Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (88):
cellulose is storage/structural molecule
glucose only alpha (1-4) and alpha (1-6)
glycogen is storage/structural molecule
storage in animals
starch is storage/structural molecule
storage in plants
starch made of what 2 polysaccharides? linkages?
amylase and amylopectin
(amylase is alpha 1-4) amylopectin is like glycogen = alpha (1-4) and alpha (1-6) = branched
contains only a single monosaccharide species. ie only glucose in dextrans, glucans, starch, glycogen, cellulose.
heteropolysacharride contain a number of different monosaccharides. give an example
the most common organic compound on earth
cellulose (beta 1-4) glucose
alpha (1-3) links the straight chain alpha (1-6) glucose straight chains. Dextran is synthesized from sucrose by certain lactic-acid bacteria. Dental plaque is rich in dextrans
both amylose and amylopectin are hydrolyzed by the enzyme ____, which is secreted by the pancreas and?
is cellulose digestible in humans
no. it is dietary fiber aka roughage. hydrophobic bulking agent in feces.
glycan refers to a
polysaccharide (more than 12 monosac) or an oligosaccharide (2-12 monosacharrides
when designating alpha or beta we look at which carbon
the anomeric carbon (C1) in a ring form!! alpha = looks like a fish = fish swim below. beta looks like a bird. fly above the chain
when designating D/L sugar we look at which carbon
pentameric carbon (5th carbon in the chain form). if OH is on the right is in D form
sugars are most commonly found in nature in D or L form?
D -to remember think of Disaccharide = D
amino acids most commonly found in nature in D or L form?
L form (opposite of sugars)
which has more sugars Oligosaccharide or polysach?
POLYSACH = remember P comes after O ==gets bigger
Polysaccharides are made of many sugar units covalently bonded by condensation reactions which leads to a ___ glycosidic bond
glycogen is found mainly where
liver and muscle. but most is in the liver
glycogen is a branched polymer of how many glucose residues
10,000 - 40,000 held together by alpha 1-4 linkages. every 12th carbon has a branch point forming an alpha 1-6 bond
what 3 enzymes are in the small intestine that break down disaccharides into monosach?
lactase ==> to remember think beer sugar, milk sugar, and table sugar
maltase breaks maltose into?
glucose and glucose
sucrase breaks sucrose into
glucose and fructose
lactase breaks lactose into
glucose and galactose
glycogen can be broken down into single glucose units by which enzyme
the cleavage of glycogen beyond a branching point requires what 2 enzymes
glucantransferase and amylo-alpha 1, 6-glucosidase
glyceraldehyde and dihydoxyacetone are:
tetrose (4 C)
how many carbons do you need at least to form a monosaccharide cyclic rings
5 -8 in nature will form cyclic rings
simple sugars are aka
are lactose/maltose monosaccharides
the naming of configurations of SIMPLE sugars (L and D) and amino acids are based on the ___ configuration of which structure
Absolute of glyceraldehyde
the L and D refer to the absolute configuration of the 4 constituents around a specific __ carbon
what is a chiral carbon
it is an ASYMETRIC CARBON
in the __L/D form the hydroxyl is on the left
a glycosidic bond forms when the __ group on the anomeric carbon (C1) reacts with an __ group of another compound
OH, OH or NH
if nitrogen is involved in a glycosidic bond it is called
N-glycosidic bond - found in glycoproteins and nucleotides
Glycoproteins are conjugated proteins containing one or more saccharides in repeated units bound to a protein. Proteoglycans are macromolecules that contain __% carbs and resemble polysaccharides more than proteins
The carb chains on Proteoglycans are called
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are branched/unbranched
are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) homopolysaccharides or hetero?
This glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is found in synovial fluid, vitreous humor, ECM of loose CT. it is large and shock absorbing and is the only glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that does not contain sulfate and is not attached to a protein
to remember look at the U in the word. V is right after U. so Vitreous humor and synoVial fluid.
this glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is found in cartilage, bones and heart valves and is the most abundant of all GAGs
to remember think we have tons of cartilage in our body (so most abundant), then associate cartilage w bone, and then think he "conned" my heart = heart valves
this glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is found in BM and cell surfaces
heparin sulfate = to remember think you put salt = sulfate on the surface (cell surface) and to remember BM, think, what is the opposite of cell surface? BM
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in skin, blood vessels, and heart valves
dermatin sulfate = to remember look at derma = skin, then think what is associated with skin --->blood vessels --> lead to heart valves
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) found in cornea bone cartilage and aggregated with chondroitin sulfates. most heterogenous GAG
keratin sulfate = to remember: keratin: k sounds like C-ornea, also the K associates w/C-hondroitin sulfate, C-artliage, Bone
which glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) has the most sulfate
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in mast cell granules that line the arteries of lungs liver and skin, anticoagulant
does heparin or heparin sulfate contain more sulfate
is sucrose a reducing sugar
no it is a non reducing sugar
___ sugars contain a free anomeric carbon (C1) that can be oxidized in a redox rxn.
if the sugar is attached to any other structure at the C1 position is it reducing
the reducing sugar test is used to screen for
diabetes - to see if there are excess free glucose in the blood. and errors metabolizing these reducing sugars
glucosuria (glucose in urine) threshold
When the blood glucose level exceeds about 160 – 180 mg/dl, the proximal tubule becomes overwhelmed and begins to excrete glucose in the urine.
the ground substance of ECM is made up of:
a. type II collagen
b. type III collagen
c. proteoglycan molecules
these molecules function as lubricants, ECM, and molecular sieves (sieve, or sifter, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample, typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net)
glycoproteins = conjugated proteins w/ one or more saccharides. the carb portion differs from proteoglycans in that it is __ and __
shorter and branched.
hormones, antibodies, structural proteins, enzymes often in cell membrane involved in cell to cell interactions
glycolipids found in the __ with the __ portion extending into the extracellular space
glycolipids are derived from
ceramides = cerebrosides, globosides, and gangliosides
Proteoglycans are made of
Protein and GAGs
Proteoglycans are long and straight/short and branched?
long and straight
Role of proteoglycans
lubrication, ecm, molecular sieve
glycoproteins are made of
protein + carb
glycoproteins are long and straight/short and branched?
short and branched
enzymes, hormones, antibodies, structural proteins
glycolipids made of ?
LIPID and CARBs
cell membrane receptors
the most abundant glycosaminoglycan in the body is
major part of CT, cartilage, bone, heart valves
especially in the GROUND SUBSTANCE.
in cartilage it provides structure by holding water and nutrients and allowing molecules to move thru the cartilage which is important bc of no blood supply to cartilage
In connective tissue, the____, also called extrafibrillar matrix, is an amorphous gel-like substance surrounding the cells. In a tissue, cells are surrounded and supported by an extracellular matrix. does not include fibers (collagen and elastic fibers), but does include all the other components of the extracellular matrix. The components of the ground substance vary depending on the tissue. primarily composed of water, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins.
dextrans are polysaccharides or oligosach?
polysaccharides of glucose (alpha 1-6) linkages with some alpha 1-3 branches
bacteria make dextrans extracellularly by using the enzyme and what substrate
glucosyl transferase aks dextran sucrase
side product of dextran production is __ which is formed into __ and stored intracellularly as reserve nutrients
most notable bacteria that forms dextrans
do fructans increase the adhesion of bacteria to teeth and formation of dental plaque
yes both dextrans and fructans increase adhesion.
fructans are formed by what enzyme
fructosyl transferase aka levan sucrase
glycogen structure is very similar to?
amylopectin (both alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6) linkages. But glycogen branching and more glucose units. Both have alpha acetal
The structure of glycogen consists of long polymer chains of glucose units connected by an __linkage
alpha acetal = glycosidic linkages. The branches are formed by linking C # 1 to a C # 6 through an acetal linkages
In glycogen, the branches occur at intervals of __ glucose units, while in amylopectin the branches are separated by 12-20 glucose units.
Carbon # 1 in glycogen is called the anomeric carbon and is the center of an acetal functional group. A carbon that has two __attached is an acetal
a hexose is
a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6
A reducing sugar is any sugar that either has an __ group or is capable of forming one in solution through isomerism.
aldehyde (can be oxidized)
The aldehyde functional group allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent, for example in the Tollens' test or Benedict's reagent, or the Maillard reaction, important in the browning of many foods
proteoglycan vs glycoprotein
they are compounds made up of proteins and carbohydrates with the major difference between them being the protein/carb ratio.. glycoproteins have more protein, less carbs whereas proteoglycans have more carbs,less proteins.
to remember, the end of the name is what it has more of:
glycoprotein = more protein
proteoglycan = more glycan
1. nucleotides have _ glycosidic bonds
2. polysaccharides like glycogen have _ glycosidic bonds
3. glycoproteins have _ glycosidic bonds
(think glyco-protien) ===> have lots of proteins so N