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NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscles Deck (62):
1

Golgi tendon organ in muscles measures muscle __

tension (think Golgi Tendon = T - for tension

2

The Gogli tendon organ is innervated by __ and inhibits/activates the muscle alpha neuron

Ib (sensory afferent)
inhibits
think Golgi - I - inhibit and T in tendon is for tension

3

muscle spindle measures

length

4

muscle spindle has 3 components name them

specialized muscle fibers called intrafusal fibers
sensory terminals = group 1a and II afferents
motor terminals = gamma motor (efferent) neurons

5

the finer the movement the more/less muscle spindles in a muscle

the finer the movement the MORE muscle spindles. muscles spindles and Golgi tendon organs are responsible for "fine tuning" therefore the muscles that are fine movement muscles = more of these organs

6

muscle tone is fined tuned by what two sensory organs

Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindles

7

the annulospiral endings are

sensory terminals in muscles especially around muscle fibers that belong to the muscle spindle intrafusal fibers.

8

the bulk of muscle is _ fibers

extrafusal

9

motor neurons are afferent or efferent

efferent

10

motor neurons are further classified as

alpha or gamma motor neurons

11

gamma motor neurons innervate what part of the muscle

muscle spindle

12

alpha motor neurons innervate and stimulate _ muscle

skeletal

13

activation of the _ motor neuron maintains the spindle sensitivity

gamma

14

type I muscle fibers are slow/fast twitch

slow

15

type II muscle fibers are slow/fast twitch

fast

16

which type of muscle fiber has
1. more glycogen content
2. myoglobin content
3. capillaries

1. type 2 has more glycogen content (because they are 2x as large as slow twitch fibers)
2. slow twitch (type 1)
3. slow twitch (type 1)

17

Fast twitch have fewer/lower __ than slow twitch

less resistance to fatigue,
less oxidative capacity
less enzymes for OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION (but more enzyems for anaerobic glycolysis)
less capillaries
less mitochondria
less myoglobin

18

Fast twitch have more/higher__ than slow twitch

myosin-ATPase activity
speed/intensity of contraction, enzymes for anaerobic glycolysis, more sarcoplasmic reticulum, more glycogen content

19

myotatic reflex

think myo = muscle = stretch reflex

20

the stretch reflex (knee jerk) is __
(number of synapses monosynaptic/disynaptic/polysnaptic)

monosynaptic

21

the Golgi tendon reflex = clasp knife (number of synapses monosynaptic/disynaptic/polysnaptic)

disynaptic

22

flexor withrawl reflex = after touching a hot stove =(number of synapses monosynaptic/disynaptic/polysnaptic)

polysynaptic

23

when the muscle is stretched what reflex is activated and what is the outcome

stretch reflex (Ia afferents)
muscle contracts

24

when he muscle contacts which reflex is activated and what is the outcome

Golgi tendon reflex
muscle relaxes

25

when he muscle feels pain, what reflex is activated and what is the outcome

flexor withdrawl reflex,
ipsilateral flexion and contralateral extension

26

the Ib afferent fibers are involved in which reflex

Golgi tendon reflex

27

the Ia afferent fibers are involved in which reflex

stretch reflex

28

the II, III, and IV afferent fibers involved in which reflex

flexor-withdrawl reflex

29

The Golgi tendon reflex is the reverse of the stretch reflex, they also depolarize in response to muscle stretch but they _ the motor neuron causing it to relax

inhibit

30

most reflex arcs have _ # basic elements

6 = receptor, sensory (afferent) neuron, integration center (CNS), interneuron, motor (efferent neuron) and effector

31

reflex arc is a neural pathways connecting

receptors to an effector

32

receptor/effector detects a stimulus or environmental change

receptor

33

effector is an organ of response. it produces a response called a

reflex

34

reflexes are quick bc

they only contain a few neurons

35

1. reflexes are either somatic = results in contraction of
2. or autonomic = result in activation of _ muscle

1. skeletal muscle = somatic
2. smooth of cardiac = autonomic

36

spinal reflexes are _(somatic/autonomic) reflexes mediated by the spinal cord

somatic

37

two impt spinal reflexes that contract skeletal muscles are

stretch reflex
tendon reflex

38

stretch reflex - it is initiated at receptors called __ that are sensitive to _ and _

muscle spindles
tension and length of muscle

39

stretch reflex stimulates the stretched muscle to

contract

40

patellar reflex is aka

knee jerk reflex

41

the patellar reflex is ex of which reflex

stretch reflex = strike the patellar tendon at knee causes the quadriceps to contract and swing the lower leg forward

42

tendon reflex is initiated at receptors called

neurotendinous organs (Golgi tendon organs) that are sensitive to tension

43

the tendon reflex occurs as a result of

muscle contraction = reflex stimulates the contracted muscle to relax

44

when the stretch reflex stimulates the muscle to contract, antagonist muscles that oppose the contraction are inhibited. this is called

reciprocal inhibition. the neurons that cause this is called reciprocal innervation

45

two types of muscle fibers

extrafusal and intrafusal

46

extrafusal/intrafusal muscle fibers make up the bulk of the muscle

extrafusal

47

extrafusal/intrafusal muscle fibers innervated by alpha motor neurons (efferent neurons)

extrafusal

48

extrafusal/intrafusal muscle fibers provide the force for muscle contraction

extrafusal

49

extrafusal/intrafusal muscle fibers are encapsulated in sheaths to form muscle spindles

intrafusal

50

extrafusal/intrafusal muscle fibers are innervated by gamma motor neurons (efferent neurons)

intrafusal

51

nuclear bag fibers and nuclear chain fibers are extrafusal/intrafusal muscle fibers.

intrafusal

52

nuclear bag fibers are intrafusal muscle fibers that detect __dynamic/static changes in muscle length and tension

dynamic

53

nuclear chain fibers are intrafusal muscle fibers that detect __dynamic/static changes in muscle length and tension

static

54

nuclear bag fibers are intrafusal muscle fibers innervated by

group 1a afferent = fastest in the body

55

sensory (afferent) neurons transmit afferent nerve impulse from receptor to the

spinal cord

56

a motor (efferent) neuron transmit efferent nerve impulses from the ___ to __

from the integrating center (in the spinal cord) to an effector (muscle cell)

57

The __ is a response to extensive tension on a tendon. It helps avoid strong muscle contractions which could tear the tendon from either the muscle or bone

tendon reflex

58

two types of tendon reflexes (T reflex)?

stretch reflex and a Golgi tendon reflex

59

A ___ reflex, when the stretch is created by a blow upon a muscle tendon.

stretch
Deep tendon reflex also usually refers to this sense.

60

Tendon reflex tests are used to determine the integrity of the __, and they can be used to detect the presence of a neuromuscular disease.

spinal cord and peripheral nervous system

61

The Golgi tendon reflex, motivated by that the sensory receptors for this reflex are anatomically located in the __, while the sensory receptors for the stretch reflex are actually inside the proper muscle.

tendon

62

what does tension mean

Tension (physics), a force related to the stretching of an object (the opposite of compression)