Tooth/mouth, proteins/amino acids Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > Tooth/mouth, proteins/amino acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tooth/mouth, proteins/amino acids Deck (297):
1

the organic matrix of enamel is made from noncollagenous proteins only and contains several enamel proteins and enzymes. t/f

true

2

of the enamel proteins 90% are a heterogenous group of low molecular weight proteins known as amelogenins. T/F

true

3

does enamel contain collage

no

4

90% of enamel proteins are amelogenins. the other 10% are

enamelin and ameloblastin

5

amelogenins are Hydrophobic or hydrophillic

hydrophobic

6

amelogenins are rich in which a.acids

proline, histidine, and glutamine

7

expression of amelogenins stops when the enamel

reaches full thickness

8

loss of function of amelogenins will lead to

a thin hypoplastic enamel layer formed that lacks enamel rods

9

ameloblastin is a protein mostly found in _ enamel and more on the outer surface than in deeper areas closest to the DEJ

newly formed (secretory stage)

10

the largest and least abundant protein in enamel matrix

enamelin

11

enamelin is only present at the

growing enamel surface

12

ameloblasts produce enamel matrix (organic matrix) with protein components called

amelogenins and enamelins

13

organic matrix makes up about _% of enamel

1-2%

14

enamel has _% inorganic matter

95%

15

enamel has _% water

4%

16

is enamel permeable?

semipermeable

17

enamel allows fluoride ions to be absorbed on the hydroxyapatite crystals, forming __ via __

fluorapatite via F- displacing the OH- groups

18

fluorapatite makes tooth more

resistant to bacteria producing acids

19

why does fluorapatite makes tooth more resistant to bacteria producing acids

because fluorapatite has a LOWER SOLUBILITY product constant than hydroxyapatite.

20

which has higher solubility
fluorapatite or hydroxyapatite.

hydroxyapatite

21

is enamel harder than bone?

yes

22

why is enamel harder than bone?

because hydroxyapatite crystals are larger and more firmly packed.

23

the hydroxyapatite crystals are __ shaped rods called __

keyhole shaped rods called enamel prisms

24

the hydroxyapatite crystals in enamels are _ times larger than those in bone, dentin and cementum

4x

25

enamel hypoplasia is the defect in the
a. mineralization of enamel matrix
b. formation of the enamel matrix

formation of the enamel matrix
(not a defect in the mineralization of the formed enamel matrix).

26

enamel hypoplasia is a general term to all __ defects of enamel thickness

quantitiative
pits, small furrows, troughs of missing enamel

27

hypocalcification and opacities are _defects

qualitative

28

hypoplasia occurs only if the assault occurs when?

during the time the teeth are developing. either primary/permanent

29

in hypoplasia how do the teeth look? color?

pitted, yellow to dark brown color and have open contacts

30

hypoplasia appears _ on radiograph

enamel appears to be absent or very thin, especially over the cusp tips and interproximally

31

in hypoplasia, the enamel is hard/soft? thin/thick?

hard but thin and deficient in amount

32

hypoplasia causes

hereditary or environmental

33

environmental causes of hypoplasia

vitamin A and D deficiency, inadequate calcium intake, fluorosis, congenital syphilis, high fever, injury or trauma to the mouth

34

Enamel hypocalcification is a defect in _ of the _

mineralization of the formed enamel matrix

35

enamel hypoplasia is a defect in the _

formation of the enamel matrix

36

tooth __ in bulimic patients is due to the solubility of hydroxyapatite in acid

erosion

37

enamel hypoplasia/hypocalcification is strongly associated with amelogenesis imperfecta

hypoplasia

38

caries activity is directly proportional to the quantity of fermentable carbs ingested. t/f

false.

