Test 42: Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 42: Pathology Deck (58):
1

Marfan is a defect in what

fibrillin-1
Chromosome 15

2

2 most common cardiac abnormalities seen in marfan are

1. mitral valve prolapse
2. cystic medial degeneration of the aorta-- aneurysmal dilation --> untreated - aortic dissection

3

Marfan syndrome and Homocystinuria have similar characteristics what separates them

Marfan: aortic root dilation
Homocystinuria: intellectual disability and thrombosis

4

Poor maternal glucose control leads to what

- Transplacental glucose
- baby beta cell hyperplasia
- hyperinsulinism
- Macrosomia

After delivery: baby hypoglycemia

5

diaphoresis

excessive sweating

6

Coagulative necrosis develops after what

ischemic injury

7

morphology of coagulative necrosis

- tissue architecture perserved
- cell anucleated

8

What causes liquefactive necrosis

- bacterial infections
- central nervous system infarcts

9

Fat necrosis is seen in what

acute pancreatitis

10

Caseous necrosis occurs with what

tuberculous infection

11

Morphology of caseous necrosis

- cheesy tan-white gross appearance
- granuloma

12

patient with ST-segmen elevation in Leads II, III, aVF.
tight squeezing in chest radiates down left arm

MI due to transmural ischemia of inferior wall of heart

13

Complete cardiac ischemia for greater than 30 min. shows up how in impacted heart

coagulative necrosis

14

ischemic cell death in CNV causes what

liquefactive necrosis

15

Left atrial pressure systolic pressure increase is associated with what heart valve problem

mitral regurgitation
- increase filling of left atrium during systole

16

pt 8 year old boy: right mandible mass, immigrated from East Africa, temp 98, lymphadenopthy
biopsy: diffuse infiltrate of lymphoid cells and numerous mitotic figures

Burkitt lymphoma

17

Burkitt lymphoma translocation

1. c-Myc oncogene on long arm of chromosome 8
2. Ig heavy chain region on chromosome 14

8:14

18

The product of c-myc is a nuclear phosphoprotien that function as

transcription activitor

19

histo for Burkitt lymphoma

"starry sky"
- sheets of lymphocytes with interspersed "tangible body" macrophages

20

translocation for follicular lymphoma

14:18

18: long arm near bcl2 gene
14: Ig heavy chain

21

translocation for mantle cell lymphoma

11:14

11: cycline D1
14: Ig heavy chain

22

Translocation for Chronic myelogenous leukemia

Philadelphia chromosome 9:22
BCR-ABL

23

Regurgitant blood flow from aorta into left ventricle in chronic aortic regurgitation leads to what

increase preload, wall stress
-result with eccentric hypertrophy, increase stroke volume

24

genetics for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

autosomal dominant
- mutation in sarcomere gene
- Beta-myosin heavy chain and myosin-binding protein C

25

How do coagulopathies present

deep-tissue leading in joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissue

26

how do platelet defects present

mucocutaneous bleeding

27

Von Willebrand Disease how does it impact the coagulation cascade

acts to carry/protect factor VIII

28

Halitosis

foul breath

29

Periodic, simultaneous, and non-peristaltic contractions of the esophagus due to impaired inhibitory innervation within the esophageal myenteric plexus

diffuse esophageal spasm

30

pt with memory loss of recent events, loss of executive dysfunction and visuospatial impairment

Alzheimer dementia

31

histo for Alzheimer

Amyloid plaques (neuritic senile plaques)
neurofibrillary tangles

32

Large intracytoplasmic vacuoles, sometimes described as spongiform is seen in what

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

33

presentation for Lewy body

1. attention deficit
2. visual hallucinations
3. spontaneous parkinsonism

34

What is seen in multiple lacunar infarcts

vascular dementia

35

what is the difference between vascular dementia and Alzheimer dementia

vascular dementia: step-wise rather than gradual decline in cognitive function
- also focal neurologic deficits

36

What is manometry for achalasia

1. normal contraction of upper esophageal sphincter
2. decreased amplitude of peristalsis mid esophagus
3. incomplete relaxation at LES

37

what happens when Cricopharyngeal dysfunction

failure to relax during swallowing and cause a choking or "food-sticking" sensation on swallowing

38

Most common congenital heart defect

bicuspid aortic valve

39

bicuspid aortic valve causes what

atherosclerosis and calcification of aortic valve
- lead to aortic stenosis in greater than 50%

40

common cause of superior vena cava syndrome

- lung cancer, followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma
- mediastinal mass

41

Small cell lung carcinoma is associated with what other disease

Cushing syndrome and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

42

34 yr old women: dizziness, mild confusion over last week. history of seizures recently started carbamazepine, temp 98, low sodium concentration ? what does she have and why

Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, SIADH
- carbamazepine

43

What protein do ADH and oxytocin have? function

neurophysins
- postranslational hormone processing and stabilization during axonal transport

44

In what nuclei of the hypothalamus does vasopressin and oxytocin come from

ADH: supraoptic nuclei
oxytocin: paraventricular

45

Most common pediatric malignancy leukemia is

acute lymphoblastic leukemia ALL

46

8yr old boy: fever, throat pain, severe dyspnea, tachypnea, inspiratory stridor, hematopoietic cells (blasts)

ALL
acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- b/c throat pain = mediastinal mass which compresses the esophagus and trachea and block SVC ( superior vena cava) = T-cell ALL

47

what is lymphangiosarcoma

rare malignant neoplasm of the endothelial lining of lymphatic channels

48

when do you see a patient getting lymphangiosarcoma

10 years following radical mastectomy for breast cancer

49

Persistent lymphedema predisposes to the development of what

lymphangiosarcoma

50

what is lymphangiosarcoma

rare malignant neoplasm of endothelial lining of lymphatic channels

51

What can secrete beta-hCG

- placenta
-Choriocarcinoma - testicular germ cell tumor

52

compare the structure of Beta-hCG

alpha subunit: TSH, LH FSH similar
beta subunit: TSH similar

53

28 yr old man: panels scrotal mass, increased sweating and heat intolerance , enlarged contender right testicle, increased T4 and T3

increased B-hCG with testicular germ cell tumor

54

hematemesis

vomiting blood

55

what does portal vein thrombosis cause

portal hypertension
splenomegaly
varicosities at portocaval anastomoses ( lower esophagus)

56

What is the gene mutation sequence for colorectal cancer

APC
K-ras
p53 and DCC

57

role of K-ras

apoptosis

58

treatment for Gardnerella vaginalis

clindamycin or metronidazole