NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Muscle Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Muscle > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Muscle Deck (301):
1

the neck is divided into triangles: the two most prominent are formed as the sternocleidomastoid crosses the neck to form the _ and _ triangles

anterior and posterior

2

which muscle assists in opening the pharyngeal orifice of the auditory tube during swallowing
a. sylopharyngues
b. palatopharyngues
c. salpingopharyngeus

salpingopharyngeus

3

the musculature of the pharynx is composed of entirely voluntary or involuntary muscles

voluntary

4

where is the ONLY PLACE in alimentary tract that a layer of longitudinal muscles is contained within a layer of circular muscles

pharynx

5

the _ layer of the pharynx includes the superior, middle, and inferior pharyngeal constrictors.

external circular

6

the _ layer of the pharynx includes the palatopharyngeus, stylopharyngeus, and the salpingopharyngeus

internal longitudinal

7

all of the longitudinal muscles of the pharynx are innervated by the _ nerve except the stylopharyngues which is innervated by the _ nerve

vagus

glossopharyngeal (IX)

8

the __ is a muscle in the head that stretches between the temporal styloid process and the pharynx.

stylopharyngeus

9

the origin of the stylopharyngeus is the _ and the insertion is the _

O: styloid process of temporal bone
I: lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls

10

The palatopharyngeus muscle is a small muscle located

in the roof of the mouth.

11

Origin and Insertion of palatopharyngeus muscle

O: posterior border of hard palate and from the palatine aponeurosis
I: laryngopharynx and thyroid cartilage

12

action of stylopharyngeus

muscle elevates the larynx and pharynx during swallowing

13

action of palatopharyngeus muscle

pulls pharynx wall up. acting together they pull the palatopharyngeal arches towards the midline

14

Salpingopharyngeus muscle Origin and Insertion

O: cartilage auditory (Eustachian) tube
I: palatopharyngues muscle

15

Action Salpingopharyngeus muscle

elevate pharynx and open pharyngeal orifice of auditory tube during swallowing

16

which contains thick myosin only:
H zone/I band/A band/all of them

H zone has only thick filaments

17

the striated appearance of muscle has dark and light bands. which band represents each

I band is light band = only actin
A band is dark = both myosin and actin

18

in the center of the I band is the

z line = dark line

19

Only the _ change lengths in muscle contraction

H zone and I band

20

the most superficially located and strongest muscle of mastication is the

masseter

21

Origin and insertion of masseter

originates from the lower border and medial surface of the zygomatic arch. run down and back to attach to the lateral aspect of the ramus of the mandible.

22

the strongest muscle of mastication

masseter

23

in people with sever clenching, the masseter will be

enlarged

24

the masseter forms a sling (masseteric sling) with what muscle

medial pterygoid

25

medial pterygoid has 2 head. the bulk of the muscle arises as a _ head

deep

26

the deep head of the medial pterygoid muscle arises from the

medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate (sphenoid bone)

27

the smaller superficial head of the medial pterygoid muscle arises from the

maxillary tuberosity and pyramidal process of the palatine bone

28

the medial pterygoid muscle inserts on the

medial angle of the ramus (where the masseter inserts)

29

which nerve is located directly on the lateral surface of the medial pterygoid muscle

lingual nerve

30

which part of the temporalis muscle helps the medial pterygoid and masseter muscles elevate the mandible during jaw closing (biting and chewing)

anterior

31

the superior origin of the lateral pterygoid muscle is from the infratemporal crest of the _

greater wing of sphenoid

32

the inferior origin of the lateral pterygoid is from the

lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid

33

both heads of the lateral pterygoid insert into at the

articular disc of TMJ and neck of mandibular condyle

34

the _ pterygoid originate from the medial surface of sphenoid's lateral plate, and the _ from the medial surface of the lateral plate

medial pterygoid
inferior lateral pterygoid

35

the superficial head of the lateral pterygoid originates from

sphenoid greater wing

36

the mandible is _ by the action of BOTH LATERAL PTERYGOID muscles

protruded

37

one lateral pterygoid muscle causes _ deviation

lateral deviation. shifts mandible to the opposite side

38

all muscles of mastication are innervated by the _

mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (V3)

