NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Bone Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Bone > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Bone Deck (291):
1

which of the following structures provides attachment to falx cerebri?

cribiform plate
crista galli
lesser wing of sphenoid
greater wing of sphenoid
corpus collosum

crista galli

2

the viscerocranium aka

facial skeleton

3

the viscerocranium consists of 15 _ bones

irregular

4

3 irregular single bones centered on or lying in the midline

mandible
ethmoid
vomer

5

the 6 irregular bones occurring as bilateral pairs

maxillae, inferior nasal conchae, zygomatic, palatine, nasal, and lacrimal bones

6

name the 4 pneumatized bones (that contain air spaces to decrease their weight)

frontal, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid

7

the __ bone is exceedingly light and spongy, with cubic shape, situated at the anterior part of the base of the cranium between the 2 orbits at the roof of the nose, and contributes to each of those cavities

ethmoid bone

8

the ethmoid bone consists of 4 parts: the horizontal part is aka

cribriform plate - forming part of the base of the cranium

9

the ethmoid bone consists of 4 parts: the perpendicular plate constitutes part of the

nasal septum

10

the ethmoid bone consists of 4 parts: the two lateral masses aka

labyrinths

11

Projecting upward from the middle line of the cribriform plate is a thick, smooth, triangular process, the crista galli. The long thin posterior border of the crista galli serves for the attachment of the __.

falx cerebri

12

the cribriform plate contains many _ foramina

oflacatory (olfactory nerves pass thru these foramina)

13

damage to the cribriform plate results in a loss of

sense of smell

14

the ___plate of the ethmoid bone has the cristal galli

perpendicular

15

the __ plate of the ethmoid bone is the cribiform plate

horizontal

16

the lateral masses (right and left) of the ethmoid bone project down from the cribriform plate. They contain the __ and the __

ethmoid sinuses and the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone (lamina papyracea)

17

the lamina papyracea forms the paper thin ___ wall of the orbit

medial

18

each ethmoid sinus is divided into _ air cells

anterior, middle, and posterior

19

the hypophyseal fossa is located in a depression in the body of the_ bone

sphenoid

20

the hypophyseal fossa is located in a depression in the body of the sphenoid bone houses what structure

pituitary

21

the sphenoid bone is at the base of the skull in front of the temporal and basilar part of the occipital bone. It is divided into the median portion called the __, two __ and two ___ wings extending outward from the sides of the body and _ two __ processes that project from the bone below

body,
2 great
2 small wings
2 pterygoid processes

22

the __body of the sphenoid contains the sella turcica: which houses the pituitary gland and the ___

hollow
sphenoidal sinuses

23

the greater wings of the sphenoid help to form the ___ of the orbit

lateral wall of the orbit

24

the greater wings of the sphenoid contain which foramen?

foramen rotundum and foramen ovale and foramen spinosum

25

foramen rotundum transmits _ nerve

V2 (maxillary nerve)

26

foramen ovale transmits _ nerve

V3 (mandibular nerve)

27

foramen spinosum transmits the

middle meningeal vessels and nerves to the tissues covering the brain

28

the lesser wings of the sphenoid (small) help to form the __ of the orbit

roof of the orbit and the superior orbial fissure

29

what nerve and artery goes thru the lesser wings

optic nerve (CN II) via optic canal (optic foramen) and the ophthalmic artery

30

The lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone provides the origin of what muscles

both the lateral and medial pterygoid muscles

31

the medial surface of the lateral plate provides origin for the _ muscle

medial pterygoid

32

the lateral surface of the lateral plate provides origin for the _ muscle

lateral pterygoid

33

the hamulus is a process of the ___pterygoid plate of __ bone

medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone

34

the hamulus is the origin for what muscle

tenso veli palatini

35

the pterygoid plates of the __ bone descend perpendicularly from the regions where the body and great wings unite. each process consists of a medial and a lateral plate, the upper parts fused anteriorly, a vertical sulcus, the pterygopalatine groove, descends on the front of the line of fusion

sphenoid

36

flat bones of the skull, maxilla, major parts of the mandible and clavicles are formed by __ ossification

intramembranous

37

the first evidence of bone ossification (bone formation) occurs around the _ wk of prenatal development

8th

38

bones develop either thru endochondral ossification = ___ or thru intramembranous ossification ____

endochondral ossification = going thru cartilaginous stage

intramembranous ossification = forming directly as bone

39

most bones are endochondral/intramembranous?

