NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Tissue Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Tissue Deck (249):
1

what kind of epithelium lines the endothelium of the aorta and the mesothelium of the peritoneal cavity

simple squamous epithelium

2

what kind of epithelium single layer flat cells functions in gas exchange, lines blood vessels and various membranes

simple squamous

3

name places you find simple squamous epithelium

endothelium of the cardiovascular system (ex. aorta), epithelial lining of lungs alveoli, mesothelium lining the body cavities and coating organs

4

which kind of epithelium is a single layer of cube shaped cells, where secretion and absorption occurs

simple cuboidal epithelium

5

name places you find simple cuboidal epithelium

epithelium lining collecting ducts, proximal and distal tubules of the kidney, epithelium lining thyroid follicles

6

which kind of epithelium are elongated cells that function in protection, secretion and absorption

simple columnar epithelium

7

name places you find simple columnar epithelium

lining of the small and large intestine, gallbladder and stomach, uterine, salivary gland striated ducts, internal linin of the majority of the tubular GI tract

8

which kind of epithelium are composed of many layers of cells that protect underlying cells from environmental fluctuations

stratified squamous epithelium

9

where do you find stratified squamous epithelium

epidermis of skin (keratinized)
lining of esophagus (not usually keratinized)

10

what kind of epithelia are many layers of cube shaped cells

stratified cuboidal epithelium

11

where do you find stratified cuboidal epithelium

sweat glands

12

many layers of elongated cells are what kind of epithelia

stratified columnar epithelium

13

where do you find stratified columnar epithelium

large ducts of salivary glands

14

what kind of epithelia are elongated cells atop one another with nuclei located at two or more levels within the cells, may have cilia that functions to move fluids past the cells

pseudostratified columnar epithelia

15

ex of where you find pseudostratified columnar epithelia

lining of upper respiratory tract

16

what kind of epithelia are specialized to undergo distention; helps prevent urinary fluids from diffusing outwards

transitional epithelium

17

where can you find transitional epithelium

bladder, ureter, lining of parts of the male repro system

18

which layer of the epidermis contains keratohyalin

stratum granulosum

19

3 layers of skin are the

epidermis
dermis
hypodermis

20

is the epidermis vascular? is the dermis vascular

the epidermis is avascular
the dermis is vascular
the epidermis gets its nutrition from the dermis

21

name the 5 layers of the epidermis

"Come Lets get sun burned"
stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basalis (bottom layer)

22

in what layer of the epidermis can you find melanocytes (melanin producing cells)?

stratum basale

23

in what layer of the epidermis can you find nerve cells and Langerhans cells

stratum spinosum

24

1. in what layer of the epidermis can you find keratin?
2. in what layer of the epidermis can you find keratohyalin granules

1. stratume corneum
2. stratum granulosum

25

what layer of the epidermis is only found in the palms and soles?

stratum lucidum = dead cells

26

the higher you go in the epidermis the more _ the cells get (shape)

flat

basale is cuboidal/columnar. as they go up they become flat and die

27

which layer of the epidermis is continually shed and replaced

stratum corneum

28

3 types of specialized cells in the epidermis are the

melanocytes, Langerhans cells and keratinocytes

29

the Langerhans cells in the epidermis (spinosum layer) function

frontline defense of immune system in the skin

30

keratinocytes in the epidermis function

produce keratin = protective protein

31

the most common cell type in the epidermis are

keratinocytes

32

Tonofibrils and desmosomes are especially well developed in

keratinocytes

33

the two layers of the dermis are

papillary (more superficial) and the reticular (under the papillary)

34

what is the difference bw parakeratinized and orthokeratinized epithelium

parakeratinized epithelium have nuclei

35

what kind of epithelium is in the oral cavity

stratified squamous epithelium

36

where else besides the oral cavity can you find stratified squamous epithelium

skin
esophagus

37

there are 3 types of stratified squamous epithelium found in the oral cavity. name them

orthokeratinized, parakeratinized, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

38

1. which one is the most common in the oral cavity: orthokeratinized, parakeratinized, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
2. which is the least common

1. non keratinized = most common
2. least - orthokeratinized (no nuclei)

39

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the oral cavity is a selective barrier that acts as a

cushion

40

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium is associated with what kind of mucosa located where in the mouth

lining mucosa: labial mucosa, buccal mucosa, ventral tongue, soft palate, alveolar mucosa, floor of the mouth

