteral reflux

16

frequent voiding

using bathroom a lot

17

clinical symptoms for hyperaldosteronism

paresthesias and muscle weakness

18

what does erythema multiforme look like on skin

target lesion

19

erythema multiforme is associated with what virus

herpes simplex virus

20

Name Virulence factors for measles virus

- hemagglutinin
- matrix protein

21

what is found in serum of someone with subacute sclerosing pancencephalitis

mealses virus antibodies

22

When does the 4th heart sound occur

end of diastole just before S1

23

what causes 4th heart sound

- decreased left ventricular compliance
- restrictive cardiomyopathy and left ventricular hypertrophy

24

Obese man with loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, and thick neck with narrow airway suggests

obstructive sleep apnea

25

prolonged, untreated obstructive sleep apnea can cause

- pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure

26

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 ( HER2) is overexposed in 20% of what cancers? treatment?

breast cancers
- means more aggressive tumor
- respond to anit-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab

27

HER2 is what type of receptor

tyrosine kinase

28

Role of bcl-2

inhibit apoptosis

29

what is the most common malignant hepatic lesion for liver

matastistis from another primary site ( breast, lung, colon)
- not hepatocellular carcinoma

30

Voluntary muscle activity is mediated by what neuron tract

corticospinal (pyramidal) tracts

31

corticospinal tracts that do not decussate at medulla travel where in spinal cord?

anterior corticospinal tract

32

corticospinal tract that decussate in medulla travel where in spinal cord

lateral corticospinal tract

33

Upper motor neuron lesion leads to what clinical finding

- spastic paralysis
- hyperreflexia
- Babinski sign

34

lower motor signs

- flaccid paralysis
- hypotonia
- hyporeflexia
- muscle atrophy
- fasciculations

35

what color is gray hepatiziation in lung

pale

36

Sudden cardiac death 12 days after MI is most likely due to

ventricular arrhythmias

37

Most common cause of mitral stenosis

rheumatic fever

38

What part of the brain is distorted in normal pressure hydrocephalus

- periventricular white matter

39

Extreme myofiber disarray with interstitial fibrosis on cardiac histology suggests

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

40

cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

mutations in genes encoding cardiac sacromere proteins ( beta-myosin heavy chain)

41

Lab findings for Wilson's disease

- elevated transaminases
- low serum ceruloplasmin

42

First line treatment for Wilson's

D-penicillamine

43

where does copper accumulate in Wilson disease

- liver
-cornea
- basal ganglia ( parkinsonism)

44

Deferoxamine is used to treat what

iron overdose

45

Edetate calcium disodium is used to treat wht

lead poisoning

46

Fluoxetine is used to treat

- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
- depression

47

Levodopa is used to treat

Parkinson disease

48

What is seen for hits for Crohn disease

noncaseating granulomas

49

what levels are elevated in hydatidiform mole

Beta-hCG levels

50

what causes hydatidiform mole

overexertion of paternal genes

51

Pathology of partial mole

- fetal tissue
- focal trophoblastic hyperplasia
- enlarged villi interspersed with normal villi

52

Proximal tubular cell ballooning and vacuolar degeneration in patient with acute renal failure. On top of this have oxalate crystals ? suggests

ethylene glycol poisoning with acute tubular necrosis

53

diagnostic test for pituitary adenoma

MRI of the brain

54

first-line treatment for pituitary adenoma

dopamine agonist ( bromocriptine)

55

Essential fructosuria will be positive for what test

copper reduction test

56

Peripheral blood smear of hypo chromic microcytic anemia arises from what condition

iron deficiency

57

A doctor should look for what as the first cause of iron deficiency

blood loss

58

What is the single most important measure to reduce the risk of transmission of hospital-acquired infections

hand washing

59

What gene mutation is associated with Crohn disease

NOD2

60

what is the NF-kB pathway

cytokine production

61

Carcinoembryonic antigen assay is most useful for detecting what in colon cancer

- recurrence
- and then residual disease

62

What causes Vitiligo

loss of epidermal melanocytes

63

The most common malignant malignancy in asbestoses

Bronchogenic carcinoma

64

What is contracture

during wound healing, excessive matrix metalloproteinase activity and myofibroblast accumulation