39

the enzyme __ produced by strep mutans is the key factor in demineralizing tooth surfaces that leads to caries

glucosyltransferase

40

glucosyltransferase is aka

dextran sucrase

41

the most frequently isolated strep in the oral cavity is

s. sanguis

42

name 3 bacteria in mouth that produce glucosyltransferase

s. mutans
s. sanguis
lactobacillus

43

glucosyltransferase catalyzes the formation of _ from _

extracellular glucans from sucrose

44

glucan production contributes to the

formation of plaque

45

the dental plaque holds the _ against the tooth

lactic acid

46

caries depends on the balance bw

remineralization and demineralization

47

the primary physiological control of the salivary gland is by the _ nervous system

parasympathetic

48

control of salivary secretion is exclusively neural. T/F

true

49

functions of saliva

lubricate and moisten food for swallowing
solubilization of material for tase
initiate carb digestion
clearance and neutralization of refluxed gastric secretions in the esophagus
antibacterial

50

how many major salivary glands

3 = parotid submandibular sublingual

51

many other smaller glands are found on the

tongue, lips, and palate

52

the acinar portion of the gland is classified according to its major secretion: mucous mixed or serous. the parotid produces mainly

serous secretion

53

the sublingual produces mainly _ secretion

mucous (think under your tongue you have mucous)

54

submandibular gland produces _

mixed secretion

55

mucous secretions contain

mucins = glycoproteins = proteins with polysaccharides that lubricate the food

56

serous secretions contains ___

salivary amylase (ptyalin).

57

ptyalin splits starch into

alpha-dextrin, maltotriose and maltose (think MaD'M)

58

pns nerves stimulating the salivary gland will __ blood flow by ___ the vasculature of the glands

increase blood flow
dilating

59

__ and __ are released from the PNS nerve terminals in the salivary glands.

vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine (AcH)

60

PNS stimulation of the salivary glands releases vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine (AcH). these 2 will cause vasodilation/vasoconstriction of the glands

vasodilatory during secretion

61

control of salivary secretion is exclusively
neural/hormonal

neural

62

in contrast to salivary secretion, GI secretions are primarily
neural/hormonal

hormonal

63

salivary secretion is stimulated by SNS/PNS

BOTH

64

Sympathetic fibers to salivary glands stem from the

superior cervical ganglion

65

preganglionic PNS fibers travel via branches of the _ and _ nerves

facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal nerves

66

parasympathetic fibers form synapses with postganglionic neurons in

ganglia in or near the salivary glands

67

vagal stimulation __ saliva production

increases

68

vagotomy

is a surgical procedure that involves resection of the vagus nerve

69

vagotomy would have what effect on saliva production

inhibit saliva production = dry mouth

70

atropine effects on salivation?

atropine counters the "rest and digest" activity of glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. This occurs because atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Atropine dilates the pupils, increases heart rate, and reduces salivation and other secretions.

71

___ prevents the action of AcH on the secreting cells in the oral cavity

Atropine

72

Saliva has a low/high K+ concentration

high

73

saliva has low/high osmolarity

low

74

saliva is always hypotonic T/F

True

75

saliva inorganic composition is entirely dependent on the stimulus and rate of salivary flow. T/F

True

76

saliva has a large flow rate relative to the mass of the gland, low osmolarity, and high K+ concentration and organic constituents including enzymes (amylase, lipase), mucins, and growth factors. the INORGANIC composition is ENTIRELY DEPENDENT on the

stimulus and the rate of flow which is stimulated during a meal.
Na+, K+, HCO3-, Mg2+, Ca2+ Cl-

77

why is salvia always hypotonic in humans

ductal cells reabsord NaCl in exchange for potassium and bicarbonate

78

the organic constituents of saliva, proteins, and glycoproteins are synthesized and stored and secreted by

acinar cells

79

the major organic products are

amylase lipase glycoprotein lysozyme

80

glycoproteins are mucins which form _ when hydrated

mucous

81

lysozymes in saliva will

attack bacterial cell walls to limit colonization of bacteria in the mouth

82

saliva acts as a buffer. caries can be modified by

saliva

83

the balance bw remineralization and demineralization can be altered substantially by the

rate of salivary flow

84

a maximum salivary flow rate of __associated with a HIGH caries risk

<0.7mL/min

85

the essential amino acids we

need from diet

86

non essential amino acids are synthesized from common metabolic intermediates or from

other amino acids

87

only amino acids that are exclusively ketogenic

leucine and lysine

88

ketogenic amino acid means

cant be made into glucose.
they are broken down into acetyl coA or acetoacetate

89

glucogenic amino acids means

can enter gluconeogenesis. broken down into pyruvate or 4 or 5C intermediates of TCA

