NBDE: ANTATOMICAL SCIENCES: Nerves Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE: ANTATOMICAL SCIENCES: Nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE: ANTATOMICAL SCIENCES: Nerves Deck (365):
1

Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers reach the otic ganglia thru which nerve?

lesser petrosal nerve

2

the glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed nerve (motor and sensory) T/F

true

3

what 3 CNs come from the medulla oblangata

IX, X, XI

4

1. The _ nerve provides the efferent (motor) limb of the gag reflex
2. The _ nerve provides the afferent limb of the gag reflex

1. CNX
2. CNIX

5

your most recent patient presents to your office complaining of severe pain in his jaws around the TMJ joint. He chews 3 packs of gum a day and he grinds his teeth what nerve provides major sensory innervation to the TMJ?

auriculotemporal nerve
(from posterior division of V3)

6

auriculotemporal nerve
(from posterior division of V3) supplies the anterior/posterior portion of the TMJ?

posterior

7

the nerve to the masseter (massetric nerve) is a branch of

V3

8

3 branches of V3 carry sensory fibers to the TMJ:
1. _ carries sensory fibers to the posterior portion of the TMJ
2. _ and _ carries sensory fibers to the anterior portion of the TMJ

1. auriculotemporal nerve
2. deep temporal nerve and massetric nerve/nerve to the masseter

9

pain impulses from a patient's fractured condylar neck are carried by the _ nerve

auriculotemporal nerve

10

pain (TMJ) is transmitted in the capsule and periphery of the disc by the _ nerve

auriculotemporal nerve

11

the auriculotemporal nerve
carries some secretory fibers from __ ganglion to the parotid gland

otic ganglion

12

All joints (including the TMJ) receive _ motor innervation

no.
the muscles that move the joint receive motor innervation

13

the arterial supply to TMJ (2)?

superficial temporal and maxillary branches of the external carotid artery

14

when walking to his car late at night a guy hears footsteps behind him, his sympathetic response that results for the head and neck is mediated by cell bodies in the _ ganglion

superior cervical ganglion

15

paravertebral sympathetic ganglia lie on both sides of the vertebrae and are connected forming the _

sympathetic chain or trunk

16

how many pairs of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia are there that form the sympathetic trunk?

21 or 23 pairs: 3 in cervical, 12 in thoracic, 4 in lumbar, 4 in sacral and a single unpaired ganglion in front of the coccyx called the ganglion impar

17

ganglion impar

the only unpaired sympathetic ganglia that lies in front of the coccyx

18

superior cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia) is the uppermost and largest stretching from what level?

C to level C2 or C3

19

the superior cervical ganglion lies bw the _ and _

ICA and IJV

20

the superior cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia)innervates viscera of the _

head

21

the middle cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia) is located at the level of the

cricoid cartilage.

22

the middle cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia) innervate viscera of the

neck, thorax, and upper limb
ie. bronchi and heart

23

the inferior cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia) occurs at _ level

C7

24

the inferior cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia) most commonly is fused to the first thoracic sympathetic ganglion to form a _ ganglion

stellate

25

the inferior cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia) innervates the

viscera of the neck and thorax and upper limb (same as the middle cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglia). ie bronchi and heart

26

the three cervical sympathetic ganglia are

superior (largest) @ C1 to C2-C3
middle (@ cricoid cartilage)
inferior (@C7)

27

the thoracic chain ganglia (sympathetic ganglia) sends postganglionic fibers to the _ up to the

entire GI tract up to the upper colon

28

the lumbar and sacral ganglia ((sympathetic ganglia)) send postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the

GI tract below the upper colon, including the rectum, and smooth muscle glands of the bladder and external genitalia

29

_ syndrome = combo of drooping of the eyelid (ptosis) and constriction of the eye (miosis) sometimes accompanied by decreased sweating of the face on the same side; redness of the conjunctiva of the eye is also often present

Horner's

30

the gray/white rami connect the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerve

gray

31

the white rami are limited to the spinal cord segments bw

T1 and L2

32

the cell bodies of the visceral efferent fibers in visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk are located in the _ of the spinal cord

intermediolateral cell column (aka lateral horn)

33

the cell bodies of visceral AFFERENT fibers are located in the

dorsal root ganglia

34

which trigeminal nuclei is involved in proprioception of the face?

mesencephalic (midbrain)

35

the 3 sensory nuclei for CN V

mesencephalic -proprioception (midbrain)
pontine aka main sensory nucleus or chief nucleus-touch (pons)
nucleus of spinal tract -pain and temp (pons/SC)

36

mesencephalic is involved in proprioception of the face = feeling of position of muscles. unlike many nuclei in CNS this nucleus contains no _ but is electrically coupled

chemical

37

neurons of the mesencephalic nucleus are _ polar cells, receiving info from the mandible and sending its projections to the motor trigeminal nucleus to mediate monosynaptic jaw jerk reflexes.

pseudounipolar

38

the main sensory nucleus of CN V is a group of __ order neurons which have cell bodies in the

second
dorsal pons

39

which nucleus of CN V receives info about discriminative sensation and light touch of the face as well as conscious proprioception of the jaw via first order neurons?

the main sensory nucleus aka chief nucleus aka pontine nucleus

40

info into the main sensory nucleus aka chief nucleus aka pontine nucleus (CN V) from the oral cavity travels to the _ of the thalamus via the DORSAL trigeminothalmic tract

ipsilateral ventral posteromedial (VPM) of the thalamus

41

most the info into the main sensory nucleus aka chief nucleus aka pontine nucleus (CN V) other than from the oral cavity travels to the _ of the thalamus via the VENTRAL trigeminothalmic tract

contralateral ventral posteromedial (VPM) of the thalamus

42

which nucleus of CN V mediates pain and temperature from the head and neck

spinal nucleus aka nucleus of the spinal tract

43

the spinal nucleus of CN V have 3 segments name them

subnucleus oralis (closest to the mouth), subnucleus interpolaris (middle) and subnuclues caudalis (near tail)

44

in which segment of the spinal nucleus of CN V do pain fibers synapse

subnuclues caudalis (near tail)

45

the trigeminal motor nucleus contains motor neurons that innervate muscles of the _ branchial arch

1st.