41

orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium is associated with what kind of mucosa located where in the mouth

masticatory mucosa (hard palate, attached gingiva lingual papillae

42

parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium is associated with what kind of mucosa located where in the mouth

masticatory mucosa (attached gingiva, dorsal surface of tongue0

43

does masticatory mucosa contain more orthokeratinized/parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

parakeratinized

44

rank the oral cavity epithelium in order of abundance

all are stratified squamous epithelia:
non keratinized (lining mucosa) >> parakeratinized (masticatory mucosa) > orthokeratinized (masticatory mucosa), no nucleus

45

the main difference bw parakeratinized and orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelia is in their _ layer

keratin layer. in parakeratinized the superficial layer is still being shed but the cells have keratin and nuclei. ortho do not

46

other cell types in the oral epithelium besides keratinocytes are

epithelial cells, melanocytes, Langerhans cells (antigen presenting cells), Granstein cells (antigen presenting cells), Merkel cells (sensory nerve endings), WBC (mostly PMNs)

47

name the two antigen presenting cells (immune system) sells of the oral cavity

Langerhans cells
Granstein cells

48

all forms of epithelia have a lamina propria aka connective tissue proper, located?

deep (under) to the BM.

49

the lamina propria is subdivided into what 2 layers

papillary and dense

50

lamina propria may be attached to the periosteum in bone or interposed over the

submucosa (glands, bvs, nerves)

51

A BM is located bw the _ and _

oral epithelium and CT

52

the BM is composed of what layers?

2 layers: basal and reticular lamina

53

which type of collagen is found mainly in dentin, bone, and PDL

TYPE 1

54

90% of collagen in our body is what types

1-4

55

the principle fiber in PDL is

collagen

56

Type__collagen is associated with reticular fibers

reTHREEicular type 3 in CT

57

does the BM have cells

no it is acellular

58

the BM is thin/thick

thin

59

BM is located bw any form of _ and _

epithelium and Ct

60

the two layers of the BM

B-asal lamina and the R-eticular lamina =
B-asement memb-R-ane

61

the basal lamina of the basement membrane has what 2 layers

lamina lucida closer to epithelium (clear =lucid layer)
lamina densa - dense layer closer to the CT

62

the reticular lamina of the BM is thin and composed of type _ collagen fibers

type III

63

Type 4 collagen is associated with the

type four is associated with the floor of the bm (rhymes)

64

what attachment mechanisms are in the BM

hemidesmosomes attach to plaques
tonofilaments from epithelium
anchoring collagen fibers from CT

65

keloid is a result of an overgrowth in _ tissue (collagen type __) at the site of healed skin injury which is then slowly replaced by type _ collagen

granulation (type 3)
replaced by type 1 collagen

66

every third amino acid in collagen is

glycine

67

other a.acids important in collagen?

glycine, hydroxylysine, hydroxyproline and proline

68

Vitamin C is required for _ of which amino acids in collagen

hydroxylation of proline and lysine

69

scurvy is characterized by

poor wound healing and gum bleeding

70

enzyme that crosslinks procollagen

lysyl oxidase

71

which epithelial tissue is most often specialized for diffusion and filtration:

simple columnar
stratified cuboidal
simple squamous
pseudostratified epithelium

simple squamous

72

which cells are protection

all the stratified

73

which cells are protection and secretion

stratified cuboidal (think stomach, intestines, gallbladder)

74

salivary gland ducts are always which epithelia?

stratified columnar (large ducts)
or simple columnar if striated ducts

75

which epithelia may have cilia to move fluids past the cells

pseudostratified

76

two types of epithelium that secrete and absorb

simple cuboidal (think kidneys ducts, thyroid follicles) and simple columnar (striated salivary ducts, majority of GI, uterus, intestines)

77

the majority of the GI tract inner lining is which epithelium

simple columnar

78

most abundant cell type in CT

fibroblast

79

CT is highly vascular except for

cartilage

80

name CT

bones, adipose tissue, blood cartilage, tendons, ligaments.