90

how many of the 20 amino acids can be synthesized in the human body? Is that essential or non essential

non essential = 11

91

amino acids are used for what 3 purposes

1. generation of metabolic energy
2. protein synthesis
3. synthesis of many products ex. heme, purine, pyrimidines, coenzymes, melanin, biogenic amines

92

amino acids broken down into pyruvate _ and what else are glucogenic

alpha ketoglutarate
succinyl coA
fumarate
OAA
can convert to glucose and glycogen

93

the nitrogen of the amino acids is incorporated into _

urea

94

is urea soluble? toxic?

soluble and not toxic. excreted in urine

95

in eukaryotes DNA does not exist free. it is complexed w/an equal mass of BASIC proteins called

histones

96

histones contain a large portion of what 2 amino acids?

arginine and lysine
remember your mnemonic: HRK = + charged basic amino acids = H = histidine, R = arginine, K = lysine

97

each chromosome is a _ molecule of DNA complexed with an equal mass of proteins

single

98

DNA and proteins are called __ collectively

chromatin

99

most of protein in DNA consists of

copied of 5 kinds of histones: H1, H2A, H3, H4

100

both arginine and lysine have a _ on their R group

free amino group which attracts protons giving them a positive charge = therefore perfect to bind tightly to negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA

101

histones help to

neutralize the large negative charge of the DNA phosphate groups and stabilize DNA in a COMPACT form

102

histones package and order the DNA into structural units called

nucleosomes

103

nucleosomes are

repeating subunits of chromatin consisting of a DNA coiled around a core of histones

104

chromatin also contains non histone proteins. most of these are

transcription factors and their association with DNA is more transient

105

activation of DNA for replication or transcription requires

breakup of the nucleosome structure

106

phosphorylation of _ and _ residues in histones is part of the process for replication

serine and threonine

107

acetylation of lysine residues in the histones is used for __

transcriptional activation

108

proteins are formed by the reaction bw

alpha amino group of one a.a. and an alpha carboxyl group of another amino acid

109

how many proteins (peptides) in a chain to be called a polypeptide chain?

10 or more

110

a protein is a polypeptide chain of _ or more amino acids linked together

100 or more

111

a disulfide bond is a covalent/non covalent bond

covalent

112

what 2 amino acids form a disulfide residue

cysteine

113

2 or more polypeptide chains are called

subunits

114

2 subunits associate via covalent/non covalent bonds

non covalent

115

quaternary structure formed via

disulfide bonds

116

Examples of proteins with quaternary structure include?

hemoglobin, DNA polymerase, and ion channels.

117

most plasma proteins are derived from

liver

118

__ are the only proteins NOT produced by the liver

immunoglobulins

119

immunoglobulins are made by

plasma cells

120

most plasma proteins are __

glycoproteins.

121

the only plasma protein that is not a glycoprotein is

albumen

122

plasma proteins circulate for several days and are eventually removed from circulation when

their oligosaccharide chains are worn down

123

60% of plasma proteins are

albumen

124

albumin accounts for 60% of all plasma proteins and __% of the colloid osmotic pressure of plasma

80%

125

why does albumen account for more than 60% of the colloid osmotic pressure?

bc colloid pressure depends on the amount of water and electrolytes that a protein attract to its surface and albumin is one of the most hydrophilic plasma proteins

126

edema develops when the albumin concentration drops below

2g/dL

127

globulins are/are not soluble in:
1. salt solution
2. pure water

1. soluble in salt solution
2. not pure water

128

globulins make up 35% of plasma proteins and are used in the

transport of ions, hormones, and lipids

129

fibrinogen accounts for _% of plasma protein

4

130

fibrinogen/fibrin is insoluble?

fibrin. fibrinogen can be converted to fibrin

131

regulatory proteins make up _% of plasma

<1% = proteins such as enzymes, proenzymes, and hormones

132

intracellular proteins absorb _

hydrogen ions generated by the body's metabolic processes

133

lipoproteins are plasma proteins. name the lipoproteins

chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL

134

transferrin is another plasma protein used for

iron transport

135

prothrombin is a plasma protein involved in

blood clotting

136

what is the molecule called that is formed by the condensation of 2 proteins

amide

137

bonds involving the alpha carbon can or cannot rotate freely in peptide bond

can

138

do the alpha amino or alpha carboxyl group in peptide bond give off protons?