46

the trigeminal motor nucleus is located where in the brainstem

pons

47

all nucleus of CN V are in the pons except

the mesencephalic = midbrain

48

identify the CN V nucleus based on its function:
supplies of the first branchial arch

motor nucleus

49

identify the CN V nucleus based on its function:
pain/temp to face

spinal nucleus

50

identify the CN V nucleus based on its function:
discriminative touch of face

pontine/main/chief sensory nucleus

51

identify the CN V nucleus based on its function: proprioception of the face

mesencephalic

52

preganglionic parasympathetic axons are associated with all of the following CN except
III
VII
V
IX
X

V

53

name the 4 paired parasympathetic ganglia that innervate the head and neck

ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, otic

54

each parasympathetic ganglia of CNs has a ___ root that carries PREsynaptic parasympathetic nerve fibers that terminate in the ganglion by synapsing with the postsynaptic fibers that travel to target organs

motor

55

each parasympathetic ganglia of CNs has a ___ root that carries POSTsynaptic sympathetic fibers that traverse the ganglion w/o synapsing.

sympathetic

56

each parasympathetic ganglia of CNs has a ___ root that carries general sensory fibers that also do not synapse in the ganglion

sensory

57

the ciliary ganglion is in the posterior part of the orbit on the lateral side of the optic nerve. what fibers are in there?

preganglionic PNS fibers from the oculomotor nerve
postganglionic PNS fibers leave ganglion in the short ciliary nerves
sympathetic fibers from the internal carotid plexus

58

the pterygopalatine ganglion in the pterygopalatine fossa has what fibers in there?

1.preganglionic secretomotor fibers arise in the lacrimal nucleus of the facial nerve.
postganglionic
2. parasympathetic fibers reach the maxillary nerve by one of tits ganglionic branches-these reach the lacrimal gland. others run in the palatine and nasal nerves to the palatine and nasal glands
3. sympathetic fibers reach the ganglion via the internal carotid plexus

59

submandibular ganglion is located

on the hyoglossal muscle

60

submandibular ganglion fibers?

1. preganglionic PNS fibers reach the ganglion from the superior salivatory nucleus of the facial nerve via the chorda tympani and lingual nerves
2. postganglionic PNS fibers pass to the submandibular gland. others pass to sublingual gland
3. sympathetic fibers are vasomotor to the BV's of glands

61

the otic ganglia is located

below foramen ovale medial to the mandibular nerve (V3)

62

Fibers in otic ganglia?

preganglionic PNS fibers originate in the inferior salivatory nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve
Postganglionic PNS fibers leave the ganglion and join the auriculotermporal nerve, fibers are secretomotor to the parotid gland

63

only one CN emerges from the dorsal aspect of the brainstem. which one?

trochlear nerve (IV)

64

what nerves exit the cranium thru the superior orbital fissure

oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens (III, IV, VI) = all the eye related

65

oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens (III, IV, VI) innervate the intrinsic/extrinsic ocular muscles?

extrinsic = result in movement of the eyeball

66

the trochlear nerve supplies the _ muscle that turns the eyeball?

superior oblique muscle: turns the eyeball inferiorly and laterally

67

which nerve is the smallest cranial nerve of all

trochlear nerve (IV) = also the only one that exits the dorsal aspect of the brainstem.

68

trochlear nerve innervates ipsilateral/contralateral structures

contralateral only

69

the oculomotor nerve supplies what extraocular muscles (5)

medial, superior, inferior recti. inferior oblique and levator palpebrae superioris

70

the oculomotor nerve sends preganglionic PNS fibers to the _ ganglion

ciliary

71

the postganglionic fibers leave the ciliar ganglion in the _ nerve to supply the sphincter pupillae and the ciliary muscle

short ciliary

72

in most cases, ptosis is caused by what 2 things?

a weakness of the levator muscle (muscle that raises the lid) or a problem with the oculomotor nerve

73

__nucleus contains the PNS ganglionic cells whose efferent axons in the oculomotor nerve travel to the ciliary ganglion

Edinger Westphal

74

The pupillary light reflex: the _ nerve is responsible for the AFFERENT limb of the pupillary reflex.
the efferent limb of the pupillary reflex is the _ nerve

optic nerve

efferent: oculomotor

75

The fovea/macula = very high density of __

cones and no rods

76

Highest area of visual acuity in the eye is the.

fovea
When we move our eyes around, we are trying to get light to hit the fovea

77

diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy: long term diabetes: go blind: blood leaks into vitrous humor and clouds it. If humor clouds up, light doesn’t get thru like it is supposed to

78

the splanchnic nerves (greater, lesser, and least) arise from the _ sympathetic ganglion (chain): cervical/thoracic/lumbar/sacral

thoracic sympathetic ganglion (chain)

79

paravertebral sympathetic ganglia lie on each side of the vertebrae and are connected to form the

sympathetic chain or trunk

80

sympathetic ANS is a _ system

motor

81

sympathetic chain origin starts bw

T1 and L2

82

sympathetic chain ganglia is aka

paravertebral sympathetic ganglia

83

the greater splanchnic sympathetic fibers arise from which vertebral levels and end in the _ ganglion

