NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Lymphatics Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Lymphatics > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Lymphatics Deck (139):
1

All lymphatic organs contain

lymphocytes

2

main function of lymphatic system is to

collect and transport tissue fluids from spaces in tissues back to vein in the blood system

3

lymphatic system consists of

bone marrow
spleen
thymus gland
lymph nodes
tonsils
appendix
Peyer's patches
lymph and lymphatic vessels

4

unlike the circulatory system the lymphatic system does not have a _ to propel lymph thru the vessels

pump

5

how does lymphatic system move fluid

-it has valves (like in veins)
-depends on skeletal muscle contractions
-breathing
-gravity

6

when tissue fluid is returned to the bloodstream it is now called

lymph

7

lymph is returned to the venous system via (2)

Right lymphatic Duct (in neck)
Thoracic duct (in thorax)

8

lymphatic system returns tissue fluid to blood stream, transports __, and provides immunological defense against disease

absorbed fats

9

within the small intestine villi are lymph capillaries called __ that transport absorbed fat products away from the GI tract and into circulation

lacteals

10

the __ duct collects lymph from most of body regions and ascends to the root of neck on left side and opens into the _

thoracic duct = junction of left subclavian vein and the left internal jugular vein

11

the right lymphatic duct in the neck drains away fluid in the

Right side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and arm.

12

the right lymphatic duct empties into the

right subclavian vein

13

lymph nodes are small oval bodies enclosed in _ capsule

fibrous

14

lymph nodes contain phagocytic cortical tissue called __ to filter lymph

reticular tissue

15

specialized bands of CT, called __ divide the lymph node

trabeculae

16

the thoracic duct receives lymph from _ of the 4 quadrants of the body

3

17

the afferent lymphatic vessels carry lymph into the node's ____

subscapular sinus ==> cortical sinus ==> superficial cortex and paracortex.
or subscapular sinus ==> cortical sinus ==> medulaary sinus

18

the afferent vessels enter on the __ convex/concave surface of the node

convex

19

are there more afferent or efferent vessels in a lymph node

afferent

20

the spleen, thymus, palatine, and paharyngeal tonsils do/do not have numerous afferent vessels entering them as do lymph nodes

do not

21

what part of the lymph node is dominated by T-cells

paracortex

22

the lymph node is bean shaped. it has a hilum into which _ enter and _ emerge

blood vessels enter (artery/vein) and efferent lymphatics emerge.

23

the afferent lymphatic vessels penetrate the convex surface of the gland and drain into _ and _ sinus system

subscapular and medullary sinus

24

the lymphoid parenchyma is subdivided into (3)

cortex, paracortex, and medulla.

25

the most prominent structures in the cortex are the

lymphoid follicles

26

what vessels in our bodies have valves

lymphatics and veins

27

the primary lymphatic organs are responsible for the generation and selection of lymphocytes. these are the (2)

thymus and bone marrow

28

secondary lymphatic organs are the

spleen tonsils, lymph nodes, appendix = filtering component

29

primary lymph nodes make lymphocytes, secondary lymphatic organs _

filter

30

name the diffuse lymphoid tissues

MALT = mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
GALT = gutassociated lymphoid tissue
BALT = bronchus associated lymphoid tissue

31

the tonsils and Peyer's patches are in BALT/GALT/MALT

GALT

32

The gastrointestinal tract's immune system is often referred to as __and works to protect the body from invasion

gut-associated lymphoid tissue GALT

33

the common component of all lymphatic tissues is the presence of

lymphocytes

34

transported absorbed fats within the villi in the small intestines enter lymph capillaries called lacteals and transport fat away from GI tract and eventually enter circulatory system thru _ duct

thoracic

35

lymph nodes filter and have been shown to trap _ cells in body

cancerous

36

lymph contents:

liquid portion that resembles blood plasma, and WBC (mostly lymphocytes) and a few RBC's

37

in the ____, a hallmark of lymphatic vessels is that they FOLLOW THE VEINS

upper limb

38

T cells are produced in the _ and mature in the _

produced in bone marrow
mature in thymus

39

the thymus is a _ lobed lymphoid organ

bilobed

40

does the thymus contain lymph nodules or vessels

no

41

main function of the _ is to potentiate immunocompetent T cells from their immunoincompetent precursors

thymus

42

the thymus is relatively large in ___, and continues to grow until _

newborns
puberty

43

at puberty the thymus undergoes involution, being replaced by

adipose tissue

44

in the adult/child thymus the blood is isolated from the parenchyma (the functional part of the gland) = blood thymus barrier

adult.

in child thymus the blood supply is not isolated from parenchyma

45

Hassall's corpuscules are found in the _

medulla of thymu = eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically with unclear function

46

the congenital disease characterized by absent or underdeveloped thymus and parathyroid glands due to deletion of chromosome 22.

