NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Embryology Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Embryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Embryology Deck (150):
1

During the 4th week of embryonic development the tongue appears in the form of 2 lateral lingual swelling and one medial swelling, the so-called:
foramen cecum
sulcus terminalis
tuberculum impar
epiglottic swelling

tuberculum impar

2

the three swellings of the tongue (2 lateral and 1 medial tuberculum impar) seen in the 4th week of development originate from the _

1st branchial arch

3

A second median swelling called the copula is formed by mesoderm of

2nd, 3rd, and 4th branchial arches

4

the lateral lingual tongue swellings overgrow the tuberculum impar and merge with each other, forming the

anterior 2/3 of the tongue

5

the posterior third of the tongue originates from the

2nd, 3rd and 4th pharyngeal arches

6

the extreme posterior part of the tongue is derived from the

4th pharyngeal arch

7

the anterior two thrids of the tongue are separated from the posterior 3rd by a V-shaped groove called the

terminal sulcus

8

the foramen cecum, the remnant of the proximal end of the __ is located at the apex of the terminal sulcus

thyroglossal duct

9

the _ are stacked _ swellings of tissue that appear inferior to the stomodeum (primitive mouth) during the 4th week of development

branchial arches
bilateral swellings

10

the branchial arches are _ pairs of _ shaped bars with a core _ which is formed by mesoderm and neural crest cells that migrate to the neck region

six pairs of U shaped bars
core mesenchyme

11

the branchial arhes are covered externally by ectodermal lined __

branchial clefts

12

the branchial arches are internally lined by

endodermal lined branchial pouches

13

the branchial arches support the

lateral walls of the primitive pharynx

14

Bifid tongue is the result of __

lack of fusion of the distal tongue buds (lateral swellings) = common in south African infants

15

most tongue muscles develop from myoblasts originating in the _

occipital somites

16

the musculature is innervated by the _ nerve

hypoglossal

17

the _ branchial arch is so rudimentary (immature, undeveloped) that they are absent in humans or are included with the 4th branchial arches

5th

18

in what weeks of development do the major salivary glands begin as epithelial proliferations or buds from the ectodermal lining of the primitive mouth

6-8th week in utero

19

the first salivary gland to form in the 6th week are the

parotic glands

20

after the parotid gland appears in the 6th week we see which gland later in the same week

submandibular glands

21

what salivary glands do we see in the 8th week

sublingual glands

22

1. The parotid glands are derived from which germ layer?
2. The submandibular and sublingual glands are derived from which germ layer?

1. parotid is ectoderm
2. submandibular and sublingual glands are endoderm

23

branchial (arches, pouches, and clefts) are aka

pharyngeal arches, pouches, and clefts

24

the body of the tongue develops from the

lateral lingual swellings and the tuberculum impar of the 1st arch growing together

25

the root of the tongue develops from the _ of the _ arch

copula of the 3rd arch

26

the epiglottis develops from the _ of the _ arch

epiglottal swelling of 4th arch

27

the arches are covered externally by a ectodermal __, internally by endodermal __, and the arches are made of _

cleft = ectoderm (outer)
pharyngeal/branchial arches (the middle) = mesenchyme from mesoderm neural crest
the inner = pouches = endoderm

28

each pharyngeal arch develops its own

artery, nerve, muscle element and cartilage (skeletal) elemnt of the head and neck

29

clefts aka

grooves

30

the ___ gives rise to the middle ear cavity, Eustachian tube, palantine tonsil, parathyroid glands, thymus, and ultimobranchial bodies

endoderm of the pharyngeal pouches

31

the _ gives rise to the external auditory meatus

pharyngeal clefts/grooves

32

T/F the cartilage of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches are derived from mesoderm

F = cartilage of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches are derived from neural crest cells

33

T/F the cartilage of the 4th and 6th branchial arches are derived from neural crest cells

F: the cartilage of the 4th and 6th branchial arches are derived from mesoderm

34

the branchial arches cartilage, nerve, vascular, and muscular components within the mesodermal core are elements of the neural crest except for the cartilages of the _ which are derived from mesoderm

arches 4-6

35

Meckel's cartilage is _ arch cartilage

1st arch

36

what are the derivatives of the first arch

mandible, maxilla, Meckel's cartilage

37

Meckel's cartilage is closely related to the developing __ and becomes ossified to form what 4 things

incus, malleus of middle ear, sphenomandibular ligament and parts of the sphenoid bone

38

most of the cartilage of the cartilage of the 1st arch disappears as the mandible forms by _ ossification. Only some of Meckel's cartilage makes a contribution.

intramembranous

39

__ fate is dissolution with minor contributions to ossification

the first arch (meckel's cartilage)

40

Mandibulofacial Dysostosis = developmental defect affecting the derivatives of the _ branchial arch.