no. therefore they don't ionize at physiological pH

139

peptide bonds can or cannot be cleaved by organic solvents or urea

cannot

140

peptide bonds are susceptible to

strong acids

141

peptide bonds are generally trans/cis

trans

142

peptide bonds are charged? polar?

uncharged and polar

143

__ due to formation of a tertiary amine restricts the range of rotation of the alpha carbon in a peptide bond

proline

144

disulfide bond is formed by the _ group of 2 cysteines

sulfhydryl (SH)

145

two sulfhydryl groups on 2 cysteines will form a _ residue

cystine residue (NOT CYSTEINE)

146

___ is a constituent of collagen and RARELY FOUND IN ANY OTHER PROTEIN

hydroxyproline

147

hydroxyproline in collagen function

stability to the triple helical structure via H bonding

148

vitamin C is required for what step in collagen synthesis

hydroxylation of proline.

149

_ is the only non chiral amino acid

glycine (not optically active)

150

myoglobin consists of _ polypeptide with a non covalently bound heme group

single

151

hemoglobin has _ polypeptides each with its own heme

4

152

1. myoglobin has _ polyptides vs hemoglobin's _

1 vs 4

153

why do humans need oxygen binding proteins?

because molecular O2 is poorly soluble in body fluids

154

both myoglobin and hemoglobin use heme as a _ group

prosthetic

155

adult hemoglobin has 2 _ chains and 2 _ chains

alpha and 2 beta

156

adult hemoglobin abbreviation is

HbA (A for adult)

157

fetal hemoglobin abbreviation is

HbF (F for fetal)

158

fetal hemoglobin has 2 _ chains and 2 _ chains

2 alpha and 2 gamma

159

both HgA and HgF have _ chains.

2 alpha

160

The difference bw the polypeptide chains of HgF and HgA is

HgF has 2 delta chains
HgA has 2 beta chains

161

myoglobin has a __ oxygen binding affinity than all the hemoglobins

FAR HIGHER

162

HbF has a __ affinity than HbA

slightly higher

163

which has higher affinity for oxygen: myoglobin or fetal Hb

myoglobin higher than ALL hemoglobins

164

__ is a MONOMERIC HEME PROTEIN

myoglobin = it contains only one heme protein

165

__ serves as an intracellular oxygen storage site in muscle tissue.

myoglobin

166

oxymyoglobin releases oxygen in times of oxygen deprivation. it is aka

muscle hemoglobin

167

muscle hemoglobin refers to oxyhemoglobin or deoxyhemoglobin?

oxyhemoglobin (myoglobin with oxygen)

168

myoglobin is located within muscle cells or between cells

WITHIN

169

which stores oxygen more efficiently myoglobin or Hg

myoglobin binds and stores more efficiently

170

myoglobin and Hg are _ proteins

specialized

171

the heme iron in Hg and Myoglobin binds O2 oxygen in what state

ferrous Fe2+

172

if Fe2+ is oxidated to Fe3+ then it is called __

ferric

173

ferric iron is found in

methemoglobin.

174

the enzyme ___ reduces methemoglobin back to normal Hg using coenzyme _ as the reductant

methemoglobin reductase, NADH

175

in contrast to Hg and Myoglobin where iron is always in _ state, the heme iron in cytochromes are

Hg and Myoglobin = Fe2+ ferrous
cytochromes = switch back bw ferrous and ferric Fe3+

176

in almost all cytochromes the heme iron is bound to how many amino acid side chains? exception is which

2 amino acid side chains

cytochrome a/a3 is exception

177

the heme iron in cytochromes being bound to 2 amino acid chains rather than one (like in Hg and myoglobin) results in

molecular O2, CO, and other ligands not being able to bind the iron

178

cytochromes are membrane bound __

hemoproteins

179

cytochromes carry out

electron transport

180

cytochromes are found in the __ of euk, _ of plants, and _ bacteria

mitochondrial inner membrane and ER of eukaryotes, in the chloroplasts of plants, and in photosynthetic bacteria

181

electron transport and ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation proceed continuously in all cells of the body that contain

mitochondria

182

cytochromes receive electrons from the _ form of which coenzyme?

