NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Cell Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Cell > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Cell Deck (160):
1

Kartagener syndrome is a hereditary syndrome characterized by recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Dysfunction of which organelle is responsible for this syndrome:
a. centriole
b. flagellum
c. vacuole
d. cilium

a. cilium

2

In the human body flagella is only found in

spermatozoa (a motile sperm cell)

3

flagella have a similar structure to cilia but are much

longer

4

the cilium is a short/long hair like projection from the cell membrane

short

5

flagella action

produce movement

6

the coordinating beating of MANY CILIA produce

movement

7

flagella, cilia, and centrioles all have _ sets of microtubules arranged in a cylinder

9

8

unlike centrioles, cilia and flagella's sets of microtubules

are doublet (rather than triplet) of microtubules and two singlets are present in the center of the cylinder. (9+2) arrangement.

9

at the base of the cylinders of cilia and flagella within the main portion of the cell is a

basal body = project into cytoplasm for anchorage

10

prokaryotic flagella are much __ than eukaryotic flagella

thinner

11

do prokaryotic flagella have the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules as well?

no

12

__ move with a snake like motion
Flagella/cilia

flagella

13

__ beat in coordinated waves
Flagella/cilia

cilia = coordinated waves

(flagella =snake, cilia = waves)

14

both cilia and flagella move by contraction of

tubular proteins in them

15

Kartagener syndrome aka

immotile cilia syndrome

16

the inactive X chromosome in a female cell is called the __ which is an example of

barr body
heterochromatin

17

in females the genetic activity of both X chromosomes is essential only during the _ of conception

first few weeks

18

after the few first weeks of development in females, just one functional X chromosome is required. the other x chromosome is inactivated and appears as a

dense chromatin mass called Barr Body

19

the barr body is attached to the

nuclear membrane in the cells of a normal female

20

in the cells of a normal male who only has one functional X chromosome, are Barr body present?

no

21

sex determination tests look for the presence of

Barr body's

22

Amniocentesis

amniotic fluid test used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections and also used for sex determination in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.

23

the sex of an embryo can be determined at about the _week

8th weeks (1st trimester)

24

females have _# chromosomes and _ Barr body

45 and 1 Barr body

25

Barr body is also found in the cells of males with _ syndrome

Kleinfelter (XXY)

26

_ is an excellent example of Heterochromatin

Barr body

27

Heterochromatin

highly condensed and transcriptionally INACTIVE form of DNA

28

Euchromatin

extended and transcriptionally ACTIVE form of DNA

29

in which cellular component are glycoproteins assembled for extracellular use
golgi/ER/nucleus/nucleolus

golgi

30

Golgi functions (2)

1. modification of lipids and proteins
2. storage and packaging of materials that will be exported from the cell

31

the shipping department of the cell is the

GOLGI

32

pinched off vesicles from Golgi released outside of cells or some become

lysosomes

33

1. N-linked glycosylations are the most commonly assembled in the
2. O-linked glycosylations are the most commonly assembled in the

1. ER (think eNdoplasmic)
2. Golgi (think gOlgi)

34

Golgi is similar to the ER. Golgi is composed of flat, membranous sacs called

cisternae = arranged in stacks like pancakes.

35

the cisternae sacs in golig have 2 poles: a convex _ face which receives materials and a concave _ face oriented toward the cell membrane for transport.

convex cis
concave trans

36

___ fillaments aggregate in the cisternae of Golgi.

procollagen

37

procollagen is formed in the

lumen of ER by binding sugars

38

procollagen will move from ER and bind to the _face of Golgi

cis (convex)

39

__are cytoplasmic membrane bound vesicles containing glycoprotein hydrolytic enzymes

lysosomes

40

the lumen of the __ is continuous with the perinuclear space and with the lumen of the smooth ER

RER

nucleus = outer nucleus is the perinuclear space = connects to RER = connects to SER

41

The nuclear membrane consists of __lipid bilayers—the inner nuclear membrane, and the outer nuclear membrane. The space between the membranes is called the __ space, a region contiguous with the lumen (inside) of the endoplasmic reticulum

two
perinuclear

42

the vesicles derived from the RER are coated with a specific protein called _ which targets them to fuse with the Golgi

COPII

43

axoneme

the core scaffold of the eukaryotic cilia and flagella.

44

characteristic feature of axoneme is its

9+2 arrangement of microtubules = 9 pairs of doublet microtubules form a ring around a central pair of single microtubules.