81

is CT mitotically active

yes

82

CT used for

support, specialized functions (blood), attachment of other tissues (tendons, ligaments, fascia) and support (bones, cartilage)

83

areolar, dense (regular), elastic, reticular and adipose are types of

CT proper

84

CT proper is Characterized as having __ intercellular material than cells.

more

85

there is lots or limited mitotic activity in nervous and muscular tissues

limited
remember CNS = cardiac, nervous, skeletal muscle limited

86

intervertebral discs are made up of:
hyaline cartilage/fibrocartilage/periosteum/elastic cartilage

fibrocartilage

87

cartilage is composed of what cells in the firm gel like ground substance (matrix)

chondrocytes

88

chondrocytes reside in matrix depressions called

lacunae

89

cartilage contain BVs?

none

90

how does cartilage get nutrients?

diffused thru matrix

91

where is there cartilage in our body

nose, throat, bw joints, bw intervertebral discs, rib cage and the ear

92

the only blood supply to cartilage is provided by BVs that enter the cartilage thru the

perichondrium = dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage of developing bone.

93

the only cartilage that is NOT surrounded by perichondrium is

articular cartilage

94

3 subtypes of cartilage based on subtypes of matrix

hyaline cartilage
fibrocartilage
elastic cartilage

95

Lacunae is a small space containing an ___ in bone or ___ in cartilage

osteocyte
chondrocyte

96

epiphyseal plates are composed of what kind of cartilage

hyaline

97

can hyaline cartilage repair itself when fractured

no

98

most synovial joints are made of _ cartilage

hyaline

99

40% of hyaline cartilage weight is type _collagen

II carTWOlage

100

hyaline cartilage has a high/low proportion of matrix and fine collagenous fibers

high

101

which cartilage plays a important role in growth in childhood and adolescence

hyaline bc epiphyseal plates

102

fibrocartilage has a large amount of collagen in a high/low proportion of matrix

low

103

fibrocartilage is found in _ within joints

discs
TMJ, intervertebral discs, sternoclavicular joint, knee joint

104

fibrocartilage surfaces can also be found on articular surfaces of the _ and _

clavicle and mandible

105

both the articulating surface and disc in TMJ is made of _

fibrocartilage

106

fibrocartilage is formed mainly by which collagen?

type 1
NOTICE anything that has to do with oral cavity/TMJ is type 1 even if it is cartilage (not typeII)

107

1. hyaline cartilage is _ collagen
2. fibrocollagen is _ collagen
3. elastic cartilage is _ collagen

1. type II
2. Type I
3. type II

108

elastic cartilage is similar to hyaline cartilage except it posses large amt of

elastic fibers in the matrix

109

where can you find elastic cartilage

auricle of ear
external auditory meatus
auditory tube
epiglottis
(type II collagen) and elastic fibers

110

cartilage is a precursor to

endochondral bone (Any bone that develops in and replaces cartilage)

111

the matrix of cartilage is mainly composed of

proteoglycans = GAGS and core protein.

112

most common types of GAGS in cartilage

chondroitin sulfate and sulfate

113

the perichondrium Is very important in the

growth of cartilage

114

does cartilage have calcium salts

no

115

does cartilage appear on xrays?

no because it has no calcium salts

116

all of the bones are formed completely by intramembranous ossification except:

clavicles
mandible
maxilla
frontal bone

mandible

117

the condyles are formed by _ossification (intramembranous/endochondral)

endochondral

118

endochondral ossification begins w/points in cartilage called _ that mostly appear in fetal development (although a few begin at birth)

primary ossification centers.

119

the primary ossification centers are responsible for the formation of

diaphyses (midsection (shaft) of a long bone. It is made up of cortical bone and usually contains bone marrow and adipose tissue (fat))of long bones, short bones, and certain irregular bones

120

secondary ossification occurs after ___ and forms the

birth
epiphysis (rounded end of a long bone) of long bones

121

____ ossification makes the diaphyses of long bones

primary

122

___ossification makes the epiphyses of long bones

secondary

123

the diaphyses and the epiphyses remain separated by a growing zone of cartilage called the ___ until the child reaches adulthood (18-22), when the cartilage ossifies, fusing the two together

metaphysis
= considered a part of the growth plate, the part of the bone that grows during childhood and as it grows

124

heterotropic ossification is the formation of bone ___

outside the skeleton

125

heterotropic ossification is seen in diseases such as

myositis ossificans

126

__ bones increase in length during development

long

127

the __is a wedge of hyaline cartilage accounting for the increase in length of long bones during development

epiphyseal plate (disc)
aka growth plate

128

in adults, who have stopped growing, the epiphyseal plate is replaced by an __

epiphyseal line.

