NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCE: GI System Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCE: GI System > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCE: GI System Deck (154):
1

the main distinction of the jejunum is the presence of prominent

pilcae circulares-aka valve of Kerckring

2

the main site of absorption is

SI

3

the intestinal villi are characteristic features of the

SI

4

the epithelium lining the lumen of the SI is made of what kind of cells

simple columnar with goblet cells

to remember: SImple columnar

5

the main function of _ in the SI is to increase the surface area available for absorption

microvilli

6

the intestinal villi consist of surface epithelia and underlying

lamina propria

7

the lamina propria of the SI is formed from

loose CT

8

the lamina propria has loose CT full of

BV's nerves large lymphatic vessels (site of lipid absorption)

9

intestinal glands open up in the SI bw the base of the villi. these glands are called

crypts of Lieberkuhn

10

crypts of Lieberkuhn secrete

enzymes: sucrose and maltase and enteropeptidase

11

Paneth cells are __ cells found at base of the intestinal glands

secretory cells with large acidophilic granules, secrete lysozymes = anti bacterial properties

12

the main distinguishing feature of the duodenum is the presence of

glands in the submucosa

13

Brunner's glands are found in the

duodenal submucosa

14

Brunner's glands secrete

alkaline secretions to counteract the effects of gastric acids that reach the duodenum and for pancreatic enzymes to function

15

the __ part of the SI is almost devoid of plicae circulares

ileum

16

large amounts of __ are found in the ileum's lamina propria

lymphatic tissue

17

what are the plicae circulares

The circular folds (valves of Kerckring) (also, plicae circulares

18

the large lymphatic tissues can be seen macroscopically as white patches aka __ occupied by _ cells

Peyer's patches, M cells

19

1. Peyer's patches found mostly in
2. The __ can be identified by Brunner's glands.
3. The___ has neither Brunner's glands nor Peyer's Patches.

1. ileum (end of SI)
2. duodenum
3. jejunum

20

Indicate part of SI:
1. Brunner's glands
2. Valves of Kerckring (plicae circulares)
3. Peyer's patches

1. duodenum = Brunner's glands
2. jejunum = Valves of Kerckring
3. ileum = Peyer's patches

J in jejunum is letter before K kerckring

brunner's = b looks like d (mirror image)

21

the site of vitamin B12 absorption is the

ileum

22

2 distinguishing ileum facts

site of vitamin B12 absorption and Peyer's patches

23

pt in ER with jaundice and intense pain in upper abdominal and bw the shoulder blades. the physician suspect choledocholithiasis caused by cholesterol stones formed in which organ that stores and concentrates the bile

gallbladder

24

the ___ lining is folded into rugae (similar to those in stomach)

gallbladder

25

when the intestine is empty of food, the _ constricts and bile is forced up the cystic duct to the gallbladder for storage

Oddi sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla = ampulla of vater

26

secretion of hormone _ after a fatty meal stimulates the gallbladder contraction and relaxation of Oddi sphincter and the bile mixes with chyme

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

27

the gallbladder does not contain a __ as do the stomach and both the large and small intestines

submucosa

28

the gallbladder receives blood from the

cystic artery (branch of the hepatic artery)

29

the gallbladder is innervated by

vagal fibers from the celiac plexus.

30

the smooth muscle coat of the _ consists of 3 bands called taeniae coli

large intestine (colon)

31

the large intestine consists of the

colon and rectum

32

the large intestine: name sections

cecum ==> ascending colon ==> hepatic flexure ==> transverse colon ==> flexure of transverse colon ==> descending colon ==> sigmoid colon ==> rectum (leads to anus)

33

the appendix is attached to the

cecum (colon)

34

the rectum is the second to last part of the GI tract and leads to the last part, the

anus

35

the beginning of large intestine is the

cecum

36

the vermiform appendix is narrow tube that extends down from cecum. it contains a large amount of

lymphoid tissue

37

because the appendix is a blind tract, it is frequently a site of

inflammation

38

the shortest part of the colon is the

ascending colon on the right posterior abdominal wall

39

the colon curves into the pelvis toward the midline as the

S shaped sigmoid colon

40

the rectum is straight and does not possess the ___ that is present in all the rest of the colon

taeniae coli

41

the rectum ends at the

anal canal (3-4cm) which opens to exterior thru the anus

42

the anal canal is surrounded by the

internal and external sphincter muscles

43

unlike the rest of the GI tract the __ muscles do not form a continuous layer around the large intestine

longitudinal

44

instead in the GI, 3 bands of longitudinal muscle called __ run the length of the colon

taeniae coli

45

contractions of longitudinal muscles gather the colon into bands called

haustra = giving the colon its " puckered" appearance

46

does the large intestine have folds or villi

no

47

the colon is characterized by many _ glands and lots of _ cells sometimes called glandular epithelium

tubular intestinal glands
goblet cells

48

is there a lot of lymphatic tissue in colon

yes bc lots of bacteria

49

the anal region unlike the rest of the large intestine has a series of

longitudinal folds

50

the anal epithelium is

stratified squamous

51

the glands found in submucosa of duodenum that secrete alkaline mucus to protect the walls of the mucosa

