NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCE: Heart Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCE: Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCE: Heart Deck (111):
1

which artery accompanies the great cardiac vein?
circumflex artery/anterior interventricular artery/posterior interventricular artery/right marginal artery

anterior interventricular artery

2

from the back view of the heart, the most obvious structure lying in the coronary sulcus is the

coronary sinus

3

the coronary sinus receives most of the venous blood from the heart and empties into the

right atrium

4

on the left atrium there is a vein that is remnant of the embryonic left superior vena cava called the

oblique vein

5

the _ vein opens into the left side of the coronary sinus

great cardiac vein

6

the great cardiac vein receives tributaries from the _atrium and _ ventricles

left atrium and both ventricles via left marginal vein

7

the _ vein opens into the right side of the cardiac sinus

small cardiac vein

8

small cardiac vein receives blood from the

back of the right atrium and ventricle. the right marginal vein ascends along the right margin of the heart and joins the small cardiac vein in the coronary sinus or opens directly into the right atrium

9

the _ vein ends in the coronary sinus near its right extremity

middle cardiac

10

the _ vein ends in the coronary sinus near the left and is continuous above the left vena cava

oblique vein

11

which 2 veins do not end in the coronary sinus

anterior cardiac veins and smallest cardiac veins (thebesian veins)

12

the _ veins = 3 or 4 vessels that collect blood from the front of the R ventricle and open into the right atrium

anterior cardiac veins

13

__veins = minute veins which are in muscular wall of the heart. majority open into the atria and some end in the ventricles

smallest cardiac veins

14

the anterior interventricular branch is a branch of the _ coronary artery and accompanies the _ vein

left, great cardiac vein

15

the posterior interventricular branch is a branch of the _ coronary artery and accompanies the _ vein

right
middle cardiac

16

mnemonic for heart AV valves?

TRI before you BI": Tri on right and Bi on left

17

the sinoatrial node is located at the junction of the _ and the _

superior vena cava and right auricle (The right auricle of the heart - also called the right atrial appendage (RAA) - is attached to the heart's right atrium)

18

the most rapidly depolarizing cardiac muscle tissue is the

SA NODE

19

the AV node is specialized tissue bw the

atria and ventricles

20

the conducting system of the heart is all
a. modified cardiac muscle fibers
b. nerves

all modified cardiac muscle fibers not nerves

21

the sympathetic fibers of the heart arise from segments _ of the spinal cord

T2-T4

22

effect of sympathetic nerves at SA node is

increase in HR

23

effect of sympathetic nerves on the heart muscle is

increased pressure within the ventricle = increase SV

24

the _ nerve provides PNS control of the heart

vagus

25

the vagus nerve effects

decreases HR at SA node and decreases excitability of tissue around AV node = slower transmission

26

strong vagal stimulation at the AV node may produce

AV block

27

the SA node depolarizes spontaneously at a rate of _ times per minute

60-100 = causes atria to contract

28

the AV node depolarizes at a rate of _ beats per minute

40-60

29

in sinus rhythm, every P wave is followed by a

QRS complex

30

sinus rhythm is the __beating of the heart

normal

31

a fast sinus rhythm is faster than _ beats per mina and is called

100 bpm = sinus tachycardia

32

a slow sinus rhythm is slower than _ bpm and is known as

60bpm
sinus bradycardia

33

which wave represents atrial depolarization on ECG

P

34

which wave represents ventricular depolarization on ECG

QRS

35

which wave represents ventricular repolarization on ECG

T

36

which part of ECG represents ejection of blood

QT

37

which part of ECG represents the impulse bw the SA and AV node (AV CONDUCTION)

PR

38

the apex of the heart is located at the level of the ___ left intercostal space

fifth

39

the apex of the heart is formed by the tip of the

left ventricle

40

the heart apex points to right or left of body

left = also why the left lung has the cardiac notch

41

the ventricles are _ and _ than the atria:
smaller/larger/thinner/thicker

larger and thicker

42

resistance to pulmonary blood flow in the lungs causes a strain on the _ and results in

right ventricle
right ventricular hypertrophy

43

ductus arteriosus shunts blood from

pulmonary artery to the aorta in fetus

44

ligamentum arteriosum

remnant of ductus arteriosus. it connects the arch of the aorta to the left pulmonary arter