39

the anterior and posterior pillars of the fauces enclose which area of lymphoid tissue:
a. lingual tonsils
b. pharyngeal tonsils
c. palatine tonsils
d. peyer's patches

c. palatine tonsils

40

transverse ridges on the palate called palatal rugae are located along the mucous membrane of the __ palate where they serve as friction bands against which the tongue is placed during _

hard
swallowing

41

the _ is suspended from the soft palate

uvula

42

when we swallow what prevents food from entering our nasal cavity

uvula and soft palate are drawn upward, closing the nasopharynx

43

the _ is a narrow passage from the mouth to the pharynx, situated bw the soft palate and the base of the tongue

fauces aka isthmus of the fauces

44

2 arches formed by the anterior and posterior folds of mucous membranes of the palate are the

palatoGLOSSAL arch aka glossopalatine arch, anterior pillar of fauces or anterior faucial pillar and the palatoPHARYNGEAL arch (aka pharyngopalatine arch, posterior pillar of fauces or posterior faucial pillar)

45

the _ arch in the palate is larger and projects farther down towards the midline than the anterior. It runs downward, lateral and backward to the side of the pharynx and is formed by the projection of the palatopharyngeus muscle

palatopharyngeal arch

46

the _ arch of the palate is on either side runs down, lateral and forward to the side of the base of the tongue and is formed by the projection of the palatoglossus muscle

palatoglossal arch

47

the palatal salivary glands are found under the mucous membrane of the

hard and soft palate

48

the palatal salivary gland are mostly _ type and contribute to the oral fluid

mucous

49

bifid uvula results from the failure of complete fusion of the

palatine shelves

50

a unilateral damaged pharyngeal plexus of nerves causes the uvula to deviate to the same side/opposite side

opposite
bc uvula muscle shortens the uvula when it contracts and the muscle on the intact side pulls the uvula toward that side

51

which 2 muscles is innervated by the axillary nerve:
pectoralis major/minor
teres major
teres minor
deltoid
latissimus dorsi

deltoid
teres minor

52

pectoralis major action

adduct the arm and rotates it medially

53

pectoralis minor action

pulls the shoulder down and forward

54

latissimus dorsi action

extends and adducts and medially rotates arm

55

deltoid action

abducts the upper limb at shoulder joint

56

teres major action

medially rotates and adducts the arm

57

the axillary nerve is mixed T/F

true

58

the motor branches of the axillary nerve innervate the _ and _ muscles

deltoid and teres minor

59

nerve supply to deltoid

axillary nerve (C5 and C6)

60

nerve supply to teres major?

lower subscapular nerve from posterior cord of brachial plexus

61

the muscles of the rotator cuff

suprspinatus
infraspinatus
teres minor
subscapularis

62

all of the following muscles are innervated by the same nerve that innervates the muscles of mastication EXCEPT one, which one?
a. mylohyoid
b. tensor tympani
c. tensor veli palatini
d. anterior belly of digastric
e. posterior belly of digastric

posterior belly of digastric (CN VII)

63

all muscles of mastication receive blood from the

pterygoid portion of maxillary artery

64

the _ branch of the maxillary artery supplies the masseter

messeteric

65

the _ branch of the maxillary artery supplies the temporalis

deep temporal branch

66

the _ branch of the maxillary artery supplies the medial and lateral pterygoids

pterygoid branch

67

1. Inferior oblique muscle of eye action ___ eye rotation.
2. Superior oblique __ eye rotation.

Eye rotation by oblique muscles "I Love S&M":
1. inferior = lateral
2.superior = medial

68

4 pairs of muscles in mandible make chewing possible. they can be grouped into 2 different functions. the masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoids _ the mandible to _

elevate
close the jaw

69

the second group of muscles is the lateral pterygoids that do what

depress the mandible, protrude the mandible and translate the jaw from side to side

70

all of the muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve come from which branchial arch