reduced form of coenzyme Q (aka ubiquinone)

183

each cytochrome contains a heme group made of a _ containing a _

porphyrin ring containing an iron atom

184

the cytochrome iron atom is the _

electron carrier and is reduced when the cytochrome accepts an electron

185

cytochromes are distinguished by the differences in their __ which is a result of the heme prosthetic group

light absorption spectra

186

name the 5 cytochromes

b, c1, c, a3, a

187

which cytochromes are the terminal members of the e- transport chain

a3 and a

188

a3 and a exist as a complex called

COMPLEX IV or cytochrome oxidase complex

189

the prosthetic groups of cytochromes contain how many 5 membered rings called _

4 five membered rings that contain nitrogen = porphyrin

190

the 4 nitrogen in the porphryn rings coordinate with

a central Fe ion (Fe2+ or Fe3+)

191

these porphyrins are also found in (2)

heme proteins hemoglobin and cytochrome P450

192

what are the 2 precursors to the formation of the porphyrin ring?

glycine and succinyl-CoA

193

amino acids that lose their amino groups are converted into __ and ultimately enter __

alpha keto acids
enter TCA cycle

194

pyruvic acid and oxaloacetic acid are both

keto acids (amino acids can enter here after losing their amino groups)

195

an alpha keto acid is similar to an amino acid except that it has a __ instead of the amino group bonded to its alpha carbon

oxygen

196

when proteins are broken down and used for energy most of this energy is derived from the oxidation of

keto acids = pyruvate, OAA and alph ketoglutarate

197

GABA) is made from which amino acid:
glutamate or glutamine?

glutamate (E) = acid
not glutamine (Q)

198

what amino acid can be synthesized from ribose-5-phosphate

histidine

199

what amino acid can be directly synthesized from 3 phosphoglycerate

serine

200

what amino acid can be directly synthesized from OAA

aspartate (D)

201

what amino acid can be synthesized directly form alpha ketoglutarate

glutamate (E)

202

the 4 amino acids that can be synthesized from pyruvate are

Alanine
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
P-VAIL

203

PEP and erythrose-4-P make

shikimate
(only in plants and bacteria)

204

shikimate is converted to

chorismate
(only in plants and bacteria)

205

chorismate converted to

trypsinogen, tyrosine, phenylalanine (only in plants and bacteria)

206

glycine and serine can be made from

serine

207

proline arginine and glutamine can be made from

glutamate

208

threonine, lysine, asparagine and methionine can be made from

aspartate (D)

209

the 2 small amino acids are

glycine and alanine

210

the 3 branched amino acids

valine leucine isoleucine

211

hydroxyl amino acids (2)

serine and threonine

212

aromatic amino acids (3)

tryptophan tyrosine phenylalanine

213

sulfur amino acids (2)

methionine cysteine

214

basic amino acids

HRK = lysine histidine arginine

215

imino acid?

proline

216

acidic amino acids?

aspartate (D)
asparagine (N)
glutamate (E)
glutamine (Q)

DE are negatively charged, NQ are neutral
HRK DE-NQ WAM V PIGFLY
HRK = basic + charged
DE = acidic negative charged
NQ = acidic neutral

WAM V PIGFLY non polar non charged

217

elastin has a high proportion of which 3 amino acids:

valine, phenylalanine, lysine
tryptophan, histidine, methionine
glycine, alanine and proline
threonine, cysteine, and glutamate

glycine, alanine and proline

think GAP = elastin
gylycine (31%0, alanine (22%), and proline 11%
1% of hydroxyproline

218

does elastin have any hydoxylysine?

none

219

like collagen, elastin contains ___ that are derived from ___

covalent crosslinks,
allysine

220

because both collagen and elastin have covalent crosslinks derived from allysine, they both have the enzyme

lysyl oxidase (LOX)

221

__ is required for the synthesis of elastin and collagen

lysyl oxidase (LOX)

222

the covalent crosslinks of elastin are similar to those of collagen except for __ which is present in elastin BUT NOT COLLAGEN

desmosine

223

1. desmosine is present in collagen/elastin?
2. lysyl oxidase (LOX) is present in collagen/elastin?