T5-T9 = pass thru diaphragm and into celiac ganglia

84

the lesser splanchnic sympathetic fibers arise from which vertebral levels and end in the _ ganglion

T10 and T11 = passes thru diaphragm with the greater splanchnic to end in the aorticorenal ganglion

85

the least splanchnic sympathetic fibers arise from which vertebral levels and end in the _ ganglion

T12 = pierce diaphragm and ends in the renal plexus

86

the greater, lesser and least splanchnic nerves are pre ganglionic sympathetic and all pierce the

diaphragm

87

which nerve penetrates the cricothyroid membrane:
recurrent laryngeal nerve
facial nerve
accessory nerve
internal laryngeal nerve

recurrent laryngeal nerve

88

both recurrent laryngeal nerves pass deep to the lower margin of the inferior constrictor muscle to innervate the _ muscles of the larynx responsible for controlling the movements of the vocal folds

intrinsic

89

the right recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates all the muscles of the larynx except the

cricothyroid

90

the cricothyroid muscle is supplied by the _

external laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve

91

the mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal folds, the mucous membrane of the upper part of the trachea

right recurrent laryngeal nerve

92

the left recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates the same muscles and mucous membranes as the right recurrent laryngeal except

on the left side

93

the right recurrent laryngeal nerve splits from the right vagus before entering the _ mediastinum at the level of the right subclavian artery

superior

94

the left vagus gives rise to the _ nerve

left recurrent laryngeal nerve

95

_ nerves are vulnerable during thyroid surgery. if one of these nerves are damaged =will be affected

recurrent laryngeal nerves
quality of voice = resulting in hoarseness (rough voice)

96

which is longer the left/right laryngeal nerve

left

97

the _ laryngeal nerve branches from the vagus and loops under the arch of the aorta

left

98

the right laryngeal nerve loops where?

around the right subclavian artery

99

the hypoglossal nerve travels from the carotid triangle into the submandibular triangle of the neck. T/F

true

100

a unilateral lesion to the hypoglossal nerve results in the deviation of the protruded tongue toward the affected side. this is due to the lack of function of the _ muscle on the diseased side

genioglossus muscle

101

injury to hypoglossal nerve eventually produces paralysis and atrophy of the tongue on the affected side with the tongue deviated to the affected side. Dysarthria may also be found. what does that mean

inability to articulate

102

if the __ muscle is paralyzed the tongue has a tendency to fall back and obstruct the oropharyngeal airway with risk of suffocation.

genioglossus (innervated by CN XII)

103

after depositing enough lidocaine to anesthetize the nerve entering the mandibular foramen a dental student removes the needle to approximately half the depth of the initial target hereupon another bolus of anesthetic is deposited. hat nerve is most likely anesthetized by the second bolus?
a. hypoglossal
b. long buccal nerve
c. inferior alveolar nerve
d. lingual nerve
e. glossopharyngeal nerve

lingual nerve

104

the _ nerve supplies the general sensation for the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and mandibular lingual gingiva

lingual nerve

105

what nerve crosses the submandibular duct twice

lingual

106

the lingual nerve descend deep to the _ muscle where it is joined by the _ which is a branch of the _ nerve

lateral pterygoid
chorda tympani
facial nerve VII

107

if you cut the lingual nerve after its junction with the chorda tympani, the tongue would _

lose taste and tactile sense to the anterior 2/3

108

the chorda tympani emerges from a small canal in the posterior wall of the tympanic membrane, the ___

petrotympanic fissure

109

the chorda tympani joins the lingual nerve where

in the infratemporal fossa

110

the chorda tympani nerve conveys _ fibers (motor fibers) of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system to the submandibular ganglion. It also carries ____ for taste

general visceral EFFERENT
special visceral AFFERENT fibers for taste

111

the lesser petrosal nerve carries preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to which ganglia

otic

112

the only muscle supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve is

stylopharyngeus muscle (via the muscular branch)

113

the stylopharyngeus muscle is the landmark for locating the _ because as the nerve enters the pharyngeal wall it curves posteriorly around the lateral margin of this muscle

glossopharyngeal nerve

114

glossopharyngeal nerve provides somatic motor innervation to the sylopharyngeus muscle and supplies preganglionic parasympathetic motor fibers to the _ ganglion which synapse w postganglionic fibers in the ganglion to supply the _

parotid gland

115

the preganglionic nerves leave the glossopharyngeal nerve as the _ which enters the _ and participates in the formation of the tympanic plexus

tympanic nerve
middle ear cavity

116

postaganglionic fibers exiting the otic ganglion are carried by the _ nerve to the parotid gland

auriculotermporal nerve (V3)

117

THE GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL nerve visceral sensory branches:
1. lingual branches - 2 branches that supply?
2. pharyngeal
3. carotid sinus nerve

1. one supplies the vallate papillae and mucous membrane of the base of the tongue. the other supplies the mucous membrane and follicular glands of the posterior one third of the tongue and communicates with the lingual nerve

118

THE GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL nerve visceral sensory branches:
1. lingual branches
2. pharyngeal -????
3. carotid sinus nerve

distributed to mucous membrane of the pharynx. it is the SENSORY limb of the GAG REFLEX

119

THE GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL nerve visceral sensory branches:
1. lingual branches -
2. pharyngeal
3. carotid sinus nerve ???

to carotid sinus (baroreceptor)
carotid body (chemoreceptor)

120

the cervical plexus consists of anterior rami from C1-C4; some of these fibers reach the hyoid muscles by running concurrently with which cranial nerve?

hypoglossal nerve

121

adjacent _ rami will form interwoven network of nerve fibers (axons) known as nerve plexus

ventral

122

four plexus: cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral emerging from each plexus will be specifically named _nerves which contain fibers from multiple spinal cord levels.

peripheral

123

the cervical plexus is what level?