129

the epiphysis is found

bw the epiphysis (bulbous end) and diaphysis (tubular shaft) at each end of the bone

130

the cartilage cells of the Epiphyseal plate form layers of __ bone tissue adding length of the bone (interstitial growth)

compact

131

the epiphyseal disc become _in most individuals by late teens or early twentis

inactive

132

Hyaline cartilage calcifies and is replaced by bone or is it calcified and turns into bone?

replaced!!! DOES NOT TURN INTO BONE

133

bone formation occurs by two methods:

intramembranous ossification (flat bones) or endochondral ossification (long bones)

134

__ ossification mainly occurs during the formation of the flat bones of the skull; the bone is formed from __ tissue

intramembranous,
mesenchyme

135

__ossification occurs in long bones such as limbs and is formed from

endochondral
cartilage

136

a patient in the dental clinic say he has heart disease and occasionally takes nitroglycerine for his pain. during treatment he clutches his chest and frantically points to his jacket pocket. where should u place the nitroglycerin and why

on floor of mouth bc ease of diffusion bc the epidermis and lamina propria are thin in the floor of the mouth

137

rank the permeability of oral mucosa
buccal/palatal/sublingual mucosa

most permeable: sublingual > buccal mucosa > palatal
(based on thickness and degree of keratinization)

138

buccla mucosa is thicker than sublingual mucosa and is also

non keratinized

139

the palate mucosa is thicker with a _ layer

keratinized

140

the oral cavity is highly/low acceptable for systemic drug delivery

highly bc permeable mucosa with rich blood supply and LACK OF LANGERHANS cells = target for potential allergens

141

putting nitroglycerin under the mouth bypasses the

first pass effect and avoids pre systemic elimination in the GI tract. given sublingually for rapid absorption

142

oral mucosa composed of outer stratified squamous epithelia, below it is _ and _

BM, a lamina propria (CT proper) and followed in most cases by the submucosa as the innermost layer

143

the mucosa subjected to mechanical stress is keratinized specifically __

orthokeratinized

144

alveolar mucosa similar to sublingual mucosa in that it too appears

red due to bv and thin epithelial covering

145

__ spots are yellowish small papules (ectopic sebaceous glands) that are sometimes found on the buccal mucosa or vermilion border of lips

Fordyce

146

what is the principle component of ground substance of the cartilage

chondroitin sulfate
(proteoglycans with GAGS =)

147

cartilage and bone are specialized forms of CT that contain cells that make _ and _

fibers and ground substance

148

the fibers and ground substance together make the

organic matrix of bone/cartilage

149

principal GAGs of cartilage are

chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate

150

hyaluronic acid acts as cement to bind the proteoglycans in cartilage together. All GAGs are sulfated and have a protein core except

hyaluronic acid

151

bc of GAGs, the ground substance can readily bind and hold _

water = gelatinous nature of tissue that permits diffusion thru the matrix

152

_ produce all the components of cartilage -the matrix and fibers!

chondrocytes

153

what type of cartilage forms almost all of the fetal skeleton

hyaline (type II cartilage)

154

in adults the remnants of hyaline cartilage are

articular, costal, and respiratory cartilages

155

_fibers provide TENSILE STRENGTH

collagen

156

_ fibers provide ELASTICITY

elastic

157

__ provides compressive strength

ground substance

158

the fibrous connective tissue that connect bone to bone is called:
tendon/ligaments/bursae/menisci

ligament

to remember that it is not a tendon, think deep tendon reflex, is muscle moving a bone.

159

_ are strong flexible fibrous CT that tie bones to other bones. they can connect joint ends of bones to either limit or facilitate movement and provide stability

ligaments

160

tendons are strong flexible fibrous CT that attach muscles the fibrous membrane that covers bone called the __

periostium.

161

_ move bones when skeletal muscle contract

tendons

162

when tendon/ligament is attached to the bone the attaching fibers are called

sharpey's fibers (just like in PDL!) =except here they are periosteal collagen fibers that penetrate bone matrix binding periosteum to the bone
and in periodontial ligament = collagen fibers insert on cementum and other in alveolar bone

163

bursae

are small, synovial, fluid filled sacs located around joints at friction points bw tendons, liquids and bones that act as cushions

164

fasciculus

individual muscle fibers bound

165

fasciculi are

bundles of muscle fibers composing a muscle

166

fascia

CT surrounding muscle

167

aponeurosis

sheet like tendon

168

menisci

crescent shaped interradicular fibrocartilages in certain joints including the knee

169

which type of CT Is most commonly observed in ligaments and tendons

dense regular CT

170

CT derived from which germ layer

mesoderm mesenchyme

171

CT is composed of more/less cells compared to epithelium

less but has more matrix bw them.