Brunner's glands

52

the duodenum measured about 12 inches and has a _ shape

C shape that encircles the pancreas

53

the duodenum lies where in respect to peritoneum

mostly retroperitoneal (behind). the exception is the first 2cm of the first part = ampulla/duodenal cap

54

duodenum receives blood from the

superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (branch of gastroduodenal artery) and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (branch of superior mesenteric)

55

the jejunum has a thick/thin wall

thick

56

the ileum has a thick or thin wall

thin

57

the _ nerve passes thru the celiac plexus

splanchnic

58

postganglionic sympathetic fibers innervating duodenum _ motility

slows

59

the _ nerve in PNS innervates small intestine

vagus nerve

60

at which level does the esophagus pierce the diaphragm?
T8/T10/T12/C6

T10

61

the esophagus starts at what level

C-6
esophaguS = C-Six

62

esophagus is _inches

10inches

63

esophagus lies _ to trachea and _ to vertebral column

dorsal (behind) to trachea and ventral to vertebral column

64

esophagus extends from the _ anterior to vertebral column, enters the mediastinum, leaves the thorax via the __ and joins the stomach

oropharynx (C-6)

esophageal hiatus (T10)

65

esophagogastric junction is

point where esophagus ends and stomach begins

66

cardiac orifice

the opening through which the abdominal part of the esophagus enters the cardiac portion of the stomach

67

the esophagus epithelia is __ and the stomach epithelia is

esophagus = stratified squamous
stomach = simple columnar

68

4 layers of esophagus wall from lumen outward?

mucosa , submucosa, muscularis, adventitia

69

the _ layer of esophagus wall contains the epithelium, lamina propria and glands

mucosa

70

the _ layer of esophagus wall contains the CT, BV and glands

submucosa

71

the _ layer of esophagus wall contains the CT and merges with CT of surrounding structures

adventitia

72

the esophagus is made of _ muscle in the proximal third

striated muscle

73

the esophagus is made of _ muscle in the middle third

smooth and striated

74

the esophagus is made of _ muscle in the distal third

smooth

75

which part of esophagus consists of only smooth muscle

distal

76

which part of esophagus consists of only striated muscle

proximal

77

which part of esophagus consists of both striated and smooth muscle

middle (both)

78

the esophagus receives blood from the (3)

inferior thyroid artery, branches of descending thoracic aorta, and left gastric artery

79

GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease and __ is the metaplasia associated with it

Barrett's esophagus

80

what happens in Barrett's esophagus

normal stratified squamous epithelium of esophagus changes to intestinal or gastric columnar epithelium

81

Gerd and Barretts esophagus is strongly associated with

esophageal adenocarcinoma

82

the esophagus receives PNS fibers from

esophageal branches of vagal nerve

83

the esophagus receives motor fiber from the

recurrent laryngeal braches of the vagus nerve and sympathetic innervation from the esophageal plexus of nerves

84

the lateral surface of the stomach is called the

greater curvature

85

the stomach lies _ to the diaphragm

inferior

86

stomach lies in what quadrant

LUQ of abdominal cavity

87

the medial surface of the stomach is called the

lesser curvature

88

the greater omentum layer of peritoneum is found along the _ of the stomach

greater curvature

89

4 main regions of stomach

cardia fundus body pylorus

90

3 layers of stomach smooth muscle?

outer longitudinal
middle circular
inner oblique (think inner is circular hole like O)

91

max capacity of stomach is _ liters

3-4

92

the stomach receives blood from all three branches of the

celiac artery (celiac trunk)

93

the greater curvature of the stomach receives blood supply from the

left gastroepiploic artery along top edge and right gastroepiploic artery along its lower edge