DiGeorge's syndrome

47

DiGeorge's syndrome patients have a profound immunodeficiency due to a lack of _ cells

T cells ONLY. no other immune cell is affected

48

the largest lymph organ is the

spleen

49

the spleen lies bw

stomach and diaphragm

50

the spleen is covered by peritoneum except at the

hilum

51

the spleem is enclosed in fibroelastic capsule that dips into the organ forming ___

trabeculae

52

does the trabeculae divide the spleen in to lobules/lobes?

no! that is only in the lymph nodes

53

the cellular material in the spleen consisting of lymphocytes and macrophages is called _

splenic pulp = lies bw trabeculae

54

the spleen is supplied with blood from the

splenic artery

55

the_ is the largest single mass of lymphoid tissue in the body

spleen

56

the spleen can be considered as 2 organs in one bc it

filters blood and removes abnormal cells ie. old RBCs and it makes antibodies and lymphocytes = disease fighting

57

the red pulp of the spleen consists of

BV's (splenic sinusoids) and CT (splenic cords)

58

the red/white pulp filters the blood and removes the old and defective blood cells.

red

59

the __ and __ are the site of erythropoiesis (blood formation) in the fetus and infant

spleen and liver

60

the white pulp is inside the

red pulp

61

_ are made in the white pulp of the spleen

antibodies

62

the posterior 1/3 of the tongue drains into:
deep cervical nodes
facial nodes
occipital nodes
submandibular nodes
submental nodes
jugulodigrastic nodes

deep cervical nodes

63

the _ receives efferents from the salivary and thyroid glands, the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, the tonsils, the nose, the pharynx and the larynx

deep cervical lymph nodes

64

salivary and thyroid glands, the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, the tonsils, the nose, the pharynx and the larynx efferents join together to form the

jugular lymph trunk

65

the jugular lymph trunk drains either into the _ on the left or the _ on the right or independently drains into either the internal jugular, subclavian, or brachiocephalic veins

thoracic duct - left
right lymphatic duct on the right

66

the nose, front of scalp, cheeks upper lip and lower lip (except central part) the parnasal sinuses, the maxillary and mandibular teeth (except the mandibular incisors) the anterior 2/3 of the tongue (except the tip) the floor of the mouth and the gingiva drain their lymph into

submandibular lymph nodes

67

the tip of the tongue, floor of mouth beneath the tip of the tongue, the mandibular incisor teeth and associated gingiva, center part of lower lip and skin over chin drain lymph into

submental lymph nodes

68

submental lymph nodes have efferent vessels that drain into the

submandibular and deep cervical nodes

69

1. anterior 2/3 of tongue (except tip) drains into
2. tip of tongue into
3. parotid lymph node

1. submandibular lymph node
2 submental
3. deep cervical nodes

70

spleen is in which quadrant

Located in LUQ

71

3 types of tonsils (clusters of WBCs)

lingual (on tongue)
palatine (on sides)
pharangeal (adenoids)

72

Tonsillar Ring (Waldeyer’s ring)

the lymphatic tissue that surrounds the posterior orifice of the oral and nasal cavities and contains clusters of lymph nodules

73

when antigen recognition occurs by a lymphocyte, B cells are activated and migrate to which area of the lymph node

germinal centers

74

lymph nodes contain a lot of _ in order to do their main function = filtering

macrophages

75

nodes also produce _ and store _

produce antibodies,
store lymphocytes

76

A lymphocyte is any of 3 types of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system. Name them

T cell
B cell
and NK

77

All 3 lymphocytes are agranulocytes/granulocytes

agranulocytes

78

each lymph node is enclosed in a ___ with internal ___

fibrous capsule
internal trabeculae (CT)

79

Do primary follicles respond to antigens

no

80

secondary follicles contain predominantly _ cells

B cells = germinal centers = active follicles responding to antigen and source of lymphocytes

81

medullary cords are a source of

plasma cells aka medullary sinuses = secrete antibodies

82

the outer cortical region of lymph node consists of

lymphoid follicles

83

lymph nodes can be classified as primary or secondary. the lymph from a region drains into a _ node (regional node) and then they drain into _ (central node)

primary --> drain into secondary

84

where do mature B lymphocytes rapidly proliferate, differentiate and mutate their antibodies, and class switch their antibodies during a normal immune response to infection

germinal center

85

what cells are the main types of cells in the medullary cords

B cells and plasma cells

86

the lymph from the lower extremities drains into the
a.left subclavian vein
b. junction of the left internal jugular and subcalvian veins

junction of the left internal jugular and subcalvian veins

87

the ___ duct is the main duct of the lymphatic system and is located in the__

thoracic
POSTERIOR mediastinum

88

the thoracic duct begins below the abdomen as a dilated sac called the

cisterna chyli

89

cisterna chhyli is located at the level of the _ vertebra

T12

90

the thoracic duct is about _ long

40cm

91

the thoracic duct empties into the __

left venous angle between the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein

92

the right lymphatic duct is about _ long

1cm

93

the right lymphatic duct empties into the

right venous angle at the junction of the right internal jugular vein with the right subclavian vein

94

the junction of the right internal jugular vein with the right subclavian vein is the beginning of the

right brachiocephalic vein

95

left venous angle between the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein is the beginning of the

left brachiocephalic vein

96

the thoracic duct ascends through the __ in the diaphragm on the __ side of the descending aorta

aortic opening on the right side of the descending aorta

97

does the thoracic duct contain valves?

yes

98

the thoracic duct ascends bw the aorta and the __ vein in the thorax

azygos vein

99

the intercostal lymphatic vessels transport lymph from the left and right intercostal spaces to the

thoracic duct

100

mammary glands drain lymph into the _lymph nodes

axillary (armpit)

101

kidneys drain lymph into the _ lymph nodes

lumbar

102

lungs and trachea drain lymph into the ___ lymph nodes

hilar = located in hilium of the lung

103

which is not a function of the spleen:
1. storage of blood platelets
2. storage of iron
3. forming crypts that trap bacteria
4. removing old or defective blood cells

forming crypts that trap bacteria

104

spleen is _ shaped and size of

oval, size of fist

105

the _ contains white and red pulp

spleen

106

the white pulp contains masses of lymphocytes surrounding the _

splenic artery

107

the _ pulp contains blood filled sinusoids, with lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells and monocytes

red

108

3 functions of spleen

1. reticuloendothelial tissue: phagocytosis of RBC and debri, and produce RBC
2. Venous sinusoids: expels blood to meet circulatory demands
3. white pulp: provides lymphocytes and a source of plasma cells =antibodies for defense

109

the nerves to the spleen accompany the __ artery and are derived from the _

splenic
celiac plexus

110

the thymus and the spleen only have ___ lymphatic vessels

efferent.

NO AFFERENT

111

does the spleen develop from the primitive gut

no

112

the lungs, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, stomach, esophagus, and intestines develop from the

primitive gut

113

even though the spleen was not formed from the primitive gut it shares its blood supply of the foregut which is supplied by the

celiac trunk

114

the spleen develops from _ cells of the mesentery attached to the primitive stomach

mesenchymal

115

__ = common, acute, usually self-limiting disease caused by the EBV, characterized by fever, membranous pharyngitis, lymph node and splenic enlargement

infectious mononucleosis

116

Asplenia

absence of normal spleen function. associated with serious infection risks especially encapsulated bacteria such as strep pneumoniae, haemophilus influenza, and Neisseria meningitidis

117

which tonsil(s) are covered by non keratinized stratified squamous epithelia:
lingual
pharyngeal
palatine
lingual and palatine

lingual and palatine

118

tonsils are considered part of primary or secondary immune system

secondary

119

tonsils secrete mostly which antibody

IgA

120

the _ tonsils are on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx

pharyngeal (adenoids)

121

adenoids are surrounded by what kind of CT

partly ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium)

122

do the adenoids contain crypts

no

123

the _ tonsils are located on the posterolateral walls of the throat, one on each side

palatine

124

the adenoids at their peak development in

childhood

125

the __ tonsils reach their maximum size during childhood but after puberty diminish considerably in size

palatine

126

these tonsils are enlarged when you have a sore throat

palatine tonsils

127

do the palatine tonsils have crypts

yes many

128

the palatine tonsils have many crypts but no

sinuses

129

1. __tonsils are surrounded by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
2. _ are surrounded by nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia

1. adenoids
2. lingual and palatine

130

the best way to distinguish bw palatine tonsils and the pharyngeal tonsil is

histologically to see what epithelia it has

131

the lingual tonsils are smaller and more numerous. do they have crypts

yes each one has a single crypt

132

the only tonsils with no crytps

adenoids

133

the only tonsils with no sinuses

palatine

134

peyer's patches are similar in structure and function to the tonsils but they are located in the

small intestines - specifically the ILEUM

135

Peyer's patches function to

destroy bacteria

136

Peyer's patches and tonsils are considered encapsulated/non encapsulated and subepithelial lymph tissues

non encapsulated

137

dorsum means

back part

138

the anterior part of the tongue or posterior is bigger

anterior is 2/3
posterior is 1/3

139

the anterior and posterior part of the tongue is separated by

foramen cecum and the terminal sulcus