45

ciliary _ arms, the motor complexes that allow the axoneme to bend are anchored to the microtubules

dynein

46

the only organelles with DOUBLE MEMBRANES are

mitochondria and nucleus

47

_ has its own CYCLIC DNA

mitochondria

48

mitochondrial dna is transmitted form _ to fetus

mother

49

name the nonmembranous organelles of the cell

ribosomes, cytoskeleton, nucleolus

50

nucleolus plays an essential role in the formation of

ribosomes

51

all are specialized types of macrophages except one:
kupffer cells/microglial cells/osteoclasts/Langerhans cells/plasma cells

plasma cells

52

Schwann cells form __ around axons in _

myelin, PNS

53

__ cells produce testosterone

Leydig

54

_ cells produce testicular fluid

Sertoli

55

Osteoblasts forms bone matrix and gives rise to

osteocytes

56

odontoblasts forms

dentin

57

ameloblasts forms

enamel

58

fibroblast produce _ and _

collagen and reticular fibers

59

_ lymphocytes primary function is cell mediated immunity

T

60

_ lymphocytes primary function is humoral immunity, differentiate into plasma cells

B

61

Langerhans cells are

antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the skin

62

microglial cells

specialized macrophages in the CNS

63

Kupffer cells

specialized macrophages in the liver

64

Osteoclasts

specialized macrophages in the bone, bone resorption

65

this cell lines the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and secretes hormones, androgen binding proteins, and other proteins that facilitate spermatogenesis

sertoli

66

the majority of cells in seminiferous tubule are

sertoli

67

where is the primary location of sustentacular cells

internal ear = organ of Corti,
taste buds
olfactory epithelium

68

where is the primary location of pyramidal cells

cerebral cortex (cerebrum)

69

where is the primary location of endothelial cells

lining of blood and lymph vessels, endocardium (inner layer)

70

where is the primary location of ependymal cells

lining the brain ventricles and spinal cord

71

where is the primary location of sertoli cells

seminiferous tubules of the testes

72

where is the primary location of ganglionic cells

in a ganglion peripheral to cns

73

where is the primary location of globular cell

transitional epithelium (kidney, water, bladder)

74

where is the primary location of prickle cells

stratum spinosum of epidermis

75

where is the primary location of fibroblast

most common cell of CT

76

where is the primary location of chromaffin cells

adrenal medulla and paravertebral ganglia of SNS

77

where is the primary location of Purkinje cells

Cerebellar cortex (cerebellum)
GABAergic neurons = don't mix up with Purkinje fibers in the heart!

78

where is the primary location of Goblet cells

mucous membranes or respiratory in intestinal tracts

79

where is the primary location of interstitial cells

CT of ovary and testis

80

where is the primary location of juxtaglomerular cells

renal corpuscle of kidneys

81

where is the primary location of mesenchymal cells

bw ectoderm and endoderm of embryos

82

protein synthesis occurs in all except which one:
G1 phase, G2 phase, S phase, M phase

M phase

83

interphase consists of

G1 phase, G2 phase, S phase

84

cell cycle consist of

interphase and mitosis

85

most of cell cycle is spent in interphase or mitosis

interphase

86

mitosis results in 2 _ cells (diploid/haploid)

diploid

87

karyokinesis is aka

mitosis

88

in mitosis both _ and _ stop

growth and protein synthesis

89

if a cell has a cell wall, is the plasma membrane inside or outside of the cell wall?

inside:

cytoplasm ==> plasma membrane ==> cell wall

90

mitochondria contain linear/cyclic DNA

cyclic

91

__ proteins can be removed with detergents and can change in pH environments
(peripheral or integral)

peripheral

92

integral proteins cannot be purified w/o

disruption of the cell membrane structure

93

what type of cell in dental papilla adjacent to the inner enamel epithelium differentiates into odontoblasts

mesenchymal cell aka mesoblastic cell

94

mesenchymal cells have the potential to proliferate and differentiate into diverse cell types like

fibroblasts, chondroblasts, odontoblasts and osteoblasts

95

the _ cells in the dental papilla differentiate into odontoblasts which produce predentin that calcifies to become dentin

mesenchymal cells

96

mesectoderm aka ectomesenchyme is part of the mesenchyme derived from

ectoderm - especially from the neural crest in embryo.

97

neural crest cells give rise to __ganglia

spinal ganglia (dorsal root ganglia) and ganglia of ANS.