1st

71

_ muscles of the tongue anchor the tongue to the skeleton

extrinsic

72

which extrinsic muscle of the tongue controls protrusion
genioglossus/styloglossus/hyoglossus/palatoglossus

genioglossus

73

which extrinsic muscle of the tongue controls retraction:
genioglossus/styloglossus/hyoglossus/palatoglossus

styloglossus

74

which extrinsic muscle of the tongue controls depression
genioglossus/styloglossus/hyoglossus/palatoglossus

hyoglossus and genioglossus

75

which extrinsic muscle of the tongue controls lateral movement and elevates the tongue
genioglossus/styloglossus/hyoglossus/palatoglossus

palatoglossus

76

mnemonic to remember actions of extrinsic tongue muscles

when I get high I my nervous system gets depress: Hyoglossus depresses
when im depressed I wish a genie would protrude: genioglossus = depress and protrude.
styles go back retro = retract = styloglossus
palatoglossus = your palate spreads laterally = lateral and the tongue elevates to touch the palate

77

__ muscles of the tongue lie entirely within the tongue

intrinsic

78

the three types of intrinsic tongue muscles

transverse, longitudinal and vertical

79

all of the muscles of the tongue BOTH INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC (except palatoglossus) are innervated by the

hypoglossal nerve (XII)

80

the palatoglossus is innervated by the

CN X pharyngeal plexus

81

the palatoglossus arises from the _ and inserts into the

soft palate into the tongue

82

the _ artery supplies the tongue. it is a branch of the _ artery

lingual artery,
external carotid

83

the deep lingual artery of the external carotid artery supplies which part of the tongue

tip

84

the veins of the tongue drain into the

internal jugular vein

85

1. the _ nerve supplies sensory input to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
2. the _ nerve supplies sensory input to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

1. V
2. IX

86

the muscles of the tongue are derived from myoblasts that migrate from the _

myotomes of occipital somites

87

CT, lymphatics, and BV's of the tongue are derived from the

pharyngeal arch mesenchyme

88

rhomboid major and minor innervation

dorsal scapular nerve (C5)

89

levator scapulae innervation

third and fourth cervical nerves and from the dorsal scapular nerve (C5)

90

a girl is crying but only from her right eye. the half of her face is paralyzed. there is trauma to her buccal mucosa where her teeth have bitten her cheek. which muscle is responsible for keeping mucous membranes out of the plane of occlusion and food out of the buccal vestibule?
pterygoids/buccinator/masseter/temporalis

buccinator

91

buccinators is one of the muscles of the cheeks and lips. it has a complex origin from

maxilla along alveolar process bw 1st and 3rd molars
mandible along the oblique line of the bw 1st and 3rd molars
pterygomandibular raphe

92

the first muscle pierced when giving a mandibular IAN block is the

buccinator

93

the buccinator inserts into the _ at the angle of the mouth

orbicularis oris

94

the buccinator is traversed by the

parotid duct

95

is the buccinator a primary muscle of mastication

no

96

does the buccinator move the jaw

no

97

the buccinator is innervated by

CN VII (this explains why the buccinator does not move the jaw)

98

the platysma is innervated by

CN VII

99

platysma is mostly located in the

neck but bc of its common innervation it can be considered a muscle of facial expression

100

facial nerve innervates the facial expression muscles and what other muscles

platysma
posterior digastric
stapedius
stylohyoid

101

the buccinator blood supply

facial and maxillary artery

102

food accumulating in the vestibule may suggest the _ is not working properly

buccinator

103

if a needle enters the parotid gland during an IA injection and solution is deposited in the gland, the most likely result is

paralysis of the buccinator muscle

104

damage to the facial nerve or its branches may cause weakness or paralysis of facial muscles called