172

essential components of CT (3)

cells
fibers (collagen, elastic and reticular)
ground substance (proteoglycans to which GAGs are attached, glycoproteins)

173

CT can be classified as CT proper, supportive and special CT. CT proper can be further classified as

loose (areolar) or dense

174

CT proper: loose areolar consists mostly of _ or matrix in an irregular or loose arrangement and _ fibers and functions as

cells
few
padding deeper in body

175

CT proper: dense provides_ and has greater _ concentration, few cells and less ground substance and is tightly packed

fiber (protein)

176

dense regular/irregular have regular arrangement of parallel strong collagen fibers with few fibroblasts

regular

177

ex of dense regular CT?

tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses and cornea

178

dense irregular CT has tightly packed, strong collagen fibers arranged in _ pattern

irregular

179

ex of dense irregular ct?

dermis, submucosa, GI, organ capsules, deep fascia, periosteum and perichondrium

180

3 types of special CT

elastic, adipose, reticular

181

what kind of CT in large arteries (aorta), vocal cords and bw arches of vertebrae

elastic CT

182

what kind of CT consists mainly of adipocytes and has diminished access by antibiotics and leukocytes due to the poor blood supply

adipose

183

this kind of CT is made mostly of ___ fibers (type III collagen) and found in the liver, kidney, endocrine glands, spleen and lymph nodes as well as in bone marrow

reticular
reticular CT

184

bone and cartilage is what kind of CT

supportive

185

there are 3 types of CT (broad classes) define

CT can be classified as CT proper, supportive and special CT

186

the greatest resistance to movement of the molecules bw cells is achieved by which type of intercellular junctions?
desmosomes/hemidesmosomes/adherens junctions/gap junctions/zonula occludens

zonula occludens

187

this type of intercellular junction bw cells is DISC SHAPED and is compared to a SPOT WELD

desmosomes/hemidesmosomes/adherens junctions/gap junctions/zonula occludens

desmosome

188

this type of intercellular junction occurs bw a cell and an adjacent non-cellular surface

desmosomes/hemidesmosomes/adherens junctions/gap junctions/zonula occludens

hemidesmosome

189

which kind of junction is found in the gingival epithelium and attaches to the tooth?
desmosomes/hemidesmosomes/adherens junctions/gap junctions/zonula occludens

hemidesmosome = called the junctional epithelium of the epithelial attachment

190

this type of intercellular attachment is aka zonula adherens

adherens junction

191

this type of intercellular junction anchors via cytoplasmic actin filaments

adherens junctions

192

the _ type of adherens junction tie cells to one another by the actin filament also encircling the cell just below the plasma membrane

band type adherens

193

the _ type of adherens junction helps adhere to the ECM

spot-like adherins

194

adherens junctions participate in _ and _ of epithelial cell sheets

folding and bending

195

__ junctions are aka zonula occludens

tight

196

this type of intercellular junction is formed by fusion of outer leaflets of cell membranes on the lateral surfaces just beneath apical poles. form barrier or permeability or a SEAL around the cell

tight junction
zona occludens

197

this type of intercellular junction are small CHANNELS that form direct intercellular connections thru which small molecules and ions can flow.

gap juction

198

each gap junction is formed by two

hemichannels aka connexons = transmembrane proteins

199

occluding junction join the _ of adjacent cells tightly together

plasma membrane

200

anchoring junctions - connect cells and their cytoskeleton but

leave space bw the plasma membranes

201

communicating junctions permit

passage of chemicals and electrical signals bw cells. ex gap junction

202

three distinct components of a junctional complex

tight junction
intermediate junction
desmosome
all associated with plasma membranes of adjacent cells

203

where would u expect to find fewest matrix embedded elastic fibers:
auricle, epiglottis, Eustachian tube, nasal cartilage

nasal cartilage is hyaline cartilage (think you got high thru sniffing coke)


auricle, epiglottis, Eustachian tube are all elastic cartilage

204

1. A chondroblast is a cell which forms ___, commonly known as cartilage cells.
2. Chondroblasts that become ___ are called chondrocytes

1. chondrocytes
2. embedded in the matrix

205

Appositional growth of bone is the layered formation of bone along its periphery accomplished by what cells

osteoblasts

206

osteoblasts become entrapped as __

ostoecytes

207

Is interstitial growth also possible in bones? why?

no! because bone has a rigid structure and octeocytes don't divide often.