98

__ cells also give rise to neurolemma cells (scwann cells), cells of the meninges and melanocytes, chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla.

neural crest

99

are mast cells normally found in circulation

no

100

name 2 cells that release heparin, histamine, bradykinin, and serotonin into blood

mast and basophils

101

chromatin = DNA wound around a base of proteins called

histones

102

_# histone proteins make up a nucleosome core

4

103

chromatin occurs in 2 forms: euchromatin ____ and heterochromatin ___ (difference?)

euchromatin =extened
heterochromatin = condensed (ex Barr body)

104

when a cell prepares to divide, does the chromatin coil into chromosomes or uncoil?

coils

105

chromosomes appear in pair except in

gametes (sex/germ cells)

106

normal human cells contain_ pairs of chromosomes

23 pairs = diploid number of 46

107

haploid number of chrom are found in

gametes

108

out of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are called

homologous chromosomes aka autosomes

109

the 23rd pair are _ chromosomes

sex (x and Y)

110

XX =

female

111

XY =

male

112

histones are +/- charged?

positive bc need to interact with - charged DNA

113

are plasma cells commonly found in peripheral blood

rarely

114

__ cells are further differentiated B cells

plasma

115

plasma cells histologically unique bc have

basophil cytoplasm and eccentric nucleus, pale zone in cytoplasm and extensive golgi

116

Plasma cells are mainly found in

bone marrow and CT

117

70-80% of circulating lymphocytes are

T cells

118

upon interacting w a specific antigen T lymphocytes become sensitized and differentiate into several daughter type cells = memory, killer and helper T cells. Memory T cells are active/inactive

inactive until future exposure to the same antigen

119

B cells complete maturation in

the Bone marrow (think B = bone marrow)

120

B lymphocytes are 30% of circulating lymphocytes. when they are sensitized to antigen they make

plasma cells and memory b cells

121

1. the liver's functional unit
2. the kidney's functional unit

1. lobule
2. nephron

122

what organelle in hepatocytes produce bile salts and detoxifies poisons

smooth Er

123

what organelle in hepatocytes produce membranes and secretory proteins

RER

124

glycosomes in liver do what

store sugar

125

site of synthesis of rRNA

nucleolus = not bound by membrane

126

the nucleolus is found where

inside the nucleus

127

the smooth/rough ER in muscle is known as sarcoplasmic reticulum

smooth

128

steroid synthesis is cell occurs in the

SER

129

detox in cell occurs in

SER

130

the nucleus of the cell is surrounded by how many membranes

2 (mitochondria and nucleus have 2)

131

active cells that synthesize large amounts of protein are characterized by an abundance of

RER

132

NBDE FAVORITE QUESTION: the cytoplasm of osteoblasts appears to basophilic via H&E stain due to the presence of?

large amounts or RER

133

Feulgen reaction

distinguishes RNA from DNA

134

any substance that is stained by the basic dye by appearing blue or purple is considered to be

basophilic
ex nucleus and RER bc of their high content of DNA and RNA

135

any dye that is stained by acidic dye by appearing red or pink is considered __

acidophilic
ex. mitochondria and lysosomes

136

1. mitochondria stains _
2. lysosomes stain _
3. nucleus stain _
4. RER stains _

1. mito = acidic dye red/pink bc acidic
2. lysosome = acidic dye red/pink bc acidic
3. nucleus = basophilic (blue/purple) = bc DNA
4. RER stains basophilic (blue/purple) = bc RNA

137

gram positive bacteria stain

purple = Positive = Purple

138

gram negative bacteria stain

red

139

in which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes condense and become visible, the nuclear membrane breakdown, and the mitotic spindle apparatus forms at opposite poles of cell

prophase

140

in _ phase of mitosis the chromosomes align at the equatorial plate and held in place by microtubules attached to the mitotic spindle and to part of centromere

metaphase

141

in _ stage the centromeres divide, sister chromatids separate and move to opp poles

anaphase

142

in _ phase daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles and microtubules disappear. the condense chromatin expands, and the nuclear envelope reappears. the cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis) and the cell membrane pinches inward

telophase

143

the mitotic spindle is made up of

microtubules

144

meiosis requires _ divisions to complete the process

2

145

mitosis requires division to complete the process

1

146

mitosis occurs in all _ cells

somatic cells (non sex)

147

meiosis occurs only in

sex cells (germ cells)

148

crossing over bw chromosomes occurs only in

meiosis

149

meiosis and mitosis have the same

names of phases: PMAT

150

in the 1st meiotic division the number of cells are _, chromosomes are _

number of cells double, number of chromosomes do not

151

in 2nd meiotic division is like mitosis bc

the number of chromosomes do not get reduced

152

1. Cisterna are present in
2. cristae is present in

1. Golgi (pancakes)
2. mitochondria inner membrane

153

cristae increase the

surface area inner mito membrane

154

kidneys and cardiac cells have high or low mitoch

high = lots of energy needed

155

mature RBC have no mitochondria so all energy must come from

anaerobic glycolysis

156

striated duct cells of salivary glands have striated appearance due to

lots of mitochondria arranged in rows giving striated appearance. need energy to pump ions

157

myoepithelial cells are non secretory cells that are found in

sweat glands and mammary glands.

158

function of myoepithelial cells are to

contract.

159

myoepithelial cells are located bw _ and _

bw secretory cells and their basement membranes

160

myoepithelial cells are derived from what germ layer

ectoderm