Deck 63: All Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Deck 63: All Deck (68):
1

How many amnion and chorion for Dizygotic twins

2 amnion and 2 chorion

2

When does dichorionic/diamnioic occur in monozygotic twinning

0-4 days

3

when does monochorionic diamniotc occur in monozygotic twinning

4-8 days

4

when does monochorionic mono amniotic occur for monozygotic twinning

8-12 days

5

What the risk for monochorionic mono amniotic for twins

conjoined twins after 13 days

6

HBeAg persists for several months and hist Anti-HBeAg remain at low or undetectable levels what should be suspected

hepatitis B infection with high infectivity

7

process of enabling people to increase control over their health its determinants, and thereby improve their health

Health promotion

8

Secondary disease prevention

Screen early for and manage existing but asymptomatic disease

9

impact of Simvastatin on hepatic cholesterol production

decreases

10

impact of cholestyramine on hepatic cholesterol production

increases hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis

11

Where are bile acids reabsorbed

terminal ileum

12

Simvastatin and Cholestyramine have a synergistic reduction in what

plasma LDL levels

13

Acute nausea following administration of systemic chemotherapy results in stimulation of what

chemoreceptor trigger zone ( CTZ)

14

location of chemoreceptor trigger zone

area pastrami of dorsal medulla near 4th ventricle

15

Buprenorphine MOA

partial opioid receptor agonist that binds with high affinity but has low intrinsic activity

16

What combination drug can be given to an heroin addict who wants off

Naloxine and Buprenorphine

17

exchange of genetic information between 2 virus strains that have nonsegmented, double-stranded DNA genomes

Recombination

18

Mixing of genome segments in segmented viruses that infect the same host cell

reassortment

19

Genomic features of Hep E.

single-stranded RNA virus, unenveloped

20

How is Hep E. spread

fecal-oral route

21

what is responsible for the increased incidence of cholelithiasis in women who are pregnant or using oral contraceptives

- estrogen-induced cholesterol hypersecretion
- progesterone-induced gallbladder hypomotility

22

Patient has perifollicular hemorrhages, maylgias, subperiosteal hematoma and gingivitis has what

scurvy: deficient ascorbic acid

23

Ascorbic acid is a cofactor for what process

hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues
- synthesis of collagen

24

6-month boy brought to ER with poor feeding and irritability. Physical examination reveals diffuse skin erythema. Also, epidermis easily comes off with gentle pressure? what does he have

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

25

Who get staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

infants and children

26

what is does the bacteria produce in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

exotoxin exfoliatin

27

How is Xeroderma pigmentosum inherited

autosoma recessive

28

what is wrong in xeroderma pigmentosum? cause?

- defective nucleotide excision repair often caused by UV-- specific endonuclease
- form thymine dimers

29

boy with severe photosensitivity, poikiloderma, hyper pigmentation in sun-exposed areas and squamous cell carcinoma

xeroderma pigmentosum

30

Ether and other organic solvents do what to what part of the virus structure

dissolve lipid bilayer that makes up outer viral envelope

31

pulmonary capilllary wedge pressure reflects what

left atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures

32

In what heart abnormality do you see increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

mitral stenosis

33

MOA of Fibrate

- upregulates lipoprotein lipase, increase oxidation of fatty acids
- inhibit cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

34

What is the rate limiting step in bile acid synthesis

Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

35

impact of estrogen on cholesterol

upregulates hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity

36

Where is angiotensin I converted to Angiotensin II

pulmonary vasculature

37

what hormone is responsible for stimulating the endometrium for suitable implantation

Progesterone

38

Progesterose withdrawels cause what to uterus

apoptosis of endometrial cells, menstrual bleeding

39

Quadricep muscles are connected to what

patella ( petellar ligament attaches to tibial tubercle)

40

Osgood-Schlatter disease

overuse injury of secondary ossification center ( apophysis) of tibial tubercle.

41

PTH reabsorbed what from bone

calcium and phosphate

42

PTH reabsorbs what from kidney

calcium

43

Macrocytosis and AST:ALT ratio greater than 2 indicates

chronic alcoholic consumption

44

What is the pathogenesis of diverticulosis in elderly

pulsion or increased intraluminal pressure created during strained bowel movement

45

pseudodiverticulum does not have what layer

muscularis layer

46

Diverticulosis impacts what part of the colon

sigmoid

47

During which stage of life are true diverticula usually formed

fetal development

48

Genome of Rhinovirus

single stranded positive RNA

49

For a purified RNA molecule to induce viral protein synthesis in a host cell, it must be able to act directly as mRNA using host intracellular machinery for translation. What type of genome does this

single stranded + RNA

50

precursor proteins or peptides responsible for localized amyloidosis

1. cardiac atria
2. thyroid gland
3. pancreatic islets
4. cerebrum/cerebral blood vessels
5. pituitary gland

1. atrial natruretic peptide
2. calcitonin
3. islet amyloid protein ( amylin)
4. Beta-amyloid protein
5. prolactin

51

What can cause multi organ amyloid deposition

Immune globulin light chains

52

In the United States, Majority of overdose deaths are caused by what

opioids, including prescription analgesics and heroin

53

MOA of aminoglycosides

30S ribosomal subunit

54

clinical presentation of CN III

1. ptosis
2. downward and laterally deviated eye
3. impaired pupillary constriction and accommodation
4. diagonal dipoplia

55

most dreaded cause of CN III palsy

enlarging intracranial aneurysm

56

lesions involving primary somatosensory cortex result in

contralateral sensory loss

57

damage to parietal association cortex ( nondominant hemisephere ) may cause

contralateral hemineglect due to impaired visuospatial processing

58

What drug is used to control the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome

Octerotide

59

MOA of octreotide

long acting somatostatin analog

60

In lungs, the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin drives the release of what from RBC

Protons and CO2 ( Haldane effect )

61

In peripheral tissues, what facilities oxygen unloading from hemoglobin

high CO2 and H+ ( bohr effect)

62

All pancreatic zymogens are converted into their active forms by what

trypsin

63

Where does median nerve travel in arm

between bicep brachia and brachialis muscle with brachial artery

64

How does median nerve enter forearm

between humeral and ulnar head of pronator trees

65

How does median nerve travel on forearm

between flexor digitorium superficialis and feller digitorum profundus muscles

- then goes to flexor retinaculum

66

patient has myopathy, cardiomyopathy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia in setting of decreased muscle carnation content

primary carnitine deficiency

67

What is wrong in primary carnation deficiency

fatty acids cannot transport from cytoplasm into mitochondira

68

what cannot be synthesized with primary carnitine deficiency

ketone bodies