endochondral

40

endochondral bones means they started as ___ cartilage model before they ossify

hyaline

41

endochondral ossification occurs in what bones

bones of the base of the skull, condyles of the mandible, short and long bones

42

most of the mandible is _ ossification except the __

intramembranous
condyles

43

in endochondral ossification, bone replaces cartilage, (what cells replace what)

osteocytes replace chondrocytes

44

the bones of the extremities and those parts of axial skeleton that bear weight (ex. vertebrae) develop by__ ossification

endochondral ossification

45

the maxilla is formed by _ ossification

intramembranous

46

the flat bones of the skull are formed by _ ossification

intramembranous

47

the MAJOR parts of the mandible are formed by _ ossification

intramembranous

48

intramembranous ossification occurs within a membranous, condenses plate of _ cells

mesenchymal

49

at the initial site of intermembranous ossification (ossification center), mesenchymal cells (osteoprogenitor cells) differentiate into

osteoblasts

50

the osteoblast begin to deposit the organic bone matrix called the

osteoid

51

the matrix separates osteoblasts that from now on are located in

lacunae within the matrix

52

the collagen fibers of the osteoid form a woven network w/o preferred orientation. this type of bone is called _

woven bone

53

the osteoid calcifies leading to the formation of primitive trabecular bone. further deposition and calcification of osteoid at sites where compact bone is needed leads to the formation of

primitive compact bone

54

intramembranous ossification does/does not require the existence of a cartilage bone model

does not

55

in endochondral ossification does the cartilage transform into bone?

no the bone replaces cartilage

56

once intramembranous bone is formed, it GROWS by __ only

appositional growth (growth by the addition of new layers on those previously formed)

57

Endochondral bone grows by

BOTH appositional and interstitial growth

58

in ortho movement, the alveolar bone distal to the tooth must resorb and the alveolar bone mesial to the tooth must appositionally grow. This remodeling is a function of what 2 cells

osteoclasts and osteoblast

59

__ are cells that break down and remove exhausted bone tissue

osteoclasts

60

___ build new bone tissue to replace the loss of bone tissue from osteoclasts

osteblasts

61

__ are the principal bone-building cells that synthesize collagenous fibers and bone matrix and promote mineralization during ossification

osteoblasts

62

once osteoblasts build bone, they become trapped in their own matrix and develop into ___ that maintain the bone tissue

osteocytes

63

Osteoblasts are derived from mesenchyme (fibroblasts) and have a high __ content and stain intensely with __ dyes

RNA
basic

64

Osteoclasts are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow (the same ones that produce monocytes), and are large __ cells that contain lysosomes and phagocytic vacuoles

multinucleated

65

A Howship's lacuna is a small hollow created on the bone surface by __ activity

osteoclast

66

1. Osteoid is a newly formed organic bone matrix that has not undergone _
2. it is a specialized from of type _ collagen surrounded by glucosaminoglycan gel. this gel contains proteins w/ a high affinity for calcium binding

1. calcification
2. I

67

how does osteoid differ from bone?

it does not have a mineralized matrix and has more water content than mature bone

68

bone is hard and resists __ bc of the mineralization matrix.

compression

69

when bone matrix mineralizes inorganic hydroxyapatite crystals are deposited around the existing collagen fibrils and the water content of the matrix __

decreases

70

Bone derives its flexibility and tensile strength from its abundant

collagen fibers

71

all are functions of the skeletal system except one:

lymph filtration
mineral storage
support
protection
body movement

lymph filtration

72

besides support, protection, body movement, mineral storage what is another function of the skeletal system

hemopoiesis - red bone marrow of adults produce RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

73

95% of calcium and 90% of phosphorous are deposited in

bones and teeth

74

bone exists in what 2 forms

compact (appears as a solid mass) and spongy or cancellous bone (branching network of trabeculae)

75

initiation of bone mineralization:
1. holes or pores in _
2. release of matrix vesicles by _
3. alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts and matrix vesicles
4. degradation of matrix pyrophosphate to release an _

