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Flashcards in Test92: Incorrect Deck (72):
1

what is holoprosencephaly? when does this occur

incomplete division of forebrain
- weeks 5-6

2

Heleprosencephaly is an example of what type of mechanism

malformation

3

what is malformation

intrinsic defect in cells or tissues that form a structure, leading to downstream effects

4

agenesis

absent organ due to absent primordial tissue

5

deformation

extrinsic disruption; after embryonic period

6

disruption

secondary breakdown of a previously normal tissue or structure

7

chest tube for drainage of pleural effusion at 5th intercostal space on mid axillary line goes through what msucles

- serratus anterior muscles
- intercostal muscles
- parietal pleura

8

what is not functioning in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Both T and B cells
- T cell unable to recognize actin cytoskeleton

9

What is PCR used for and how

amplify small fragments of DNA by repeated replication

10

In PCE primers are required that are complementary to what

regions of DNA flanking the segment of interest

11

how is spina bifida inherited

mulitfactorial condition

12

What are multfactorial diseases

- spina bifida
- cleft lip and palate
- diabetes mellitus
- coronary artery disease
- hypertension

13

How is myoclonic epilepsy and lever hereditary optic neuropathy inherited

mitochondiral DNA from mother

14

how is sickle cell anemia inherited

autosomal recessive

15

MOA for Trimethoprim

inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase
- reducing bacteria's ability to synthesize thymidine

16

MOA for Tacrolimus

- inhibits calcineurin, ( protein involved in activation of transcription factors related to T lymphocyte proliferation)

17

First line treatment for trigmeinal neuralgia? MOA?

Carbaamazepine: decrease sodium current

18

Someone who produces repetitive, unilateral, shooting pain in the distribution of CN V that last for greater than a minute

trigeminal neuralgia

19

Patient has several-week history of depressed mood, loss of interest, fatigue, hypersonic, poor concentration, weight loss, and thoughts of death has

major depressive disorder

20

First line therapy for major depressive disorder

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

21

what are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

FLashbacks PARalyze SEnior CITizens
- Fluoxetine
- Paroxetine
- Sertraline
- Citalopram

22

MOA for serotonin reuptkae inhibitors

blocks serotonin transporters

23

Valsalva increases what? to abolish what?

- vagal tone
- paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

24

what happens to preload if you increase intrathoracic pressure

- decrease preload

25

Immunization with diphtheria toxoid induces production of what

IgG against exotoxin B subunit

26

what is phencyclidine

PCP

27

Distinguishing features of PCP

ataxia, nystagmus and memory loss

28

Patient has combative behavior, confusion, and hallucinations accompanied by nystagmus and ataxia on PE, what overdose of what

phencyclidine PCP

29

MOA for Phencyclidine

N-methyl-Daspartate receptor antagonist

30

Glomerulonephritis, photosensitive skin rash, and arthraligas in a young women indicate

SLE

31

having antiphospholipid antibodies can cause what

- paradoxical aPTT prolongation
- false-positive RPR/VDRL

32

lab testing for antiphospholipid syndrome

-false positive VDRL/RPR
- prolonged PTT

33

how is diagnosis for antiphospholipid syndrome

1. history of thrombosis
2. spontaneous absorption

34

RBC filled with multiple, smaller rings suggests

Plasmodium malaria (trophozoite)

35

Primiquine is special to kill what

P vivax
P ovale

36

treatment of choice for malaria. if there is resistence, what else do you use

- chloroquine
- mefloquine

37

why can clindamycin be used against alcoholic apsiration

good against oral anaerobes and aerobic

38

Immunocompromised patient has fever, headache with ring-enhancing lesion on brain MRI, respiratory symptoms with pulmonary nodules, and sputum studies revealing branching gram-positive organism

Nocardia

39

Best way to prevent tetanus

Vaccine!!
Like vaccine mother and not prophylactic antibiotics

40

What can cause neonatal tetanus

- unhygienic deliveries or cord care

41

glucose-6-phosphate catalyzses conversion of what

- glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone

42

What is the point of the pentose phosphate shunt

generate NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate

43

what do RBC use NADPH for

maintain steady supply of glutathione

44

Reed-Sternberg cell is diagnostic for what

Hodgkin lymphoma

45

what age do people get Hodgkin lymphoma

Bimodal

46

what causes direct hernias

weakness of transversals fascia

47

what covers direct hernias

spermatic fascia

48

how can renal plasma flow be determined from renal blood flow ?

(renal blood flow)( 1-hematocrit)

49

superior gluteal nerve innervates

- gluteus medius
- gluteus minimus
- tensor fasciae latae muscles

50

Femoral nerve does what motor

- flex thigh
- extend leg

51

injury to obturator nerve causes

impaired thigh adduction and medial thigh sensory loss

52

Sciatic nerve innervates what muscles of thigh

hamstring

53

Anal fissures most commonly occur where

- posterior midline distal to the dentate line

54

female with menorrhagia and epistaxis will have what platelet disorder

von Willebrand disease

55

von Willebrand disease binds what

platelet glycoprotein to subendothelial collagen on injured blood vessel walls

56

D-xylose is what type of sugar

monosaccharide

57

what type of molecules is useful for treating visceral nausea due to GI insults?

serotonin receptor antagonists

58

what drugs are good for vestibular nausea

- antihistamines
- anticholinergics

59

what drug is good for nausea associated with migraine

dopamine

60

for class 1 antiarrhythmics, sodium-channel-binding strength is ranked what

1C > 1A > 1B

61

patient with respiratory failure, hypoxia, and thickened branchial walls with neutrophilic infiltrates, lymphatic infiltration, patchy squamous metaplasia on bronchial mucosa and mucous glands enlargement has what

chronic bronchitis

62

leading cause of chronic bronchitis

smoking

63

working in a nickel factory can expose you to what

silica dust exposure

64

What medication selectively binds to Interleukin-1 inducible enzyme that is highly expressed by inflammatory cells and undetectable in surrounding normal tissue

Celecoxib

65

where is COX-2 usually gound

inflammatory cells

66

main MOA of progestins in contraceptives is

decrease FSH and LH

67

Progesterone withdrawal causes endometrial cells to undergo what process, causing?

apoptosis
- menstrual bleeding

68

what does parasympathetics do to bladder

- detrusor muscle contraction
- internal urethral sphincter relaxation

69

initial process involved in pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is disruption of what? then what follows

- disruption of normal endocardial surface
- forming sterile fibrin-platelet nidus

70

what is pure red cell aplasia

- anemia with low reticulocyte count
- hypoplasia of marrow erythroid elements
- normal platelets and WBC

71

what does pyruvate kinase convert

phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate
- creates ATP

72

What part of the spleen is part of the removal of RBC

- red pulp