1st

41

Mandibulofacial Dysostosis clinical evidence?

patient will have micrognathia (small lower jaw), malar (zygomatic) hypoplasia, deformity of the lower rim of the orbit and malformed external ear. = indicate problem with neural crest cell migration of the 1st branchial arch

42

Reichert's cartilage is the _ arch

2nd

43

Merkel's cartilage is the _ arch

1st

44

Reichert's cartilage is related to the developing _

middle ear.

45

Reichert's cartilage becomes ossified to form the _

stapes of middle ear, styloid process of temporal bone, the sylohyoid ligamne, the lesser cornu (horn) of the hyoid, and the upper part of the hyoid bone

46

the _ arch cartilage ossifies into the lower part of the body of the hyoid bone and greater (corneu) horns of the hyoid

third

47

the _ arches cartilage are the laryngeal cartilages

laryngeal: form the cartilages of the larynx: thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform)

48

failure of fusion of what leads to cleft lip:
1. frontonasal process + lateral nasal process
2. maxillary process and medial nasal process
3. lateral nasal process and medial nasal process
4. maxillary process and lateral nasal process

2. maxillary process and medial nasal process

49

in the young embryo the stomodeum (primitive mouth) is temporarily closed by the

buccopharyngeal membrane

50

although 6 pharyngeal arches develop, the _ arch degenerates and the 6th arch does not form an external elevation

degenerates

51

the _ pharyngeal arch has a maxillary and mandibular prominence

first

52

each of the first 4 pharyngeal arches contain cartilage that will develop into the

facial bones and laryngeal cartilages

53

the maxilla develops from mesenchymal condensation that undergoies intramembranous ossification. the developing bone eventually replaces the embryonic max cartilages. Bone growth moves the maxilla which direction

down and forward.

54

the mandible forms from a condensation of mesenchyme lateral to _ during the 6th week of development

Meckel's cartilage

55

at 7weeks the mesenchyme of the mandible undergoes _ ossification where the inferior alveolar nerve divides into the incisive and mental branches. Bone formation spreads rapidly towards the midline but remains separate until shortly

after birth

56

Meckel's cartilage eventually degenerates except for _

the malleus and incus ossicles of the middle ear.

57

growth of most of the mandible is via intramembranous ossification. What 2 parts of the mandible involves endochondral ossification?

ramus and condyle

58

the ultimobranchial body is incorporated into the

thyroid gland = gives rise to the parafollicular od C-cells of the thyroid gland

59

the palatine tonsils come from which pharyngeal pouch

2nd

60

the inferior parathyroid glands and thymus comes from which pharyngeal pouch

3rd

61

the superior parathyroid glands and ultimobranchial bodies comes from which pharyngeal pouch

4th

62

the thyroid gland originates from an invagination in the pharyngeal epithelium at the

foramen cecum

63

the invagination in the pharyngeal epithelium at the foramen cecum initially forms the __ which closes after the thyroid tissue migrates to the trachea below the larynx

thryoglossal duct

64

during development of the lips and palate, the medial growth of the two _ of the 1st arch leads to their fusion into the intermaxillary segment which forms the philtrum of the upper lip, and the part of the maxilla that holds the 4 upper incisors and the triangular primary palate together.

maxillary prominence aka processes

65

1. the _ contribute to the MIDDLE of the upper lip.
2. the _ contribute to the SIDES of the upper lip

1. two medial nasal processes
2. maxillary processes

66

fusion of the _ and _ form the upper lip in the 6th week- when the grooves bw the processes are obliterated

maxillary processes and two medial nasal processes

67

defects of the lips and palate result from a failure of

embryonic tissue to fuse

68

the maxillary processes on each side of the developing face and the mandibular arch fuse to form the

labial commisures aka corners of the mouth

69

cleft lip is mostly in M/F

80% males

70

isolated cleft palate occurs more often in M/F

females (67%)

71

what drugs taken during pregnancy increase the risk of cleft palate

anti-convulsants ex phenobarbital

72

pharyngeal arch _ mesoderm develops into the muscles of mastication

1

73

pharyngeal arch _ mesoderm develops into the muscles of facial expression

2

74

pharyngeal arches _ + _ mesoderm develops into the strap muscles of the neck

3 and 4

75

pharyngeal arch _ develops into trigeminal nerve for mastication

1

76

pharyngeal arch _ develops into facial nerve for facial expression

VII

77

after the stomodeum is formed two bulges of tissue appear inferior to the primitive mouth, the _ of the _ arch