Bell's palsy

105

parotid duct travels over the _ muscle and penetrates the _ muscle to enter the oral cavity. it opens into the mouth opposite to the _

masseter
buccinator
max 2nd molar

106

all elevate the mandible except:
a. masseter
b. m. pterygoid
c. mylohyoid
d. temporalis

mylohyoid

107

temporalis originates from the

entire temporal fossa

108

the temporalis passes medialy (downward and deep) to the zygomatic arch before inserting on the

coronoid process of the mandible

109

the primary function of the _ portion of the temporalis is to elevate the mandible

anterior

110

the primary function of the posterior fibers (portion) of the temporalis is to

retract the jaw and maintain the resting position of closure of the mouth

111

the accessory depressor muscles (open mouth) of the mandible all have the _ bone in common as an attachment site

hyoid

112

suprahyoid depressors of the mandible are

mylohyoid geniohyoid digastric muscles

113

the paired mylohyoid muscles are attached to the mylohyoid lines on the internal surface of the mandible. the R and L mylohyoid muscles join in the midline to form the

floor of the mouth. the posterior end of this midline junction attaches to the hyoid bone

114

the 2 geniohyoid muscles are found next to each other on each side of the midline, directly on top of __

the mylohyoid muscles.

to remember, think of the alphabet, g comes before m, so g is on top of m

115

the geniohyoid attachments are

genial tubercle and the hyoid bone

116

digastric muscle bundle is divided into an anterior belly and a posterior belly by a short tendon. the intermediate tendon passes thru a loop of fibrous tissue secured to the body of the hyoid bone. the end of the anterior belly attaches to the digastric fovea and the posterior belly fastens onto the

mastoid process of the temporal bone

117

the action of which muscle would be affected if the hamulus is fractured

tensor veli palatini

118

the palatoglossus muscle pulls the root of the tongue _ and _ causing the oropharyngeal isthmus bw the oral pharynx and mouth to narrow

upward and backward

119

palatopharyngeus pull s the walls of the pharynx

up

120

levator veli palatini action

raises the soft palate

121

tensor veli palatini action

tighten the soft palate

122

what 2 muscles prevent food from entering nasal cavity by elevating the soft palate

tensor veli palatini
levator veli palatini

123

uvular muscle raises and shortens the uvula to help

seal the oropharynx from the nasopharynx

124

all paired skeletal muscles of the soft palate are innervated by the pharyngeal plexus except for

tensor veli palatini = innervated by nerve to the medial pterygoid = branch of V3

125

the anterior zone of the palatal submucosa contains

fat

126

the posterior zone of the palatal mucosa contains

mucous glands

127

the salivary glands of the _ are located in the posterolateral zone

hard palate

128

which of the following travels w the esophagus thru the esophageal opening in the diaphragm:
a. aorta
b. thoracic duct
c. azygos vein
d. vagus nerve
e. right phrenic nerve

vagus nerve

remember that the vAGUS travels with the esophAGUS

129

the 3 larges structures that pass thru both abdomen and thorax

esophagus, aorta, inferior vena cava

130

the diaphragm is higher on which side

right: allows liver to be tucked under the bottom edge of the right ribcage

131

the esophagus passes thru the diaphragm while the _, _, and _ pass posterior to the esophagus

azygos, thoracic duct, aorta

132

the three openings in the diaphragm

aortic
esophageal
caval

133

the aortic opening transmits the

thoracic duct, azygous vein, and aorta

134

the esophageal opening in diaphragm transmits the

esophagus and right and left vagus nerves

135

the caval opening in diaphragm transmits the

inferior vena cava and the right phrenic nerve

136

external, internal, and innermost intercostals, subcostal and transversus thoracis are all _ muscles

respiratory

137

all muscles of inspiration are innervated by __ nerves, while the diaphragm is innervated by the _ nerve

intercostal nerves
phrenic nerve

138

the phrenic nerve travels thru the thorax bw the pericardium and the pleura in the _ mediastinum

middle

139

which costal muscle can typically cross more than one intercostal space?

subcostal

140

there are 11 external intercostal muscles bw the ribs on each side. they pass which way

from rib to rib-anteriorly and inferiorly (hands in pocket direction) at right angles to the fibers of the internal and innermost muscles.