C1-C4

124

ansa cervicalis, phrenic nerve, and great auricular nerve are all part of the

cervical plexus

125

the cervical plexus: ansa cervicalis is what level?

C1-C3

126

ansa cervicalis supplies ___muscles except the _

infrahyoid
except thyrohyoid

127

the thyrohyoid is supplied by

C1 ONLY

128

mnemonic to remember the ansa cervicalis muscles (infrahyoid)

"Gene THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene":

Geniohyoid
Thyrohyoid
Superior Omohyoid
Sternothyroid
Sternohyoid
Inferior omohyoid

129

the phrenic nerve of the cervical plexus are what nerves? supplies?

C3-C5 supplied diaphragm = C3, 4, 5 keeps your diaphragm alive

130

great auricular nerve of the cervical plexus is what nerves and supplies what?

C2 and C3= provides sensory innervation for the skin over parotid and mastoid process and both surfaces of the outer ear

131

the brachial plexus are what nerves

C5-C8 and T1

132

the brachial plexus is formed in the_ triangle of the neck, and extends onto the axilla supplying the nerves to the upper limb

posterior

133

name the 3 cords of the brachial plexus

posterior
lateral
medial

134

the posterior cord of the brachial plexus has what 2 main branches

axillary and radial nerves

135

the lateral cord of the brachial plexus has what main branch

musculocutaneous nerve

136

the medial cord of the brachial plexus has what main branch

ulnar

137

the median nerve forms its two heads (medial and lateral) from the _ and _ cords

medial and lateral

138

the lumbar plexus is what nerves

L1-L4

139

the lumbar plexus is formed in the _ muscle

psoas

140

the lumbar plexus is formed in the psoas muscle and supplies the _

lower abdomen and parts of the lower limb

141

the main branches of the lumbar plexus = _ and _

femoral and obturator nerves

142

sacral plexus is at hat levels

L4-L5 and S1-S4

143

sacral plexus lies in the _ in front of the _ muscle

posterior pelvic wall in front of the piriformis muscle

144

the sacral plexus supplies the _

lower back, pelvis, and parts of the thigh, leg and foot

145

the main branch of the sacral plexus is the

sciatic

146

the sciatic nerve is unique bc

it is the largest nerve in our body

147

the branch of the trigeminal nerve that innervates the midface, palate, and paranasal sinuses exits the cranial cavity thru which structure?

foramen rotundum- the nerve is the maxillary nerve (V2)

148

the ophthalmic division (V1) enters the orbit thru the _ and provides _ innervation to the eyeball, tip of nose, skin over the upper eyelid, and skin of the face above the eye

superior orbital fissure
sensory

149

1. the skin of the lower eyelid is supplied by __
2. the rest is supplied by branches of the _

1.branches of the infratrochlear at the medial angle
2.infraorbital nerve of the maxillary division

150

during a sinus attack, painful sensation from the ethmoid cells is carried in the _ nerve

nasociliary

151

the ophthalmic nerve is pure_

sensory

152

1. the ophthalmic nerve is often infected with _, whereas involvement of the lower two divisions is rare

herpes zoster virus

153

the maxillary division (V2) passes thru the foramen _ and provides _ innervation to the midface (below the eye and above the upper lip), palate, paranasal sinuses, and the maxillary teeth

rotundum

154

name the 7 main branches of V1

lacrimal, frontal, nasociliary, supraorbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, and external nasal nerves

155

give path for branchial motor v3

Cell body of LMN in Trigeminal motor nucleus (pons) ==> foramen ovale ==>  infratemporal fossa ==>  branches to muscles

156

The Sensory cell bodies for V1, V2 and V3 are in the __ Ganglion. V1, V2 and V3 then branch from the Trigeminal Ganglion in the Cranial Cavity

Trigeminal

157

give the route for v1

Sensory Cell bodies in Trigeminal Ganglion,  V1 branches from the ganglion in the cranial cavity,  cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure,  orbit  BRANCHES into the sensory nerves

158

name all the sensory branches of V1

1. Lacrimal nerve – lateral upper eyelid, lacrimal gland and some conjunctiva
2. Frontal nerve branches into:
-Supraorbital nerve – upper eyelid, forehead and scalp
-Supratrochlear nerve – upper eyelid, forehead and scalp
3. Nasociliary nerve branches:
-Long cilliary nerves - eyeball
-Posterior ethmoidal nerve – sphenoid sinus, ethmoid air cells and nasal cavity
-Anterior ethmoidal nerve – ethmoid air cells and nasal cavity
-External nasal branches – bridge of nose
-Infratrochlear nerve – medial upper eyelid and lacrimal sac

159

what muscles does V3 supply branchial motor to?

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION:
Medial pterygoid, lateral ptergoid, masseter, temporalis
OTHER MUSCLES:Tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, anterior belly of
digastric muscles

160

HOME OF V1 is the _ V1 branches from the trigeminal ganglion

orbit.

161

the tickling sensation felt in the nasal cavity just prior to sneezing is carried by the _

maxillary division of trigeminal (V2)

162

the branches of V2 are

infraorbital, zygomaticofacial, and zygomaticotemporal nerves

163

give path for V2

Sensory cell bodies in trigeminal ganglion => V2 branches from the ganglion in the cranial cavity =>  cavernous sinus =>  foramen rotundum =>  pterygopalatine fossa => V2 has some BRANCHES in the pterygopalatine fossa =>  V2 continues on as the infraorbital nerve => inferior orbital fissure =>  orbit =>  infraorbital canal =>  V2 has some BRANCHES in the infraorbital canal =>  infraorbital foramen =>  the TERMINAL BRANCHES of V2 (now the infraorbitla nerve) emerge from the infraorbital foramen.