94

the upper portion of greater curvature of the stomach and fundus gets blood from

short gastric artery

95

the lesser curvature of stomach gets blood from

left gastric artery and right gastric artery

96

the cardiac region of stomach gets blood from

left gastric artery

97

the _ of the stomach has many gastric glands

mucosa

98

Parietal (oxynctic) cells are located in _ produce _

fundus and body = release HCl and intrinsic factor

99

Zymogenic (Chief) cells located in _ produce _

fundus and body - secrete pepsinogen

100

G cells located in _ produce _

entire stomach, produce gastrin

101

which does not supply blood to liver:
hepatic veins
hepatic portal vein
common hepatic artery
celiac trunk

hepatic veins

102

the heaviest and most active organ in the body

liver

103

the liver is attached to the diaphragm by the _ ligaments (3)

falciform
triangular
coronary ligaments

104

the liver is attached to the stomach by the

lesser omentum

105

the liver is attached to the duodenum by the

hepatoduodenal ligaments

106

the lower surface of the liver is the

visceral surface

107

the visceral liver is contact with the

esophagus, stomach duodenum hepatic flexure of colon gallbladder right kidney

108

porta hepatis

point where vessels and ducts enter and exit the liver (ventral surface)

109

the liver is divided into _ lobes

4: right, left, caudate, and quadrate lobes

110

the right lobe anatomically includes what lobes

caudate and quadrate lobes

111

although the caudate and quadrate lobes are anatomically part of the right lobe they function like the

left lobe

112

ligament teres separates the

right and left lobes of stomach from anterior view

113

the __ omentum is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the start of the duodenum

lesser

114

1.the jejunum has a thicker muscular wall (than ileum) for more

active peristalsis

115

the jejunum/ileum has a mucosal inner lining of greater diameter for absorption and more villi

jejunum

116

the absorption of carbs and proteins occurs in what part of SI

jejunum

117

the absorption of bile salts and vitamin B12 occurs in what part of SI

ileum
to remember think Intrinsic Factor starts with I ==> absorbs B12 and IF here in Ileum

118

the Ileum/jejunum has more mesenteric fat

ileum

119

the __ has more lymphoid tissue, more goblet cells, more mesenteric fat, and a more complex blood supply

ileum

120

Valves of Kerckring

permanent folds aka plicae circulares = most prominent in jejunum.

121

Valves of Kerckring can be seen macroscopically and consist of _ and _

mucosa and submucosa

122

the stomach and the small intestine cells are both

simple columnar

123

1. stratified squamous epithelia is in the
2. simple columnar epithelia is in

1. esophagus and anus
2. stomach and SI = think SI = SImple columnar and think stomach starts with S = same thing. colon (everything from stomach down except anus)

124

peristalsis for what organ is controlled by taeniae coli

colon (large intestine)

125

major function of colon is

removal of WATER from chime entering it (absorption of water)

126

1. does the SI secrete enzymes into its lumen?
2. does the colon secrete enzymes into its lumen?

1. yes
2. NO!

127

crypt of Lieberkühn found in? they are

intestines (both small and large)
glands

128

the epithelium of the colon lacks/has villi

lacks

129

the _ nerve supplies PNS fibers to the ascending and transverse colon

vagus

130

the _ nerve supplies PNS fibers to the descending and sigmoid colon and rectum and anus

pelvic splanchic nerves

131

Hirschsprung's disease =

congenital disease caused by the absence of the MYENTERIC PLEXUS. = leads to decreased PNS activity = decreased motility and obstruction of the intestine

132

which cells in the crypt of Lieberkühn secrete antibacterial enzyme that maintains the GI barrier

paneth cells

133

brush border is in _ intestine

small

134

the intestinal glands aka

crypt of Lieberkühn

135

Paneth cells are specialized secretory epithelial cells located at the base of the intestinal crypts. they are most commonly found in __ part of SI

ileum

136

goblet cells secrete mucous and are abundant in the

ileum

137

enteroendrocrine cells secrete

enterogastrones (secretin and CCK) into blood stream

138

enteroendrocrine cells are abundant in the

duodenum

139

the pancreas lies in front or behind the stomach

behind

140

pancreas is in front or behind the aorta and inferior vena cava

front

141

the tail of the pancreas meets the _ on the _ side of the abdomen

spleen.
left

142

patients with cancer of which part of the pancreas usually present with jaundice and why

head bc blocks the bile duct

143

the exocrine portion of the pancreas is formed by secretory cells surrounding the

acini sacs which produce the pancreatic juices into intestine

144

the endocrine portion of pancreas is the

islets

145

endocrine portion of pancreas alpha cells secrete

glucagon

146

endocrine portion of pancreas beta cells secrete

insulin

147

endocrine portion of pancreas delta cells secrete

somatostatin

148

pancreas gamma cells secrete

polypeptides

149

exocrine means secreted thru

a duct

150

pancreas secretes into

duodenum

151

acinar cells produce enzymes that digest

proteins, carbs and fats

152

CCK is produced in the

duodenum

153

which hormone regulates pancreatic juice secretion

CCK

154

which provides PNS stimulation to the sigmoid colon:
vagus nerve/phrenic nerve/T1-L2/S2-S4

S2-S4