1. collagen
2. osteoblasts
4. inorganic phosphate

76

Fracture repair:
1. _ forms
2. bridging _ forms
3. _ forms
4. new _ formation

1. blood clot
2. callus
3. alkaline phosphatase
4. endochondral bone formation

77

pseudarthrosis (non unions) is a fracture that has not _ in the stipulated time in which fractures usually unite and has no chance of union w/o intervention. there is _ of a bone at the location of fracture resulting from inadequate healing

united
movement

78

at the TMJ, hinge movement occur b/w the _ and _

condyle and articular disc

79

TMJ is a synovial joint w/_ articular cavities

2

80

once articular cavity acts as a _ component and the other serves as a _ component

hinge (bottom = rotation = mandible opening)
gliding (top = translation)

81

the lower part of TMJ joint bw condyle and articular disc = hinge component. when the joint moves the hinge component of the joint moves FIRST to initiate ___

mandibular opening

82

the upper part of TMJ bw articular disc and mandibular fossa and articular eminence of the temporal bone creates gliding movement. during joint movement this gliding cavity moves __ the hinge component to terminate mandibular opening

AFTER

83

the condyle of the mandible rests in the _ aka _ of the temporal bone

mandibular fossa
glenoid fossa

84

the anterior boundary of the TMJ is the

articular eminence

85

the functional area and articular portion of the TMJ is the

articular eminence (anterior boundary)

86

separating the mandibular fossa from the tympanic plate posteriorly is the __ fissure

squamotympanic fissure

87

the medial end of the squamotympanic fissure is the _ fissure

petrotympanic fissure

88

thru the petrotympanic fissure the _ exits from the tympanic cavity

chorda tympani

89

the concave area bw the mandibular condyle and the coronoid process is the

mandibular notch aka coronoid notch

90

the mandibular notch transmits arteries and veins to the _ muscle

masseter

91

the POSTERIOR slope of the articular eminence is lined by _ CT

fibrous CT

92

patient's tongue thrusts and comes in referred by general dentist bc he said early treatment could prevent skeletal problems. Soft tissue development is thought to encourage mandibular growth which way?

downward and forward

93

the space bw the jaws into which the teeth erupt is generallys considered to be provided by growth at the

mandibular condyles (especially molars)

94

the condyle is a major site of

growth

95

soft tissue development carries the mandible _ and _

forward and downward

96

__ growth fills in the resultant space of the soft tissue pushing forward and down so that we maintain contact with the base of the skull

condyle

97

the bone of the alveolar process EXISTS ONLY to

support teeth.

98

if a tooth fails to erupt will alveolar bone form in that area?

no

99

if a tooth is extracted, the alveolus will __

resorb after extraction until finally the alveolar ridge completely atrophies

100

what determines the shape of the alveolar ridge:
a. the position of the tooth
b. the functional load placed on it

a. position of tooth

101

the long axes of the mandibular condyles intersect at the __ which indicates that these axes are directed

foramen magnum
posteriomedially

102

which does not form a portion of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity:
maxilla
palatine bone
conchae
vomer
ethmoid bone

vomer

103

the medial wall/nasal septum is formed by the perpendicular plate of the _ , _ bone and septal cartilage

ethmoid bone, vomer bone

104

the nasal cavity opens on the face thru the _ and communicates w/the nasopharynx thru 2 posterior openings called

nostrils/nares

choanae

105

the area below each concha is referred to as a

meatus
(superior, middle, and inferior)

106

the nasal cavity receives innervation from the

CNI and branches of trigeminal nerve (CN V)

107

blood supply of nasal cavity

sphenopalatine branch of the maxillary artery

108

the nasopalatine nerve is a PNS and sensory nerve that arises in the __, passes thru the __ across the roof of the nasal cavity into the nasal septum, and obliquely down thru the __ canal, and innervates the glands and mucosa of the nasal septum and the anterior part of the hard palate

pterygopalatine ganglion
sphenopalatine foramen
incisive canal

109

the communication bw the pterygopalatine fossa and the nasal cavity is the _ foramen

sphenopalatine foramen

110

a tubercle is:
a. a small rounded process
b. prominent elevated ridge or border of a bone
c. a large, rounded roughened process
d. sharp, slender, projecting process

a. small rounded process

111

_ = term for bone projection that serves as a point for attachment of other structures.

process

112

epicondyle

a projection/swelling on a condyle

113

spine

sharp, slender projecting process

114

tuberosity

a large, rounded, roughened process

115

trochanter

large blunt projection for muscle attachments on the femur

116

crest

a prominent elevated ridge or border of bone

117

linea

a small cress, usually somewhat straighter than a crest

118

ramus

a major branch or division of the main body of a bone.