164

Name the branches in the pterygopalatine fossa of V2:

BRANCHES IN THE PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA
1. Posterior superior alveolar nerve - max. sinus and max molars, gingiva and bone
2. Zygomatic nerve - enters the orbit to branch into two nerves:
-Zygomaticofacial – skin over zygomatic arch
-Zygomaticotemporal – skin over ant. temple
3. Greater palatine nerve – hard palate distal to canines
4. Lesser palatine nerve – soft palate
5. Nasoopalatine nerve – nasal septum and hard palate
ant. to canines
6. Posterior lateral nasal nerves – lateral nasal wall
7. Pharyngeal nerve - nasopharynx

165

the maxillary nerve is solely _

sensory

166

which nerve is most frequently affected by tic doulourex?

tic doulourex = trigeminal neuralgia = V2

167

sensory innervation of the mandibular division (V3) is to the

skin of the cheek, skin of mandible, lower lip and side of head, TMJ, mandibular teeth, mucous membranes of the check, the floor of the mouth, and the anterior tongue.

168

mental, buccal, and auriculotemporal nerves are branches of what nerve

V3

169

does the trigeminal nerve contain parasympathetic component at its origin?

no

170

what nerve branches use the trigeminal nerve to distribute THEIR PARASYMPATHETIC preganglionic fibers?

CN III, VII, IX

171

the mylohyoid nerve is derived from the inferior alveolar nerve just before it enters the mandibular foramen. the mylohyoid nerve descends in a groove on the deep surface of the ramus of the mandible, to supply the mylohyoid and what other muscle?

anterior digastric

172

functions of mylohyoid? (3)

elevates hyoid bone, base of tongue and the floor of the mouth

173

origin of mylohyoid muscle is the _ found on the _ of the mandible

mylohyoid line on the BODY of the mandible

174

the sublingual gland is located superior/inferior to the mylohyoid muscle?

superior

175

when film is placed for a periapical vie of the mandibular molars, it is the _ muscle that gets in the way if it is not relaxed

mylohyoid (forms the floor of the mouth)

176

the mylohyoid muscle is one muscle or paired?

paired, flat, and triangular

177

swelling at the angle of the mandible and the lateral neck is often the result of exudates from what muscle

mylohyoid

178

name the suprahyoid muscles (5)

digastric muscles (ant and post), mylohyoid, genohyoid, stylohyoid

179

Suprahyoid muscle innervations:
1. anterior belly of digastric muscle
2. posterior belly of digastric muscle
3. mylohyoid
4. genohyoid
5.stylohyoid

1. V3 (My, Ass, Touches, TheToilet) = nerve to the mylohyoid
2. Facial nerve VII
3. V3 nerve to mylohyoid
4. geniohyoid: first cervical nerve thru the hypoglossal nerve
5. stylohyoid = facial nerve

180

REMEMBER!
1. the thyrohyoid (infrahyoid muscle) is supplied by
2. the geniohyoid (suprahyoid) is innervated by

1. C1
2. first cervical nerve thru the hypoglossal nerve

think you have one thyroid and you get one wish for the genie

181

the three muscles innervated by ansa cervicalis C1, C2 and C3 are?

SOS:
sternohyoid, omohyoid, and sternothyroid

182

the first cervical nerve accompanies the _ CN to the suprahyoid region, and then it branches from it to reach the _ muscle

XII hypoglossal, thyrohyoid muscle

183

the mylohyoid nerve arises from the _ nerve, which is a branch of

inferior alveolar nerve, V3 (mandibular division)

184

which nerve innervates the medial rectus muscle of the eyeball

oculomotor (III)

185

the olfactory nerve (CNI) exits the skull from the _ of the _ bone

cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

186

the optic CNII nerve exits the skull via the _ in the _ bone

optic foramen (right above the Superior orbital fissure) = leads into optic canal = in lesser wing of the sphenoid bone

187

the oculomotor CN exits the skull from the _ in the _ bone

SOF
sphenoid bone

188

trochlear and abducens nerves exit the skull from the _ in the _ bone

SOF
sphenoid bone

189

which muscle and nerve of the eye is responsible for lateral gaze

abducens CN VI = lateral rectus
contracts it so that the eye is abducted

190

a lesion in the abducens nerve results in

medial strabismus (cross eyed) and diplopia (double vision)

191

every cranial nerve that innervates the eye passes thru the SOF except for the

optic nerve = optic foramen

192

the corneal reflex is aka

blink reflex = involuntary blinking of eyelids elicited by the stimulation of the cornea (touching it), or by bright light, or any peripheral stimulus. this reflex should elicit a direct and consensual response (response of the opposite eye). 0.1sec reflex.

193

the corneal reflex (blinking reflex) is mediated by what 2 nerves?

V1 ophthalmic branch sensing the stimulus on the cornea, lid or conjunctive (afferent), and the VII facial nerve initiating the motor response (efferent)

194

the principal types of nerves found in the dental pulp are:
1. sympathetic and efferent
2. sympathetic and afferent
3. parasympathetic and efferent
4. parasympathetic and afferent

sympathetic and afferent fibers

195

the sensory nerve fibers in the dental pulp originate in the _ ganglion

trigeminal

196

place the sensory nerve fibers in the dental pulp in order of largest to smallest diameter

A beta > A delta > C fibers

197

A-delta fibers are myelinated/unmyelinated

myelinated

198

which fibers in the pulp are responsible for the first pain signal?

A-delta fibers
(think Delaram comes 1st and I am myelinated bc I am fast =)

199

C-fibers are myelinated/unmyelinated and smallest in diameter

unmyelinated therefore small

200

C-fibers are called polynodal bc they

respond to multiple different stimuli such as mechanical, chemical, or thermal stimulation of the pulp.