141

__ intercostal muscles raise the ribs during inspiration

external

142

__ intercostal muscles depress the ribs during exhalation

internal

143

mnemonic to remember intercostal muscles

Subcostal + INternal intecostal muscles = opposite of INspire = expiration = therefore ribs have to depress.
Think SUB IN

Transverse thoracic and EXternal intercostal muscles = opposite of EXpire = inspiration = therefore raise the ribs so you can enlarge the thorax

think TRANS EX

144

internal intercostal muscles run posterior and inferior while external run

anterior and inferior

145

innermost intercostals run in same direction as internal but separated from them by

nerves and vessles

146

the subcostal muscles originate on the inner surface of each rib near the costal angle and insert on the inner surface of the first, second, or 3rd rib below.action?

raise the ribs during inspiration (same as external muscles)

147

transverse thoracic muscles attach the posterior of the lower sternum to the costal cartilages 2-6. action?

same as internal: pull ribs down during expiration

148

the main muscle of inspiration

diaphragm

149

the main muscle of inspiration is innervated by the

phrenic nerve

150

the intercostal muscles are mainly active during

forced respiration

151

during quiet breathing the intercostal muscles do not produce

movement. they increase tonus allowing the thoracic wall to remain rigid

152

the intercostal muscles are innervated by their

corresponding intercostal nerves

153

globular actin (G-actin) molecules are arranged into double helical chains called

fibrous actin (F actin)

154

tropomyosin lie on surface of _ actin

F

155

calcium binds to

troponin C = unlocks the tropomyosin from actin

156

troponin is attached to

tropomyosin

157

myosin has 2 components:
light meromyosin (LMM) and heavy meromyosin (HMM).
1. ___ rod like backbone of myosin filaments
2. ___ shorter globular lateral cross bridges that link to the binding sites on actin molecules during contraction

1. LMM
2. HMM (think H looks like a link)

158

the right and left rectus abdominis muscles are entirely independent, being separated by a connective structure called the

linea alba

159

rectus abdominis muscles innervation

lower 6 thoracic nerves

160

rectus abdominis muscles action

compresses abdomen flexes vertebral column, accessory muscle of expiration

161

linea alba

tendinous raphe that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans from xiphoid to pubic symphysis. separates L and R rectus abdomonis muscles. formed by fusion of aponeuroses of abdominal muscles

162

psoas major and minor, quadratus lumborum and iliacus are _ muscles

posterior abdominal muscles

163

the spermatic cord (round ligament of uterus) passes under the lower border of the

internal oblique

164

all are located bw the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors except one:
stylopharyngeus muscle
glossopharyngeal nerve
stylohyoid ligament
recurrent laryngeal nerve

recurrent laryngeal nerve
located inferior to the inferior laryngeal constrictor

165

the _ constrictor of the pharynx constricts the upper pharynx

superior

166

the _ constrictor of the pharynx constricts the lower pharynx

middle

167

the _ constrictor of the pharynx constricts the lower pharynx

inferior

168

ALL of the constrictors of the pharynx insert into the

median pharyngeal raphe

169

the inferior constrictor of the pharynx origin

cricoid and thyroid cartilages

170

the middle constrictor of the pharynx origin

hyoid and stylohyoid ligament

171

the superior constrictor of the pharynx origin

pterygomandibular raphe and medial pterygoid plate

172

all of the circular (constrictor) muscles of the pharynx are innervated by the

pharyngeal plexus from vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, and sympathetic branch of superior cervical ganglion

173

the sylopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus and salpingopharyngeus are all _ muscles of pharynx

longitudinal

(remember constrictors are circular)

174

below the inferior constrictor you find

recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve

175

between the middle and inferior constrictors you find

superior laryngeal artery and internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve

176

above the superior pharyngeal constrictor you find

auditory tube
levator palatini muscle
ascending palatine artery

177

between the superior and middle constrictors you find

stylopharyngeus muscle stylohyoid ligament
glossopharyngeal muscle

178

the CT layer surrounding each individual muscle fiber is called the

endomysium

179

the _ is CT that envelopes the ENTIRE SKELETAL MUSCLE

epimysium

180

the _ is a continuation of the epimysium fascia, dividing the interior of the muscle into bundles of muscle cells

perimysium

181

the bundle of cells surrounded by each perimysium is called a

fasciculus

182

peristalsis is produced by which type of muscle tissue?
smooth/striated/skeletal/cardiac

smooth muscle tissue

183

tunica means

walls

184

smooth muscle tissue is particulary prevalent in the tunica of

hollow internal organse

185

__muscle fibers are ELONGATED and SPINDLE SHAPED with a SINGLE NUCLEUS

smooth
=lack transverse striations

186

smooth muscles are responsible for _ movement of internal organs

involuntary

187

single unit/multi unit smooth muscle have numerous gap junctions (electrical synapses) and contract WITHOUT NERVE signals

single unit

188

single unit/multi unit smooth muscle lack gap junctions and are autonomically innervated

multi unit

ex. ciliary muscle and smooth muscle of iris, ductus deferens and arteries

189

a surgeon accidentally transects a nerve. patient presents with hoarseness and difficulty breathing. loss of sensation below vocal folds and loss of motor innervation to al of the intrinsic muscles of larynx except the cricothyroid muscle. which nerve was cut

recurrent laryngeal nerve

190

recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all intrinsic muscles except the

cricothyroid

191

the cricothyroid muscle is supplied by the _

external branch of superior laryngeal nerve

192

sensation _ the vocal folds is supplied by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve

above

193

sensation _ the vocal cords is supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve

below

194

the _ laryngeal nerve plays an important role in the cough reflex

internal

195

the muscle that forms the bulk of the anterior axillary fold is the

pectoralis major

196

all infrahyoid muscles are innervated by the ANSA CERVICALIS (C1, C2 and C3) except one:

sternohyoid
sternothyroid
thryohyoid
omohyoid

thryohyoid
= supplied by C1 via the hypoglossal nerve

197

which is not a characteristic of cardiac muscle
a. multinuclear
b. intercalated discs
c. gap junctions
d. desmosomes

a. multinuclear

198

is the heart a true syncytium or functional syncytium

functional

true means the cells are fused together sharing same plasma membrane = skeletal muscles

199

myofilaments

contractile units of actin and myosin

200

within intercalated discs ___ attach one cell to another, while _ allow electrical impulses to spread from cell to cell

desmosomes

gap junctions

201

cardiac muscle fibers contract w/o any nerve stimulus. T/F

true

202

cardiac muscle fibers increase their size in response to increasing demand. this is called

compensatory hypertrophy

203

which muscle types cannot mitotically divide

skeletal and cardiac cannot. certain smooth muscle fibers can under hormonal influences ex. during pregnancy the smooth muscle fibers of the myometrium of the uterus increase in length and new cells are formed

remember mnemonic: CNS: cardiac, neurons, and skeletal muscle

204

dental student performing IA block passes the ramus and the patient complains he cant move his face. what gland did the dental student penetrate

parotid gland

205

if the tip of the needle passes POSTERIORLY at the level of the mandibular foramen the needle will penetrate the

parotid gland = facial paralysis of facial expression muscles

206

if the needle is resting WELL BELOW the mandibular foramen you will penetrate the

medial pterygoid muscle

207

correct needle placement in IA block should go into

pterygomandibular space

208

where is the pterygomandibular space

between the medial pterygoid muscle and the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible. T

209

borders of pterygomandibular space

the posterior border of the buccal space anteriorly
the parotid gland posteriorly
the lateral pterygoid muscle superiorly
the inferior border of the mandible (lingual surface) inferiorly
the medial pterygoid muscle medially (the space is superficial to medial pterygoid)
the ascending ramus of the mandible laterally (the space is deep to the ramus of the mandible

210

biceps brachii is the major _ of the elbow joint and _ of the forearm

flexor of elbow
and supinator of the forearm

211

coracobrachialis action

flexes arm

212

triceps brachii action

extends the forearm

213

triceps brachii innervation

radial nerve

214

all anterior arm muscles innervated by

musculocutaneous nerve

215

the _ nerve is most commonly injured in a mid-humeral shaft fracture bc this nerve runs in the radial groove of the humerus.

radial

216

the _ participates in flexion at both the glenohumeral and humeroulnar joints

biceps brachii

217

which muscle originates from the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate
superficial/deep head of medial pterygoid

deep medial pterygoid

218

a patient was hit with uppercut and heard a crack in his jaw joint. A CT scan shows a condylar fracture with damage to the articular disc. when the patient attempts protrusion, the mandible deviates to the left. which muscle is unable to contract?

left lateral pterygoid

when one muscle is not functioning, the contralateral muscle's action is unopposed. so the left side is not pushing the mandible to the right, so the right pterygoid can push the mandible to the left.