119

the coronoid and condylar process of the mandible are subdivisions of the

ramus

120

neck

slight narrowing of the body of the bone that supports the head

121

lamina

a very thin layer of bone

122

the shaft of a long bone is capped on the end by spongy bone that is surrounded by compact bone. this is called:
periosteum/diaphysis/endosteum/epiphysis

epiphysis

123

long bones have a tubular shaft called _ and usually a _ at each end

diaphysis
epiphysis

124

during the growing phase the diaphysis is separated from the epiphysis by an

epiphyseal cartilage

125

the part of the diaphysis that lies adjacent to the epiphyseal cartilage is called the

metaphysis

126

the shaft has a central _ cavity

marrow

127

the outer part of the shaft is composed of _ bone that is covered by a connective tissue sheath called the

compact
periosteum

128

the region of mitotic activity responsible for elongation of a LONG bone is in

epiphyseal plate

129

the medullary cavity contains _ bone marrow

fatty yellow bone marrow

130

where is red bone marrow found in long bones

epiphysis

131

the epiphysis consists of _ bone surrounded by compact bone

spongy

132

epiphysis contains red bone marrow for the production of

RBCs, WBCs and platelets

133

articular cartilage caps each epiphysis of long bones. it is composed of _ cartilage and facilitates joint movement

hyaline

134

endosteum lines the

medullary cavity. consists of supportive regular dense CT

135

periosteum covers the surface of bone consists of dense regular _. it is the site for _ attachment and responsible for _

CT
tendon/ligament muscle
diametric bone growth

136

cancellous spongy bone is porous and highly vascular, _ layer of bone tissue

inner

137

cancellous spongy bone makes the bone lighter and provides spaces for _

red bone marrow where blood cells are produced

138

the hypophyseal fossa which houses the pituitary gland is located within which of the following cranial fossae
a. anterior
b. middle
c. posterior

middle cranial fossa

139

the internal surface of the base of the skull consists of 3 cranial fossa: anterior middle and posterior. they increase in size and depth from _ to _

anterior to posterior

140

the anterior and middle fossae are separated by the _

lesser wing of the sphenoid bones

141

the middle and posterior fossae are separated by the

petrous part of the temporal bone

142

anterior cranial fossa is formed by portion of which bones

frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid

143

the _, a midline process of the ethmoid bone, gives attachment to the anterior end of the falx cerebri

crista galli

144

on each side of the crista galli are the grooved _ of the ethmoid bone

cribriform plates

145

the cribriform plates provide numerous orifices for the_ nerves from the nasal mucosa to synapse in the olfactory bulbs

olfactory nerves (CNI)

146

middle cranial fossa is composed of the

body and great wings of the sphenoid bone, the squamous and petrous parts of the temporal bones and the frontal angle of parietal bone

147

the anterior fossa contains which lobe of brain

frontal

148

the middle fossa contains laterally the _ lobes of the brain

temporal

149

which cranial fossa is the optic chiasma, optic canal, sella turcica and the hypophyseal fossa found

middle

150

name the foramen and fissures found in the middle cranial fossa

foramen rotundum, ovale, spinosum, lacerum, superior orbital fissure.

151

the posterior cranial fossa is the deepest fossae and houses the

cerebellum, medulla, and pons

152

what 4 foramina are in the posterior cranial fossa

internal acoustic meatus (part of temporal bone), the jugular foramen, the hyoglossal canal (in the occipital bone), and the foramen magnum (where the medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord)

153

Treacher Collins syndrome = rare genetic disorder that presents w/facial deformities. one of the characteristic traits is the downward slanting of the eyes from underdevelopment of the bone that forms the substance of the cheek. which bone anchors many of the muscles of mastication and facial expression?

zygomatic bone

154

zygomatic bone is aka

cheek bone or malar bone

155

does the zygomatic bone form the orbit

yes, the lateral wall and floor

156

the zygomatic bone also forms parts of the _ and _

temporal and infratemporal fossae

157

what 4 bones does the zygomatic bone articulate with

temporal, maxilla, frontal sphenoid

158

above the zygomatic arch is the _ fossa which is filled with temporalis muscle

temporal

159

attached to the lower margin of the zygomatic arch is the _ muscle

masseter

160

the temporalis muscle passes ___ to the zygomatic arch before it inserts into the coronoid process of the mandible

medial

161

the temporal fossa is a shallow depression on the side of the cranium bounded by the temporal line and terminating below the level of the zygomatic arch. The _ of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone separates the temporal fossa from the infratemporal fossa below it

infratemporal crest

162

a tube like passage running thru a bone:
a. fovea
b. meatus
c. fossa
d. fissure

meatus

163

fissure

a sharp, deep groove. narrow, clef like opening bw the parts of a bone that allows for the passage of BV and nerves