201

which fibers mediate the "second pain signal" in the pulp

C-fibers

202

the pulp contains myelinated/unmyelinated fibers?

both

203

tooth pulp consists of dense/loose type of CT

loose = thin collagenous fibers arranged symmetrically plus a ground substance w/GAGs

204

Tooth pulp is highly innervated and vascularized tissue. Numerous fibroblasts are present. surrounding the pulp and separating it from the dentin are the

odontoblasts

205

pain originates in the pulp due to

free nerve endings (afferent fibers) which are the only type of nerve endings found in pulp and are specific receptors for pain.

206

vasomotor _ fibers in the pulp end on BVs

sympathetic

207

functions of pulp (3)

nutritive - very rich blood supply that surround the odontoblasts
formative - odontoblasts in peripheral layer form dentin
sensory - free nerve ending that make contact w odontoblasts

208

which of the CN's have visceral sensory innervation

CN IX and X

209

vagus nerve is a mixed nerve that leaves the brain from the _ and passes out the cranial cavity thru the

medulla
jugular foramen

210

the vagus nerve descends in the neck in the _, and behind or infront of the ICA and common carotid arteries and IJV

carotid sheath
behind the ICA and common carotid arteries and IJV

211

both right and left vagal trunks pass thru the _ mediastinum on the ___ and enter the abdominal cavity thru the diaphragm with the _

posterior
esophagus
esophagus

212

the vagus nerve supplies the viscera of the neck, thorax, and abdomen to the _ of the large intestine

left colic (splenic) flexure

213

the abdominal viscera BELOW THE LEFT COLIC FLEXURE and the pelvic and genitalia are supplied with preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the _nerves

pelvic splanchnic

214

the pharyngeal plexus of nerves contains both motor and sensory components. the motor nerves come from the _ nerve

vagus

215

the vagus nerve forms the _ limb of the gag reflex

efferent (motor)

216

which is a component of the optic disc aka optic papilla?

central artery
cones
sensory efferent fibers
mylinated nerve fibers
oculomotor nerve

central artery

217

optic disc is the _ on the surface of the retina

small blind site = located to the nasal side of the macula

218

the only part of the retina that contains no photoreceptors (rods/cones) is the

optic disc

219

the optic disc/optic papilla contains myelinated/unmyelinated axons of ganglion cells exiting the retina to form the optic nerve

unmyelinated

220

the fibers of the axons of ganglion cells exiting the retina become myelinated when?

posterior to the optic disc and are accompanied by the central artery and vein of the retina

221

the optic nerve has only a _ component

special sensory = conveys visual info from the retina

222

visual signals enter the eye as light photons and are converted to electrical signals in the

retina

223

electric signals are carried via the optic nerves, chiasma and tract to the _ nucleus of each thalamus and then to the visual centers of the brain for interpretation

lateral geniculate

224

after exiting the eye at the __, the two optic nerves (one from each eye) will meet at the

optic disc
optic chiasma

225

at the optic chiasma, which axons will cross to the opposite side?

medial (nasal) cross to opp side and lateral (temporal) stay on same side.

226

from the optic chiasma, axons that perceive the left visual field form the _ (R/L) optic tract

right

227

the primary visual cortex is in Brodmann's area _# of occipital lobe

17

228

the right visual field is interpreted in the _ hemisphere of the brain and vice versa

left

229

the __ artery of the retina (branch of the ophthalmic artery) pierces the optic nerve and gains access to the retina by emerging from the center of the optic disc.

central

230

which of the following ganglia receives fibers from the motor, sensory, and PNS components of the facial nerve and sends fibers that will innervate the lacrimal, submandibular and sublingual glands:
semilunar/geniculate/otic/ciliay

geniculate ganglion

231

the left optic tract contains:
a. fibers from the left eye only
b. fibers from the right eye only
c. fibers from the nasal half of the left eye and temporal half of the right eye
d. fibers from the temporal half of the left eye and nasal half of the right eye

fibers from the temporal half of the left eye and nasal half of the right eye

remember the optic nerve is in the optic canal in front of the optic chiasm, the tract is behind the chiasm, and radiations are in the brain.

232

the optic nerve (CN II) arises from

axons of ganglion cells of the retina which converge at the OPTIC DISC.

233

what are the only things that enter the optic canal aka optic foramen

ophthalmic artery and optic nerve

234

the optic nerves from both eyes join to form the

optic chiasma

235

the optic _ emerges from the optic chiasma and passes backward around the lateral side of the midbrain to reach the lateral geniculate body

tract

236

the left vagus nerve contributes to the anterior esophageal plexus t/f

true

237

the left vagus nerve passes in front/behind the left subclavian artery as it enters the thorax

in front

238

the left vagus nerve can be cut on the lower part of the esophagus to reduce_

gastric secretion = vagotomy

239

t/f the left vagus nerve carries parasympathetic postganglionic fibers

false
it caries parasympathetic PREganglionic fibers

240

the left vagus nerve enters the thorax in front of the left subclavian artery and _ the left braciocephalic vein and the left lung

behind

241

the left vagus nerve enters the abdomen in front of the esophagus thru the ____of the diaphragm as the___

1. esophageal hiatus
2. anterior vagal trunk

242

the vagus nerves lose their identity in the esophageal plexus. At the lower end of the esophagus, branches of the plexus reunite to form an

anterior vagal trunk

243

the right vagus nerve crosses the anterior surface of the _ and enters the thorax posterior to the

right subclavian artery
right brachiocephalic vein, azygos vein and right lung = contributing to the pulmonary plexus and esophageal plexus.