45

patent ductus arteriosus

when the ductus arteriosus does not close after birth (usually closes w/in 24 hours from exposure to high oxygen)

46

the fossa ovalis is a depression in the _ atrium of the heart

right

47

1. upon birth the foramen ovale is initially closed by the __ as pressure in the atrium exceeds that in the right
2. EVENTUALLY after birth, the foramen ovale becomes permanently closed with fibrous CT and becomes the _ in adults

1. septum primum (valve of foramen ovale)
2. fossa ovalis

48

a meat processing worker gets ill has fever, headache, sore throat, feels chest pain and has pink, frothy sputum. he got a viral infection by coxsackie B. this patient has inflammation of which layer of the heart?
pericardium/epicardium/myocardium/endocardium

inflammation of myocardium = myocarditis

49

the __in the heart is homologous with the tunica intima of blood vessels

endocardium

50

the endocardium is made of _ epithelium

simple squamous

51

__in the heart is homologous with the tunica media of blood vessels

myocardium

52

most cardiac muscle cells and bulk of heart mass is which layer

myocardium

53

pericardium has what 3 layers

3 membranes: innermost is visceral pericardium ==> parietal pericardium ==> fibrous pericardium. the two inner are delicate the outer is tough

54

the major sensory nerve to the parietal pericardium is from branches of the

phrenic nerve C3-C5

55

the _ mediastinum is of highest clinical importance

middle
bc has the pericardium and heart and great arteries, phrenic nerves, and main brochi,

56

the left atrium and left ventricle receive their major arterial supply from what artery

cicumflex branch of L coronary artery

57

the right ventricle gets blood from

marginal branch of right coronary artery

58

which artery supplies both ventricles

posterior interventricular artery

59

posterior interventricular artery anastomoses with the _ artery of the left coronary artery

circumflex

60

coronary arteries receive the majority of their blood flow during ventricular relaxation or contraction?

relaxation (diastole) when the ventricles are filling

61

the _ artery is the one most often involved in coronary occlusions and is often the one that is bypassed in bypass cardiac surgery

anterior interventricular artery (from L coronary artery)

62

the RCA anastomoses with the circumflex branch of the LCA after the RCA has given rise to the

posterior interventricular artery
IV

63

which of the following does not empty directly into the right atrium?
azygous vein/IVC/SVC/coronary sinus

azygous vein

64

atroventricular groove is

aka coronary sulcus

65

the _ lies in the coronary sulcus (atroventricular groove)

coronary sinus

66

which is larger the SVC or the IVC

inferior

67

3 vessels that bring blood directly into right atrium

coronary sinus, IVC, SVC = all deO2 blood

68

a pt with heart valve problem comes into ur office for perio therapy. she says her old perio dr always gave her antibiotics before treatment. u place a stethoscope in the left figth intercostal space medial to the nipple line. which heart valve is best heard over the apex of the heart?
Aortic/pulmonary/mitral/tricuspid

mitral

69

the 4 valves of heart function

prevent backflow, allow one way flow

70

first heart sound (S1) is produced by closure of

AV valves (mitral and tricuspid)

71

second heart sound (S2) produced by closure of

semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary)

72

third heart sound (S3) produced by

rapid ventricular filling

73

4th heart sound (S4) is produced by

atrial contraction

74

syncope

fainting or passing out,
is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, due to global cerebral hypoperfusion (low blood flow to the brain) that most often results from hypotension (low blood pressure).

75

Acute bacterial endocarditis - staph/strep

staph aureus = Acute (think more virulent = must be staph not strep viridans)

76

Subacute bacterial endocarditis = strep/staph

strep

77

papillary muscles are only found in the _ of the heart

ventricles (NOT ATRIA)

78

are there chordae tendinae associated with the Semilunar valves

no bc no papillary muscles in atria

79

Major Jones Criteria for Diagnosing Rheumatic Fever:
1. migratory polyarthritis
2. carditis
3. subcutaneous nodule
4. Sydenham chorea
5. erythema marginatum

1. temporary migrating inflammation of the large joints
2. inflammation of myocarditis
3. containin Aschoff bodies
4. involuntary rapid movements of extremities
5. long standing reddish rash distributes in "bathing suit" pattern

80

papillary muscles are cone-shaped muscles that terminate in _

tendinous cords called chordae tendinae

81

do papillary muscles help close the valve

NO! they prevent eversion back into atrium.