164

superior orbital fissure is in what bone

sphenoid

165

sulcus

groove (shallower and less abrupt cleft than a fissure) that allows passage of BV nerves and tendons

166

incisure

(notch) = a deep indentation on the border of a bone

167

fossa

a shallow depression that ma or may not be an articulating surface

168

meatus

(canal) a tube like passage running thru a bone
ex. acoustic meatus of temporal bone

169

the ganglion that supplies the mucous membrane of the mouth and nose with parasympathetic fibers is located in what fossae?
pterygopalatine fossa
infratemporal fossa
temporal fossa

pterygopalatine fossa

170

the pterygopalatine fossa communicates laterally with infratemporal fossa through the

pterygomaxillary fissure

171

the hamulus accommodates the action of which muscle

tensor veli palatini = hamulus

172

the hamulus is a component of which bone

medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone

173

1. lateral pterygoid of the sphenoid bone provides the origin for _

1. lateral and medial pterygoid muscles

174

the lateral pterygoid plate forms the _ wall of the _ fossa

medial wall of infratemporal fossa

175

the medial pterygoid plate forms the posterior limit of the _ wall of the _

lateral wall of the nasal cavity

176

the medial plate ends inferiorly as a

hamulus - looks like a hook = acs as a pulley for the tensor veli palatini

177

tensor veli palatini is innervated by the

medial pterygoid nerve CNV3

178

action of tensor veli palatini is

tenses the soft palate

179

the mastoid process is composed of mastoid air cells in what bone

temporal

180

the maxillary process is in what bone

zygomatic

181

the palatine process is in what bone

maxilla = forms anterior hard palate

182

the styloid process is in what bone

temporal

183

the frontal process, temporal process and maxillary process are in _ bone

zygomatic

184

the roof of the oral cavity is formed by what bones

maxilla and palatine bones

185

the roof of the oral cavity is formed by the _ of the maxilla and the _ of the palatine bones

palatine processes of maxilla
horizontal plates of the palatine bones

186

the union of the maxilla and the palatine bones forms the _ palate

hard palate

187

the anterior 2/3 of the hard palate is formed by the _

palatine process of maxilla

188

the posterior 1/3 of the hard palate is formed by the

horizontal plates of the palatine bones

189

the hard palate forms not only the roof of the oral cavity proper but also the

floor of the nasal cavity

190

the hard palate is covered with a mucous membrane and beneath the mucosa are palatal _

salivary glands

191

the greater palatine vein, artery, and nerve travel along the maxillary alveolar process anteriorly where they join the _ nerve and _ artery and vein, exiting the nasal cavity from the incisive foramen

nasopalatine
sphenopalatine

192

the soft palate is continuous with the hard palate posteriorly and is "soft" bc it does not have a

bony substrate. instead it has a fibrous CT sheet = palatal aponeuroisis

193

posteriorly the soft palate suspended in the oropharynx ends in the midline _

uvula

194

most of the palatal muscles innervation is from the

pharyngeal plexus of nerves

195

the tensor muscles of the palate receive motor branches from the

mandibular division of V3

196

the tensor muscles of the palate receive sensory innervation is provided by the _ division

maxillary division of V2

197

osteocytes are located in what spaces

lacunae

198

3 types of cells that contribute to bone homeostasis:
1._ are bone forming cells
2. _ break down bone
3. _ are mature bone cells

1. osteoblasts
2. osteoclasts
3. osteocytes

199

an equilibrium bw osteo_ and osteo_ maintains the bone tissue

osteoblast
osteoclast

200

__ bone consists of osteons and haversian systems

compact

201

the haversian system consists of a central canal called the haversian canal surrounded by concentric rings called ___of matrix. bw the rings of the matrix, the bone cells ___ are located in spaces called lacunae

lamellae

osteocytes

202

small channels called _ radiate from the lacunae to the haversian canal to provide passage for oxygen and nutrients to the osteocytes

canaliculi

203

the haversian canals contain _ that are parallel to the long axis of the bone.