208

the only type of growth possible in bone is _ growth
appositional/interstitial

appositional

209

it is important not to confuse bone GROWTH with bone FORMATION or DEVELOPMENT. Bone forms by either __ or __

endochondral ossification or intramembranous ossification

(bone grows by appositional growth)

210

which one increases bone LENGTH by continued interstitial growth of cartilage which is then replaced by bone

endochondral ossification or intramembranous ossification

endochondral

211

_growth increase bone GIRTH by apposition of new bone subperiosteally
endochondral ossification or intramembranous ossification

appositional

212

which layer of skin is mainly composed of areolar CT and adipose tissue:
epidermis/hypodermis/dermis

hypodermis aka subdermis

213

the outer epidermis is made of _ epithelium and develops rom ectoderm

stratified squamous

214

the outer epidermis is vascular/avascular

avascular

215

the principle cell of the _ is a keratinocyte

epidermis

216

the inner dermis is a thicker portion of skin composed of CT with collagenous elastic fibers from toughness. the inner dermis develops from embryonic ___ ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm

mesoderm = contains BV's, nerves, glands and hair follicles

217

the inner dermis is strong stretchable layer (t/f)

true

218

Cartilage can develop/grow in size in 2 different ways: appositional growth and interstitial growth. which is:
1. __ growth DEEP w/in the tissue by mitosis of each chondrocyte = producing a large # of daughter cells w/in a lacuna each of which secretes more matrix, thus expanding the tissue

interstitial growth

219

Cartilage can develop/grow in size in 2 different ways: __ growth and interstitial growth

appositional

220

appositional growth is layered growth on the __ of tissue from an outer layer of chondroblasts within ___

outer
perichondrium

221

the inner dermis has an upper dermal region called the _layer

papillary

222

the inner dermis has a LOWER dermal region called the _layer

reticular

223

subdermis aka

hypodermis

224

the subdermis is mainly composed of

loose (areolar) CT and adipose tissue

225

physiological functions of the subdermis?

insulation, storage of energy, aiding in anchoring the skin, cushioning the underlying body for extra protection against trauma

226

where is the basement membrane found in skin?

between the epidermis and dermis (remember: Come, lets get sun burned) - epidermis

227

meissner's corpuscle is an oval body in the __ that participates in tactile sensation

dermis

228

Ruffini's corpuscle: oval capsule containing sensory gibers in the _____

dermal papillae

229

Ruffini's corpuscle is seinsitive to skin stretch and contributes to the sense of and control of __

finger positions and movement.

230

what corpuscle is responsible for useful in monitoring slippage of objects along the surface of skin allowing modulation of grip on an object

Ruffini's corpuscle

231

when we look at our fingers we can see fingerprints. which layers of skin are we looking at in order to see fingerprints

a. papillary layer of the dermis
b. stratum cornuem of the epidermis
c. reticular layer of the dermis
d. stratum lucidum of the epidermis

a. papillary layer of the dermis

232

the epidermis/dermis is the thicker portion of the skin

dermis

233

the dermis is composed of CT with _ and _ for toughness

collagenous and elastic fibers

234

the __ is a strong stretchable layer that holds the body together

dermis

235

which layer is thicker and more fibrous: the papillary or reticular layer

reticular layer is thick and fibrous. the papillary is thin and less fibrous

236

which layer has primary and secondary dermal ridges aka rete pegs that extend up toward the epidermal layer

papillary layers

237

___ are the interdigitations of the epidermis. the layer contains fibroblasts, mast cells, and macrophages

epidermal ridges

238

the reticular layer is continuous with the ___

hypodermis

239

the reticular layer contains more reticular fibers and _ cells than the papillary layer

fewer

240

dense irregular CT is found in which layer of the dermis

reticular layer

241

the _ connects the dermis with the underlying fascia of muscles

subdermis (hypodermis)

242

the major site of fat deposition (50% of body fat) is in the _

subdermis

243

subdermis is made up of _ CT and has a good blood supply

loose (areolar)

244

arteriovenous shunts found in the skin are innervated by _ fibers

sympathetic vasoconstrictor

245

apocrine sweat glands are found mostly in the _ and _

armpits and genitals

246

sebaceous glands produce

oil = lubricant to keep skin soft and moist

247

2 types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine. which one is most numerous?

eccrine

248

arrector pili is

smooth muscle that pulls hairs straight

249

nails are modified stratum ___ and heavily keratinized

corneum