1. elastIN (look at desmosINe)
2. both

224

1. collegen forms fibers that are tough and have high __ strength.
2. elastin is CT protein with __ like properties

1. tensile
2. rubber

225

elastic fibers can be stretched to several times their normal length (it is the elastin that gives these fibers the capacity of returning to their original lengths after being stretched). these elastic fibers are found in

skin, ligaments and the walls of arteries.

226

the polypeptide subunit of elastin fibrils is

tropoelastin

227

the crosslinks in elastin involve __ and __

lysine and oxidized lysine residues (allysine) which are covalently linked to produce a desmosine cross link

228

where does the oxidation of lysine residues in both collagen and elastin occur?

extracellularly

229

oxidation of lysine residues in both collagen require what enzyme

lysyl oxidase

230

Lysyl oxidase requires what cofactor

copper

231

elastin is surrounded by

microfibrils

232

the most important microfibril protein fibrillin-1 is defective in ___ syndrome

Marfan syndrome

233

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the misfolding of the protein fibrillin-1. is known as a connective tissue disorder. Fibrillin-1 protein forms fibers in connective tissue.People with Marfan tend to be unusually tall, with long limbs and long, thin fingers. It is an autosomal ___ disorder,

dominant
meaning that people who inherit only one copy of the Marfan FBN1 gene from either parent will develop Marfan syndrome and be able to transmit it to their children

234

name the 3 amino acids that carry a positive charge and are basic

HRK
histidine, arginine, lysine

235

hydrophobic (non polar) amino acids repel aqueous and therefore are found in the interior/exterior of proteins

inside

236

hydrophilic (polar) amino acids tend to interact with aq environment and found on the _ surface of proteins or in the reactive centers of enzymes

exterior

237

the functions of amino acids in proteins are determined by the

covalent and noncovalent interactions

238

__ a.acids occupy little space. I proteins they are found in places where 2 poplypeptide chains have to come close together

glycine and alanine (small amino acids)

239

branched chain amino acids have hydrophobic/hydrophilic side chains

phobic (valine leucine and isoleucine)

240

the hydroxyl amino acids _ and _ form hydrogen bons with their hydroxyl group

serine and threonine

241

sulfur amino acids like _ and _

cysteine and methionine -hydrophobic. except cysteine has weak acid prperties

242

the aromatic amino acids: _(3) are hydrophobic although the side chains of _ and _ can form h bonds

tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine

tyrosine, tryptophan

243

which amino acids can form covalent bonds with carbs in glycoproteins and with phosphate in phosphoproteins

serine and methionine (sulfur)

244

the acidic amino acids (2) have side chains that are _ charged at pH 7

DE: glutamate and aspartate

245

which amino acid has its nitrogen tied into a ring

proline

246

what is the distinguishing factor in proteins

their amino acid sequence

247

the _ structure = seq of amino acids linked together by covalent peptide bonds

primary

248

the _ structure refers to the SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT of a portion of a polypeptide chain determined by the amino acids present (primary structure)

secondary

249

the most common types of 2ndary structure

alpha helix = coiled conformation of a peptide chain
beta pleated sheets - zigzag arrangement
beta hairpin turns (reverse turns)

250

the __ structure refers to the IRREGULAR folding of polypeptide chain, the overall 3D CONFORMATION of the polypeptide

teritary

251

the best method for determining the 3D structure of a protein is by

x-ray diffraction

252

the _structure refers to the spatial arrangement of SUBUNITS in a protein that consists of more than one polypeptide chain

quaternary

253

hemoglobin has _ structure

quaternary

254

antibody molecules have _ structure

quaternary

255

name 2 quaternary structures in the blood of mammals

hemoglobin
antibody molecules

256

patients with vitamin C deficiency form a collagen with insufficient:
hydroxylysine
hydroxyproline?

hydroxyproline

257

patients with scurvy (Vit C def) will have collagen with insufficient hydroxyproline because it

denatures spontaneously at room temp

258

__ is a cofactor for enzymes that catalyze carboxyl-group-transfer reactions and ATP-dependent carboxylation reactions

Biotin

259

In collagen synthesis:
1. vitamin C is required to hydroxylate _
2. copper is required to hydroxylate _

1. Vit C = proline
2. Cu2+ = lysine

260

mnemonic for collagen types

SCAB:
type 1 = skin. rhymes with dentIN, tendon, and Type ONE = bONE
type 2 - ct, carTWOlidge
type 3 arteries
type 4 basement membrane

261

where do we hydroxylate proline and lysine in collagen synthesis

in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

262

what is the most abundant amino acid in collagen

glycine

263

Up to 30% of the total protein mass of body
is

collagen

264

All types of collagen in our body are constructed from 3 __handed helical peptides twisted into a right-handed triple helix

left

265

which type of collagen found in dentin

type 1: (remember SCAB) = skin, dentIN, tendon, bone, cornea, ligament.