blood vessels

204

osteons aka

haversian systems

205

Volkmann's canals

are transverse canals that interconnect the haversian canals

206

the medullary marrow cavity is line with _ bone

cancellous/trabecular/spongy

207

the concentric rings in haversion system are called

lamellae

208

largest bone of the pelvis
a. ileum
b. ischium
c. pubis

ileum

209

the os coxa is aka

hipbone

210

the os coxa is formed by the fusion of what 3 bones

ileum ischium and pubis (pii)

211

the two hip bones articulate with each other anteriorly at the _

symphysis pubis

212

the os coxa articulates with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint to form the _

pelvic girdle

213

the greater sciatic notch is found on what bone

ileum

214

the ischium is L-shaped bone with a thick upper part (body) and a lower thinner part (ramus). This part bears the weight of the body when a person is in an upright seated position. 2 features of this bone

ischial spine and ischial tuberosity

215

obturator foramen is formed by the _ and _

pubis and ramus of the ischium

216

the pubis Is divided into

body, superior ramus, and inferior ramus

217

the inguinal ligament connect the pubic tubercle to the

anterior superior iliac spine

218

the acetabulum is a cup shaped cavity on the _ bone tat recives the head of the __

lateral side of the hip bone,
head of the femur

219

the largest single nerve in the human body is the _ nerve

sciatic nerve

220

sciatic nerve foes from the _ to the _

top of the leg to the foot on posterior aspect

221

the trachea divides into the left and right main bronchi at the level of
a. upper part of sternum
b. mid part of body of the sternum
c. just above the xiphoid process
d. junction of manubrium and body of sternum

junction of manubrium and body of sternum (sternal angle)

222

the sternum is made of 3 parts name them

manubrium (most superior)
body of sternum
xiphoid process

223

the most superior part of the sternum, the manubrium connects to the _

clavicle (collar bone) = connects to shoulder

224

the sternal angle is at the level of what costal cartilage

2nd pair

225

the sternal angle is at the beginning and end of the _

aortic arch

226

the sternal angle is at the location where the trachea

bifurcates into L and R main bronchi

227

the sternal angle is the boundary bw the _ and _

superior and inferior mediastinum

228

how many ribs do we have?

24 (12 pairs)

229

all ribs are attached posteriorly to the _ vertebrae

12 thoracic

230

the anterior rib pair #_ attach to the manubrium

1

231

the anterior rib pair #_ attach to the sternum body

2-7

232

rib pairs #8-10 have an anterior attachment to the _

cartilage of the rib above them

233

rib pairs 11 and 12 do not have an _-attachment at all

anterior

234

rib pairs #_ are TRUE RIBS

1-7

235

rib pairs #_ are false ribs

8 -10 (remember true and false are in the front) floating in the back

236

rib pairs # _ are floating ribs

11-12

237

The phrase floating ribs refers to the __ rib pairs; so-called because they are attached to only the ___--and not to the sternum or cartilage of the sternum

two lowermost, the eleventh and twelfth,
vertebrae

238

the costal groove is a groove bw

ridge of internal surface of the rib and the inferior border contains the intercostal vessels and intercostal nerve in the order of (VAN) from superior to inferior: vein, artery, nerve

239

the _ is the most likely damaged in case of injury to the costal groove bc it is least protected

vein

240

the vertebral column has how many vertebrae?

24

241

so the number of INDIVIDUAL vertebrae also equals the number or

ribs! 24 ribs (12 pairs) and 24 INDIVIDUAL vertebrae

242

the first seven vertebrate =

cervical vertebrae (neck vertebrae)

243

there are _ thoracic vertebrae

12

244

each _ vertebrae has a pair of ribs attached to it

thoracic

245

the last 5 vertebrae are the

lumbar vertebrae

246

we have 24 individual vertebrae + one sacrum made of _ fused vertebrae and one coccyx made of _ fused vertebrae

sacrum: 5 fused
coccyx: 3-5 fused

247

the body of each vertebrae develops from the caudal part of one __ and cranial portion of the next ___, while the nucleus pulposus (central portion of the disc) develops from the _

sclerotome, sclerotome, notochord

248

which articulates with the capitulum of the humerus:
a. radius
b. acromion
c. ulna
d. scapula
e. clavicle