219

the _ acting together are the prime protractors (protruders) of the mandible

lateral pterygoids

220

in addition to protrusion the lateral pterygoids move the mandible

from side to side.

221

for right lateral excursive movements, the _ muscle is the prime mover and vice versa

left lateral

222

with what kind of injury may muscle contractions result in displacement of the injured condyle into the infratemporal fossa?

condylar neck fracture,

223

a 46 year old woman comes into office for cleaning. her tongue is swollen fiery red and smooth. she has loss of appetite and feels fatigues. she has iron deficiency anemia and glossitis. in glossitis, the smooth nature is caused by a lack of which papillae that are the most numerous and cover the anterior 2/3 of the tongue

filiform

224

filiform papillae are most numerous and arranged in a V shaped rows paralleling the sulcus terminalis in the anterior 2/3 of tongue. what else is unique about them (2)?

no taste buds and increased keratinization

serve to grip food

225

mushroom shaped knob liked papillae found on TIP AND SIDES OF TONGUE

fungiform

226

the largest and fewest (7-12) papillae

circumvallate (vallate)

227

which papillae are associated with the ducts of Von Ebner's glands

circumvallate

228

cicumvallate are innervated by

IX glossopharyngeal (makes sense bc posterior 1/3)

229

fungiform are innervated by

facial nerve (makes sense since they are in the anterior 2/3)

230

receptors for taste buds are associated with peg like projections on the tongue mucosa called

lingual papillae

231

a single taste bud contains 50-100 taste cells representing which taste sensations?

ALL 5

232

all tastes are detected on all parts of the tongue, bit each region of the tongue varies in the level of sensitivity to the taste: the tip of tongue is sensitive to

sweet

233

the sides of the tongue is sensitive to

sour

234

the tip and sides of the tongue is sensitive to

salty

235

the back of the tongue is sensitive to

bitter

236

the back and sides of the tongue sensitive to

umami

237

the tip is sensitive to both

sweet and salty

238

the sides of the tongue are sensitive to

sour salty and umami

239

the back of the tongue is sensitive to

bitter and umami

240

where are most of the receptors for the taste nerve fibers

roof and tongue of mouth in CN VII, CN IX, and CN X

241

beneath the tongue you find openings of ducts to which glands

submandibular and sublingual

242

the _ forms the midline ridge on the lower surface of the tongue

frenulum

243

the paired deep arteries and veins lie on each side of the

frenulum

244

Plummer-Vinson syndrome presents as a triad of __ due to esophageal webs, glossitis and iron deficiency anemia. most often in?

dysphagia
postmenopausal women

245

which of the following muscles cells do not contain troponin:
skeletal, smooth, cardiac

smooth

246

smooth muscles have how many nuclei located where?

1
in the WIDEST PART of each fiber

247

what shape are smooth muscle fibers

spindle shaped (fusiform)

248

Do smooth muscles have T tubules?

NO. only cardiac and skeletal = striated muscles have t tubules

249

the sarcoplasmic reticulum of smooth muscle is

poorly developed

250

smooth muscle contraction is _fast/slow

slow and involuntary

251

calmodulin, caldesmon and calponin are proteins found in which muscle type

smooth

252

in smooth muscle which is the regulatory protein calmodulin, caldesmon and calponin

calmodulin

253

the ONLY type of muscle that has multinucleated

skeletal

254

the nuclei of skeletal muscle (multinuclei) are located where in the cell

on the periphery

255

skeletal muscle has _ sarcoplasmic reticulum

very well developed and voluntary control

256

the contractile element in skeletal muscle

myofibrils (actin and myosin)