266

is collagen thicker or longer? heavy?

Collagen (Mr, 300 kda) is a rod-shaped molecule about 3000A long and only 15A thick.

267

each alpha chain of collagen has about _ # amino acids

1000 amino acids residues.

268

which of the following serves as a principal source of carbon for non essential amino acids
fats/water/carb/urea

carbs

269

10 of the nonessential amino acid skeletons can be derived from

glucose (glucogenic)
VAL HAS THREE MEN IN PHX TUSCON = essential glucogenic, LOVING LIFE = ketogenic, ALL OTHERS ARE NON ESSENTIAL

270

is tyrosine essential or non essential

non essential

271

tyrosine is synthesized by the _ of what amino acid

hydroxylation of the essential amino acid phenylalanine

272

although cysteine's carbon skeleton can be formed from carbs, it requires which amino acid to supply the sulfhydryl group

methionine

273

1. non-essential amino acids can be synthesized from the corresponding alpha-keto acids, an alpha amino acid (NH3+ donor), a specific transaminase enzyme and ___
2. the 3 non essential amino acids that can do this are

phyridoxal phosphate (the coenzyme form of vitamin B6)
alanine aspartate glutamate

274

all other nonessential amino acids besides alanine glutamate and aspartate are synthesized by

amidation (glutamin and asparagine)

275

amino acids are degraded into

CO2, water and urea

276

because ammonia is toxic it must be converted to non toxic

urea in urea cycle

277

the urea cycle is only present in the

liver

278

carbon skeletons of amino acids are channeled into

gluconeogenesis (glucogenic amino acids) or ketogenesis (ketogenic amino acids)

279

a patient with phenylketonuria PKU cannot drink soda because it contains:
a. tyrosine she can't metabolize
b. phenylalanine which she is unable to metabolize

she can't metabolize phenylalanine

PKU = phenylalanine build up

280

what supplement would you expect a patient with PKU to be taking:
tyrosine or phenylalanine

tyrosine

remember: phenylalanine ==> tyrosine (you add a hydroxyl group) = remember alphabetical order p makes t

281

phenylalanine is an essential amino acid needed for

optimal growth in infants and for nitrogen equilibrium in adults

282

hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acids have side chains that contain aliphatic groups and/or aromatic groups

hydrophobic

283

an aliphatic amino acid means

Aliphatic R groups are nonpolar and hydrophobic.

284

name the 3 aliphatic amino acids

valine leucine isoleucine

285

name the 3 aromatic amino acids

phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan

286

dopamine, the thyroid hormones (t3 and t4), melanin, NE, and Epinephrine are all synthesized from what amino acid

tyrosine
TMEND: thyroid, melanin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine

287

melanin is a natural substance that gives color (pigments) to the (3)

hair
skin
iris of eye

288

5-hydroxytryptamine aka

serotonin (5-HT)

289

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), melatonin, niacin, nicotinamide moiety of NAD+ and NADP+ are formed from the essential amino acid ___

tryptophan

tryp = SMNN

290

mnemonic for things synthesized from tyrosine and tryptophan

tyrosine = MTEND
tryptophan = SMNN

291

phenylalanine hydroxylase is defected in which syndrome

PKU

292

when you have more nitrogen output than input you have _ nitrogen balance

negative

293

negative nitrogen balance may be caused by

dietary lack of essential amino acids

294

tyrosinase is absent in

albinism

295

tyrosinase catalyze the synthesis of

melanin
tyrosine ==> melanin

296

do albinos have problems with epinephrine synthesis

no

297

In human blood, __ is the most abundant free amino acid

glutamine
(Q or Gln) ==> 2 amine groups