radius

249

the clavicle connects to the manubrium of the sternum and the _ of the _

acromion of the scapula

250

scapula is aka

shoulder blade

251

the glenoid cavity is the lateral edge of the _ and is the socket portion of the ball and socket joint of the shoulder

scapula

252

the head of the humerus fits into the _ of the _

glenoid cavity of the scapula

253

lateral to the __ of the humerus is the greater tubercle

head

254

at the inferior end (distal) of the humerus are

2 condyles

255

the lateral condyle of the humerus is called the __ which articulates with the radius

capitulum

256

the medial condyle of the humerus is the __ that innervates with the

trochlea
ulna

257

lateral to the capitulum on the distal humerus is a large bump called the

lateral epicondyle

258

medial to the trochlea on the distal humerus is a large bump called the _

medial epicondyle

259

1. when people hit a groove between the medial epicondyle and the trochlea (of humerus) they say they hit their?
2. the nerve that passes thru this area is the _

1. funny bone
2. ulnar nerve

260

on the anterior side of the humerus at the distal end there is a depression called the

coronoid fossa

261

on the opposite side of the coronoid fossa of humerus there is a large depression called the

olecranon fossa

262

the lower arm has 2 bones: the lateral is the _ and the medial is the _

radius
medial = ulnar

263

when the hand is in supinate position the ulna and radius are _ to each other

parallel

264

when the hand is pronated, the __ crosses over the _

radius crosses over ulna

265

the head of the radius pivots on the

capitulum

266

the ulna has a large bulge on the posterior side called the

olecranon process = this is the elbow

267

anterior to the olecranon process is a huge notch called the

trochlear notch

268

the trochlear notch pivots on the _

trochlea of the ulna

269

the elbow joint what bones articulate?

CRAzy TULips
Capitulum Radius
Trochlea = ULna

270

which bone forms the major part of the lateral wall of the orbit

zygomatic bone

271

the orbit has 4 walls. the medial walls of the orbit are almost parallel with each other and w the superior part of the nasal cavities. T/F

true

272

the lateral walls of the orbit are approximately at _ angles to each other

right angles

273

the superior wall or roof of the orbit is formed almost completely by the _

orbital plate of the frontal bone

274

Posteriorly the superior wall of the orbit is formed by the

lesser wing of the sphenoid bone

275

the roof of the orbit is thin, translucent, and gently arched. this plate of bone separates the orbital cavity and the _ cranial fossa

anterior cranial fossa

276

the _ canal is located in the posterior part of the superior roof of the orbit

optic canal

277

the medial wall of the orbit is paper thin and is formed by the orbital lamin or lamina papyracea of the _ bone along with what other bones (4 bones total)

ethmoid, lacimal sphenoid and frontal

278

in the medial wall of the orbit there is a vertical lacrimal groove formed by the

maxilla and lacrimal bone

279

along the suture bw the ethmoid and frontal bones are two small foramina called

the anterior and posterior ethmoid foramina

280

the inferior wall of the orbit (floor) is mainly formed by the

orbital surface of the maxilla and partly by the zygomatic bone and orbital process of the palating bone

281

the floor of the orbit is separated from the lateral wall of the orbit by the

inferior orbital fissure

282

which wall of the orbit is thick

lateral (especially the posterior part)

283

the lateral wall of the orbit separates the orbit from the _ fossa

middle cranial fossa

284

1. the superior wall of the orbit separates the orbit from the _ cranial fossa
2. the lateral wall of the orbit separates the orbit from the_ cranial fossa

1. anterior
2. middle

285

in the medial wall of the orbit there is a vertical lacrimal groove formed by the

maxilla and lacrimal bone

286

along the suture bw the ethmoid and frontal bones are two small foramina called

the anterior and posterior ethmoid foramina

287

the inferior wall of the orbit (floor) is mainly formed by the

orbital surface of the maxilla and partly by the zygomatic bone and orbital process of the palating bone

288

the floor of the orbit is separated from the lateral wall of the orbit by the

inferior orbital fissure

289

which wall of the orbit is thick

lateral (especially the posterior part)

290

the lateral wall of the orbit separates the orbit from the _ fossa

middle cranial fossa

291

1. the superior wall of the orbit separates the orbit from the _ cranial fossa
2. the lateral wall of the orbit separates the orbit from the_ cranial fossa

1. anterior
2. middle