244

the azygos vein is on what side of the body

right

245

vagus supplies all of the muscles of the pharynx except the _

stylopharyngeus (IX)

246

vagus supplies motor to all the palatal muscles except for the

tensor veli palitini (V3)

247

vagus nerve provides parasympathetic to the

lungs, heart, stomach, and mysenteric plexus

248

which nerve penetrates the thyrohyoid membrane:
a. facial nerve
b. internal laryngeal nerve
c. accessory nerve
d. recurrent laryngeal nerve

internal laryngeal nerve

249

the vagus nerve possesses 2 sensory ganglia:
name them

superior ganglion and inferior ganglion

250

the superior ganglion lies on the vagus nerve __ the jugular foramen

within

251

the inferior ganglion lies on the vagus nerve __ the jugular foramen

just below

252

the two branches that arise from the superior ganglion from the vagus nerve that entered are the (2)

meningeal = supplies dura mater
auricular - supplies auricle, external auditory meatus

253

the branches that arise from the inferior ganglion (from the vagus nerve that enters) are (2)

pharyngeal and the superior laryngeal

254

the pharyngeal branch emerging from the inferior ganglion forms the pharyngeal plexus and supplies?

all muscles of pharynx (except stylopharyngeus CN IX) and all muscles of the palate (except the tensor veli palitini V3)

255

what CN are found in the pharyngeal plexus that form it?

IX, X and sympathetic trunk

256

the internal laryngeal branch from the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve travels with the _ artery and pierces the _

superior laryngeal artery
thyrohyoid membrane

257

the superior laryngeal nerve from the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve divides into

internal laryngeal and external laryngeal nerves

258

the external laryngeal travels with the _ artery and supplies the _ muscle

superior thyroid
cricothyroid muscle

259

the recurrent laryngeal nerve penetrates the _ membrane from behind the joint

cricothyroid

260

nucleus ambiguous is located in the

ventrolateral medulla

261

nucleus ambiguous is a sensory or motor

motor

262

what nerves use nucleus ambiguous

IX, X, XI,

263

the somatic motor part of the vagus nerve axons come from which nucleus?

nucleus ambiguous = innervates soft palate, pharynx, larynx and upper esophagus

264

what nerve innervates the uvula?

X

265

a unilateral lesion in nucleus ambiguous would produce ipsilateral/contralateral paralysis of the soft palate, deviation of the uvula ___ the lesions side, nasal regurgitation (soft palate), hoarseness (larynx) and dysphagia (pharynx and upper esophagus)

ipsilateral
deviation of the uvula away from the lesioned side

266

which cranial nerve supplies the derivatives of the hyoid arch?
IX/X/V/VII

facial

267

1. the cranial nerves that innervate the derivatives of the branchial arches are?
2. these are the only _ CN's
3. they are all called "branchiomeric" or non-somatic in origin bc they

1. CN V, VII, IX, and X
2. mixed
(all others are either sensory or motor nerves)
3. originate from the branchial arches

268

is the ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) "branchiomeric" aka non-somatic in origin?

no. it does not innervate branchial arch derivatives. it innervates structures derived from the paraxial mesoderm found in the frontonasal process of the developing embryo

269

the first branchial arch (mandibular) will be what future nerves and muscles?

V, muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, ant belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatine

270

the first branchial arch (mandibular) will be what future skeletal structures and ligaments

malleus, incus of middle ear, anterior ligament of malleus, sphenomandibular ligament and portions of sphenoid bone

271

the 2nd branchial arch (hyoid) will be what future nerves and muscles?

VII nerve, stapedius, facial expression muscles, posterior belly of digastric, stylohyoid

272

the 2nd branchial arch (hyoid) will be what future skeletal structures and ligaments

stapes (think Second is Stapes), portions of malleus and incus of middle ear, stylohyoid ligament, styloid process of the temporal bone, lesser cornu of hyoid bone, upper portion of the body of the hyoid bone

273

the 3nd branchial arch will be what future nerves and muscles?

CN IX and stylopharyngeal muscle

274

the 3nd branchial arch will be what future skeletal structures and ligaments

greater cornu of hyoid bone, lower portion of body of hyoid bone

275

the 4th-6th branchial arches will be what future nerves and muscles?

superior laryngeal branch and recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve, levator veli palatini, pharyngeal constrictors and intrinsic muscles of the larynx

276

the 4th-6th branchial arches will be what future skeletal structures and ligaments?

laryngeal cartilages

277

a lesion of the facial nerve just after it exits from the stylomastoid foramen would result in
a. ipsilateral loss of taste to the anterior tongue
b. decrease in saliva production in the floor of the mouth
c. sensory loss to the tongue
d. ipsilateral paralysis of facial muscles
e. contralateral paralysis of facial muscles

d. ipsilateral paralysis of facial muscles

278

the largest portion of the facial nerve is? general sensory/motor/PNS/special sensory?

branchial motor fibers

279

general sensory, PNS, and special sensory fibers of the facial nerve (all but the motor fibers) are referred to as

nervus intermedius

280

the spinal part of accessory nerve enters the skull thru _ and then it joins the cranial root. Together they leave the skull thru the _

enters via the foramen magnum
exits the jugular foramen

281

the accessory nerve (CN XI) controls specific neck muscles. bc part of it arises in the brain it is called a CN. it is purely motor and has 2 roots:

cranial and spinal root

282

the spinal root of CNXI arises from the anterior horn cells of the _

upper 5 cervical segments

283

the spinal roots of CNXI enter the cranium via foramen magnum and join the cranial root which arises from the

nucleus ambiguous ==> leave together thru skull via jugular foramen with the vagus to distribute to larynx and pharynx. THIS PART OF THE NERVE CANNOT BE TESTED SEPARATELY