82

mitral valve prolapse =

dysfunction of the papillary muscles = predisposes patient to infective endocarditis

83

pectinate muscles are

ridges in the right atrial myocardium and in both auricles

84

cista terminalis

vertical muscular ridge running along the right atrial wall from opening of SVC to the IVC. Provides the origin for the pectinate muscles

85

crista terminalis represents the junction bw the_ in the developing embryo

sinus vinosus

86

the crista terminalis is represented on the external surface of the heart by a vertical groove called the

sulcus terminalis

87

the SA node is in the right atrium at the junction of the _ near the opening of the SVC

crista terminalis

88

the diaphragmatic surface of the heart is formed by

both ventricles (think diaphragm is in lower bottom so ventricles are too)

89

the adult heart is hollow t/f

true

90

about _ of the hearts mass is located to the left/right of the midline

2/3 to the left (remember tip is to the left too)

91

the __ and its ___ make up the middle mediastinum

heart and its pericardium

92

the pericardium is a tough, _ single/double walled fibrous membranous sac that surrounds the heart

double walled

93

outer wall of heart is called _ and inner is _

outer is parietal inner is visceral (epicaridum)

94

the parietal and visceral pericardia are continuous/discontinuous

continuous at the places where the major BVs enter and leave the heart

95

in bw the 2 walls of the heart is the _ cavity

pericardial cavity = serous fluid

96

1. the _ surface of the heart is known as the _ surface
2. the _ of the heart is know as the diaphragmatic surface

1. sternocostal surface = think towards the sternum is anterior
2. 2 ventricles (lower chambers)

97

the anterior surface (sternocostal surface) shows parts of which chambers of the heart.

all 4 show

98

which ventricle is larger the left or the right and why

the right ventricle is larger because it has less muscle than the left side (so the space is smaller)

99

Because of its shape, the heart has three surfaces: anterior, inferior and posterior. Often the surfaces are referred to as:
1. sternocostal (__),
2. diaphragmatic (__) and
3. base (__).
4. The __ of the heart is directed downward, forward and to the left.

1.anterior
2, inferior
3. posterior
4.apex

100

1. Anterior (Sternocostal) surface: It is formed mainly by the _ and _.
2. They are separated from each other by the ___ groove. The right border of the anterior surface is formed by the right atrium while the left border is formed by left atrium and part of left auricle.

1. right atrium and right ventricle
2. vertical atrioventricular

101

1. Inferior (Diaphragmatic) surface: It is formed mainly by the right and left ventricles separated by the ___groove. The inferior surface of the right atrium into which the inferior vena cava opens, also forms part of this surface.

posterior interventricular

102

The base of the heart (posterior surface): It is formed mainly by the ___, into which the four pulmonary veins drain. It lies opposite to the apex.

left atrium
Often, the beginners think of the diaphragmatic surface of the heart as its base because of the fact that the heart rests on it, however, it should be kept in mind that the heart does not rest on its base. It rests on the diaphragmatic surface which is not the base. The posterior surface is called the base because it lies opposite to the apex of the pyramidal shaped heart.

103

1. Apex of the heart is formed by the __ and is directed downward, forward and the left.
2. It lies at the level of the__intercostals space, about 3.5 inches from the midline. The apex beat can be palpated in the region of apex of the heart.

1. left ventricle
2. fifth

104

the R atrium consists of two regions: the main concavity and a small outpouching called _

auricle

105

At the region of junction between the R atrium's main concavity and auricle, on the __ side, there is a vertical groove called sulcus terminalis, which on the __ side forms a ridge known as crista terminalis.

outer

inner

106

The pressure inside the __ ventricle is about six times higher than that inside the __ ventricle

left
right

107

the right and left atrium are separated by a _thin/thick septum

thin

108

the left ventricle and right ventricle are separated by a thick/thin septum

thick

109

which part of the heart rests on the fibrous part of the diaphragm

diaphragmatic (ventricles)

110

the _ makes up the base of the heart

left atrium

111

when the body is in supine position (lying on back) the heart rests on its

base