257

Cardiac muscle cells contain _ placed nuclei

centrally (think c for cardiac and centrally)

258

cardiac cells also have intercalated discs with

desmosomes and gap junctions in them

259

what cell in skeletal muscle is responsible for regeneration

satellite

260

major regulatory proteins in muscle tissue are

troponin and tropomyosin

261

cytoplasm of muscle cells are called

sarcoplasm

262

the sarcoplasm of each skeletal muscle fiber contains many parallel

myofibrils

263

when muscles hypertrophy what increases in size

myofibrils (actin and myosin)

264

In cardiac and skeletal muscles, calcium binds to

troponin C

265

in smooth muscle calcium binds to

calmodulin

266

which muscle elevates and ABducts the eyeball?

inferior oblique

267

action of medial rectus extraocular muscle? innervation?

ADDucts
CNIII

268

action of lateral rectus extraocular muscle? innervation?

ABducts
CN VI

269

action of inferior oblique extraocular muscle? innervation?

elevates, ABducts and laterally rotates.
CNIII

270

action of superior oblique extraocular muscle? innervation?

elevates, ADDucts and medially rotates

271

mnemonics to remember oblique eye muscles

all the oBliques aBduct
if superior oblique -does opposite: depresses.
if inferior oblique does opposite: elevates.
I Love S & M = Inferior = lateral rotation
Superior = Medial rotation

272

mnemonics to remember superior and inferior rectus eye muscles

all rectus ADDucts except lateral rectus. superior elevates, inferior depress. and same I Love S & M for rotation

273

Oblique eye muscles always

aBduct and do the opposite of what you think.

274

All superior and inferior eye muscle rule?

I LOVE S & M rotation

275

Lateral and medial eye muscle rule?

normal. medial adduct, lateral abducts

276

all extraocular eye muscle blood?

ophthalmic artery

277

all infrahyoid muscles innervation (except one)

all are Ansa cervicalis
except thyrohyoid = C1 via CNXII

278

all soft palate are supplied by _ (except one)

pharyngeal plexus IX and X
except tensor veli palatini = nerve to medial pterygoid (V3)

279

all tongue muscles supplied by _ except _

hypoglossal (XII)
except palatoglossus (X)

280

all larynx supplied by _ except_

recurrent laryngeal
except cricothyroid = external branch of superior laryngeal nerve

281

all pharynx is supplied by __ except

pharyngeal plexus IX and X
except stylopharangeus = CNIX

282

both the soft palate and pharynx supplied by

pharyngeal plexus IX and X

283

does smooth muscle or cardiac attach to the skeleton

no
only skeletal muscle does

284

the only muscle type that is NOT striated

smooth
(cardiac and skeletal are)

285

sarcoplasmic reticulum is extensive in _ muscle

skeletal

286

sarcoplasmic reticulum is intermediate in _ muscle

cardiac

287

sarcoplasmic reticulum is limited in _ muscle

smooth

288

_ muscle fiber shape is cylindrical

skeletal muscle

289

_ muscle fiber shape is branched

cardiac

290

_ muscle fiber shape is fusiform

smooth muscle

291

the only muscle type that does not have a functional syncytium

skeletal
(smooth and cardiac does)

292

the only muscle type that is multinucleated

skeletal
(smooth and cardiac have single nucleus)

293

the only muscle type with no sarcomeres

smooth
(skeletal and cardiac have them)

294

the only muscle type that has no z lines, instead the actin is attached to dense bodies

smooth muscle

295

the only muscle type that binds calcium via calmodulin

smooth muscle
(others are troponin C)

296

the only muscle type that has an all or none response to stimulus

cardiac

297

the only muscle type that has responds to stimulus by graded recruitment

skeletal muscle

298

the only muscle type that responds to stimulus by changes in tone or rhythm

smooth muscle

299

the only muscle that does not have electrical coupling bw fibers

skeletal

300

smooth muscle has electrical coupling bw fibers via

gap junctions

301

cardiac muscle has electrical coupling bw fibers via

gap junctions and intercalated discs