2 large mandibular process
1st arch

78

the mandible forms as a result of the fusion of the

R and L mandibular processes

79

the _ is the first portion of the face to form after the stomodeum

mandible

80

the maxilla is formed primarily by the merging of the two smaller _ of the _branchial arch

maxillary processes of the first branchial arch

81

the maxillary processes also form the

upper cheek regions and most the upper lip

82

the forehead, bridge of nose, primary palate, nasal septum and all structures related to the medial nasal processes develops from the

frontonasal process (prominenc)

83

the nasal placodes form in the anterior portion of the frontonasal process. they develop into

olfactory cells for sensation of smell

84

the middle portion of the tissue growing around the nasal placodes appears as two crescent shaped swelling = medial nasal processes, which fuse to form the

middle portion of the nose from the root to the apex and the center portion of the upper lip and philtrum region

85

on the outer portion of the nasal placodes are two other crescent shaped swelling, the lateral nasal processes which will form the _

alae = sides of the nose

86

fusion of the lateral nasal, maxillary, and medial nasal processes forms the

nares (nostrils)

87

partial unilateral and bilateral cleft of the lip results from failure of the _ and _ to fuse

maxillary and medial nasal processes

88

clefts involving the hard and soft palate are the result of a lack of fusion among the

lateral palatal process, the primary palate and the nasal septum = failure of fusion of palatine shelves will lead to cleft palate

89

during the 4th week of embryonic development the 1st branchial arch divides into:
a. 2 medial nasal processes
b. the mandibular and maxillary processes
c. 2 lateral nasal process
d. the lateral and medial nasal processes

b. the mandibular and maxillary processes aka prominences

90

the branchial arches are stacked ___ swellings that appear inferior or superior to the stomodeum during the _ week of embryonic development

bilateral
inferior to primitive mouth
4th week

91

the branchial aches are 6pairs of U shaped bars with a core _ which is formed by mesoderm and neural crest cells that migrate to the neck region

mesenchyme

92

the branchial arches are covered externally by ectodermal _

clefts

93

the arches are bordered medially by the pharynx, which is lined by

endoderm.

94

medially each branchial arch is separated by a

pharyngeal pouch

95

the approximation of the ectoderm of the pharyngeal cleft with the endoderm of the pouch forms the

pharyngeal membrane

96

the _ is a faint ridge in midline on the surface of the bony mandible where the mandible is formed by the fusion of the mandibular process

mandibular symphysis

97

the _ form the upper cheek regions and most of the upper lip

maxillary process

98

the 2nd branchial pouch gives rise to:
a. Eustachian tube
b. palatine tonsil
c. middle ear cavity
d. superior PT gland

b. palatine tonsil

remember it is from pouch = P = Palatine

99

4 well defined pairs of pharyngeal pouches develop as endodermal evaginations from the lateral walls lining the

pharynx

100

the _ pouch contributes to the formation of the tympanic membrane, tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, auditory tube

1st pouch:
MATT

101

the inferior PT and the thymus gland develop from the _

3rd pouch

P = for Pouch and PT

102

the _ pharyngeal _ develops into the ultimobranchial bodies = gives rise to C cells of the thyroid

5th, pouch

note some books consider the 5th pouch rudimentary and say the 4th pouch develops into ultimobranchial bodies

103

C cells of thyroid secrete

calcitonin

104

the first branchial _ forms the external auditory meatus

cleft

105

Digeorge syndrome is a congenital malformation caused by the underdevelopment of the _ branchial_

3rd and 4th = hypoplasia or absence of PT glands

106

Digeorges patients have _ problems (2)

congenital heart defects and compromised immunity

107

the oral cavity (primitive mouth/stomodeum) appears as a shallow depression in the embryonic surface _

ectoderm

108

the buccopharyngeal (oropharygeal) membrane separates the _ form the_

stomodeum from primitive pharynx

109

the primitive pharynx is the cranial portion of the foregut, the beginning of the future

digestive tract

110

the oral cavity is lined with

oral epithelium derived from ectoderm as a result of embryonic folding

111

the initial site of the _ gland lies bw the copula and the tuberculum impar which is called (foramen cecum)

thyroid gland

112

the thyroid gland descends thru the thyroglossal duct to its permanent location where

below the thyroid cartilage in the neck

113

thyroglossal tract/duct remnants are referred to as

thyroglossal duct cyst

114

the primary palate or medial palatal process is formed by the merging of the frontonasal process w what other processes?
a. lateral nasal processes
b. medial nasal processes
c. maxillary processes
d. mandibular processes

medial nasal processes

115

the palate is formed from two separate embryonic structures, the

primary and secondary palate = completed in 12th week

116

which palate is formed first

primary then secondary then completed

117

the primary palate forms around 5th week. the intermaxillary segment arises as a fusion of

