Thyroid Nodules: Clinical, Pathologic and Pathophysiologic Correlates Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Thyroid Nodules: Clinical, Pathologic and Pathophysiologic Correlates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thyroid Nodules: Clinical, Pathologic and Pathophysiologic Correlates Deck (15):
1

Thyroid nodules are present in about ________ percent of the population.

50% - 60%

2

The risk of thyroid cancer developing from a nodule is about ______.

10%

3

What is the most common malignant thyroid cancer?

Papillary

4

Papillary carcinoma has a(n) ____________ prognosis.

excellent

5

Which kind of thyroid cancer can display psammoma bodies?

Trick question – there are two kinds of thyroid cancer that can have psammoma bodies:
- medullary thyroid carcinoma
- thyroid papillary carcinoma

6

Fixed nodules are more likely to be ___________.

malignant

7

What three steps are needed in the evaluation of a thyroid nodule?

TSH
Ultrasound
Free-needle evaluation

8

What neoplasm presents with the "Orphan Annie eye" nuclei?

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

9

Describe some characteristics of the most common thyroid cancer.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma
- is well differentiated
- has an excellent prognosis
- is multifocal
- spreads through lymphatics
- has cleared out nuclei
- has nuclear grooves
- has psammoma bodies

10

Describe anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

- has a poor prognosis
- most often occurs in the elderly
- recapitulates spindle cells, squamous cells, and giant cells
- rapid growth
- can hemorrhage

11

____________ thyroid cancer will stain thyroglobulin negative.

Medullary

12

Why is it called "papillary" carcinoma?

Because the cells grow papillae-like projections, which can be seen under the microscope

13

What kind of molecule is RET?

A surface tyrosine kinase receptor

14

What three cellular mutations are common in papillary thyroid carcinoma?

RET
Ras
BRAF

15

Follicular thyroid carcinoma is commonly (50%) caused by the _______________ fusion.

Pax8-PPARy

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