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Flashcards in Test 58: All Deck (50):
1

Role of T tubules

- transmit depolarization signals to sarcoplasmic reticulum
- trigger release of calcium
- ensure coordinated contraction of all myofibrils

2

How can Aspergillus present in the lung

"fungus ball"
Colonizes pre-existing lung cavities

3

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is seen in who

asthma and cystic fibrosis patients

4

type of bias: investigator's decision is affected by pro knowledge of exposure status

observer bias

5

Type of bias: subjects are selected for a study or from selective losses during follow-up

selection bias

6

type of bias: inaccurate patient recall of past exposure

Recall bias

7

type of bias: apparent prolongation of survival in patients who underwent a screening test that allowed for earlier diagnosis but did not improve prognosis

lead-time bias

8

what is confounding

at least part of the exposure-disease relationship can be explained by another variable

9

What is cohort study?

determine risk factor and then follow patient over time to see if they develop the disease

10

study designed by selecting patients with a particular disease and without the disease and then determine their previous exposure status

case-control study

11

Fixed splitting of S2 is found in what defect

atrial septal defect

12

Physical findings for Eisenmenger syndrome

clubbing and polycythemia

13

What is an irreversible change that occurs in Eisenmenger syndrome

pulmonary vessels

14

what pharmacologic receptor antagonists help clear asthma

1. acetylcholine antagnost
2. Leukotirenes ( LTC4, LTD4, LTE4)

15

Name 2 leukotriene D4 receptor antagonists used in asthma

1. Zafirlukast
2. Montelukast

16

Name an antimuscarinic agent that blocks M3 receptors in airway smooth muscle and submucosal glands

Ipratropium

17

MOA of Milrinone

phosphodiesterase (PDE)-3 enzyme inhibitor
- increase cAMP

18

placed a chest tube through the skin and subcutaneous fat into 4th or 5th intercostal space in anterior axillary or midaxillary line goes through that muscle for drainage of pleural effusion

- serratus anterior
- intercostal muscles
- parietal pleura

19

Pernicious anemia ( vitamin B12 Deficiency) is caused by what autoimmune problem

- destruction of parietal cells ( chronic atrophic gastritis)

20

what do parietal cells secrete

- HCl
- intrinsic factor

21

in the stomach layers what does the upper glandular layer and the deeper aspect of gastric glands secrete

upper: parietal cells
deeper: pepsinogen, chief cells

22

what phase are primary oocytes in females still in womb

prophase of meiosis I

23

prior to fertilization, secondary oocytes are arrested in what phase

metaphase of meiosis II

24

What is the most common cause of lung abscesses

anaerobic bacteria from gingivodental sulcus

25

A significent mismatched defect on ventilation-perfusion scan is a specific finding for

pulmonary embolism

26

Gold standard for pulmonary embolism

pulmonary angiography
- costly and treatment delay

27

When body mounts a response against mycoplasma it also attacks what

RBCs leading to anemia causing cold agglutinins

28

2 pyruvate deficiencies that cause anemia

1. glucose-6-phosphate
2. pyruvate kinase deficiency

29

BH4 tetrahydrobiopterin is an important cofactor for what

1. phenylalanine hydroxylase
2. tyrosine hydroxylase

30

1 day old child has hyperphenylalaemia and elevated prolactin what what

deficiency of dihydrobiopterin reductase BH4

31

Tyrosinase deficiency causes

albinism

32

Of the 5 major transmembrane glucose transport proteins ( GLUTs), which one is responsive to insulin

GLUT 4

33

Where is GLUT-4 predominantly expressed

1. skeletal muscle cells
2. adipocytes

34

Name bacteria's that produce IgA protease

1. S. pneumoniae
2. H. influenza
3. Neisseria

35

Clinical feature of disseminated gonorrheal infecton

1. arthritis
2. dermtitis
3. tenosynovitis

36

The patient should be advised to expect what during the first month following a vasectomy

viable sperm remain in portion of vas deferent distal to ligation.

37

Limited Scleroderma is associated with what syndrome

CREST syndrome

38

What is CREST syndrome

Caclinosis
Raynaud phenomenon
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangiectasia

39

CREST syndrome is associated with what antibody

anit-centromere antibody

40

What antibody is specific for systemic sclerosis

anti-DNA topoisomerase

41

Anti-histone antibodies are specific for

drug induced lupus

42

anti-dsDNA antibodies specific for

systemic lupus erythematosus

43

Anti-Ro-/SSA and Anti-La/SSB are specific for

Sjogren syndrome

44

Definition of Menopause

permanent cessation of menses for 12 months

45

What hormone is increased in menopause

FSH

46

What is Meckel Diverticulum

remnant of omphalomesenteric ( vitelline) duct

47

What may the Meckel diverticulum contain

- ectopic acid-secreting gastric mucosa
- pancreatic tissue

48

role of ferritin

cellular iron storage protein

49

role of transferrin

- transport iron through the plasma

50

during states of iron deficiency are what levels of transferrin in a female with irregular menses

high