2 medial nasal processes and the frontonasal process

118

the intermaxillary segment gives rise to the

primary palate (the anterior 1/3 of the final palate) anterior to the incisive foramen, contains the maxillary incisors

119

the secondary palate forms in 6th week by the

bilateral maxillary processes giverise to the 2 palatal shelves (lateral palatine processes) which move medially towards eachother and fuse to form the secondary palate =posterior 2/3 of the palate posterior to incisive foramen and includes the soft palate and uvula

120

in the 12th week the palate formation completes by

fusion of primary and secondary palates

121

the _ palate forms from fuse palatal shelves

secondary
has the canines
and posterior teeth)

122

all are derived from first branchial arch except:
a. tensor tympani
b. anterior belly of digastric
c. temporalis
d. masseter
e. levator veli palatini
f. tensor veli palatini

e. levator veli palatini

123

the first arch (mandibular) future nerves and muscles?

trigeminal nerve (V2 and V3) and all the muscles innervated by trigeminal nerve

124

the third arch muscle and nerve?

glossopharyngeal (CN 9) and its muscle: stylopharyngeal

125

4th arch future nerves and muscle

superior laryngeal branch of vagus nerve, most pharyngeal constrictors, levator veli palatini and cricothyroid muscle

126

6th arch future nerves and muscle

reccurent laryngeal branch of vagus nerv: all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid

127

spenomalleolar ligament, sphenomandibular ligament, mandible, maxilla, Meckel's cartilage, incus, malleus all from which arch

1st

128

greater cornu and lower part of hyoid from which arch

3rd

129

laryngeal cartilages from which arch

4-6

130

Reichert's cartilage, styloid process, stylohyoid ligament, lesser cornu and upper part of hyoid and stapes from which arch

2

131

the nasal cavities are formed from which embryonic structure
a. stomodeum
b. intermaxillary segment
c. frontonasal process
d. nasal pits

nasal pits

132

the nasolacrimal cord originates from nasolacrimal groove and gives rise to what 2 tissues

lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct

133

lateral nasal processes originate from the lateral frontonasal processes and give rise to

nasal alae

134

the medial nasal processes fuse to form the __ which gives rise to the

intermaxillary segment
anterior portion of maxilla, primary palate

135

the frontonasal process medial to the nasal pits form the medial nasal processes that give rise to

the middle of the nose, philtrum, intermaxillary segment

136

the lower lip, lower face and mandible came from what arch

first arch = mandibular arch

137

the oral cavity proper embryonic origin

stomodeum -ectodermal

138

all are neural crest derived except:
a. melanocytes
b. dorsal root ganglia
c. adrenal medulla
d. autonomic ganglia
e. adrenal cortex
f. schwann cells
f. sensory ganglia of cranial nerves

adrenal cortex is derived from mesoderm

139

hair, nails, epidermis, inner and external ear, lens of eye, parotid, epidermis, adenophypophysis are all _ derivitives

ectoderm

140

neurohypohysis, CNS, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes,pineal gland, retina and optic nerve are all _ derivatives

neuroectoderm

141

which 2 are not from endoderm:
a. lung
b. liver
c. gut tube derivatives
d. pancreas
e. spleen
f. thymus
g. dura mater
h. PT gland

dura mater
spleen

142

heart, blood, dermis, muscles, vessels, adrenal cortex, dura mater, bone, spleen, kidney and ureter are _ derivative

mesoderm =
Give ME the BBUDD SAcK

b = bone/blood, ureter, dura mater, dermis, Spleen, Adrenal Cortex, Kidneys

143

Gi tract (foregut, midgut, hindgut), lung liver, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, PT, submandibular and sublingual glands, middle ear and auditory tube are _ derivatives

endoderm
give ME the BBUDD SAcK
"EN SSPPELL GATT"

144

nucleus pulposus in the adult is the _ in the fetus

notochord

145

Urachus in the adult is the _ in the fetus

allantios

146

fossa ovalis in the adult is the _ in the fetus

foramen ovale

147

ligamentum venosum in the adult is the _ in the fetus

ductus venosus

148

ligamentum arteriosum in the adult is the _ in the fetus

ductus arteriosus

149

medial umbilical ligaments in the adult is the _ in the fetus

umbilical arteries

150

ligamentum teres
in the adult is the _ in the fetus

umbilical vein