284

the spinal part of CN XI supplies

trapezius and SCM

285

a patient w/ CN XI paralysis would have difficulty

turning their head L or R and shrugging their shoulders

286

which nerve innervates the lower lip:
facial/lingual/mental/incisive branch of IAN

mental

287

which nerve innervates the lower anterior teeth

incisive nerve (from inferior alveolar nerve)

288

which nerve innervates the lower premolars and molar teeth and buccal surfaces in the molar region

IAN (from V3)

289

which nerve innervates the buccal surfaces in the molar region only

buccal nerve (from V3)

290

which nerve innervates the upper anterior teeth and buccal surfaces in upper anterior teeth

ASA (anterior superior alveolar) nerve (branch of V2)

291

which nerve innervates the palatal side of upper anterior teeth (incisal area of palate)

nasopalatine nerve from pterygopalatine ganglion

292

which nerve innervates the palatal side of upper teeth EXCEPT for the incisal area of palate

greater palatine nerve (from pterygopalatine ganglion)

293

which nerve innervates the upper lip

infraorbital nerve (from V2)

294

which nerve supplies the taste sensation of the base of the tongue and epiglottis)

vagus

295

which nerve supplies the general taste sensation for posterior 1/3 of tongue including vallate papillae

IX

296

which nerve supplies the taste sensation of anterior 2/3 of tongue EXCEPT for vallate papillae

chorda tympani (from facial nerve)

297

which nerve supplies general sensation of anterior 2/3 of the tongue

lingual nerve (of V3)

298

which nerve supplies general sensation to the lingual gingiva of the lower arch

lingual nerve (of V3)

299

which of the following nerves is derived from both the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus:
musculocutaneous
axillary
ulnar
median
radial

median

300

the branchial plexus is a somatic nerve plexus formed by intercommunications among the _ rami of what nerves?

ventral rami
of C5-C8 and T1

301

the brachial plexus is responsible for the motor innervation to all muscles of upper limb with the exception of (2)?

trapezius and levator scapula

302

brachial plexus supplies all cutaneous innervation of the upper limb with the exception of an area in the axilla which is supplied by the _ nerve

intercostobrachial nerve

303

the ventral rami of spinal nerve C5 to T1 are referred to as the _ of the plexus

roots

304

shortly after emerging from the _ foramina, the 5 roots unite to form

intervertebral
3 trunks

305

the ventral rami of C5 and C6 unite to form the

upper trunk

306

the ventral ramus of _ forms the middle trunk

C7

307

the ventral rami of _ unite to form the lower trunk

C8 and T1

308

each trunk splits into

an anterior and posterior division

309

the anterior divisions of the brachial plexus supply _ muscles

flexor

310

the posterior divisions of the brachial plexus supply _ muscles

extensor

311

the anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks unite to form the

lateral cord

312

the anterior division of the lower trunk forms the _ cord

medial

313

all 3 posterior divisions from each of the 3 trunks of the brachial plexus all unite to form the

posterior cord

314

the cords are named according to their position relative to the ___

axillary artery

315

the terminal branches of the brachial plexus are

musculocutaneous nerve
ulnar nerve
median nerve
axillary nerve
radial nerve

316

the "great extensor nerve" derived from the _ cord is the _

posterior cord
radial nerve

317

the radial nerve innervates the

extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and fingers and carries sensory info from skin on the dorsum of the hand on the radial side

318

the axillary nerve is derived from the _ cord and supplies motor innervation to the

posterior
deltoid
teres minor muscles only and caries sensory innervation from the skin just below the point of the shoulder

319

the median nerve is derived from the _ cords

lateral and medial cords

320

the median nerve supplies motor innervation to

most the flexor muscles in the forearm and intrinsic muscles of the thumb. carries sensory from the lateral (radial) 3 and 1/2 digits (the thumb and first 2.5 digits)

321

the ulnar nerve is derived from the _ cord

medial

322

ulnar nerve supplies motor innervation to the

intrinsic muscles of the hand and carries sensory innervation from the medial ulnar 1 and 1/2 digits (the 5th and 1/2 of the 4th digits)

323

the musculocutaneous nerve is derived from the _ cord

lateral

324

the musculocutaneous nerve innervates the muscles in the

flexor compartment of the arm and carries sensation from the lateral (radial) side of the forearm

325

which sensory receptor is most sensitive to linear acceleration:
crista/utricle/saccule/macula/organ of corti

macula

326

where are the nuclei of CNVIII

4 vestibular nuclei @ junction of the pons and medulla and enters the internal acoustic meatus. here it separates into the vestibular and cochlear nerve

327

the _ nerve is concerned with equilibrium

vestibular

328

the _ nerve is concerned with hearing

cochlear

329

the vestibular nerve is composed of the central processes of bipolar neurons in the vestibular ganglion. the peripheral processes of the neruons extend to the

maculae of the utricle and saccule (sensitive to line of linear acceleration relative to position of head) and to the ampullae of the semicircular ducts (sensitive to rotational acceleration)

330

the cochlear nerve is composed of central processes of bipolar neurons in the spinal ganglion. the peripheral processes of the neurons extend to the

spiral organ (organ of Corti)

331

the organ of Corti is the true organ of hearing. the hair cells convert the vibrations into nerve impulses that are transmitted by the _ portion of CN VIII to the brain (cochlear/vestibular?)

cochlear

332

what structures run relative to the hyoglossus muscle:
1. deep to it is the _
2. superficial to it are the

1. deep is lingual artery
2. superficial is the lingual nerve, submandibular duct, and hypoglossal nerve

333

genioglossal middle and inferior fibers produce what action

protrusion of the tongue

334

what 3 muscles retrude the tongue

styloglossus
hypoglossues
genioglossal (superior fibers)

335

what muscles depress the tongue

middle fibers of genioglossus and hyoglossus

336

what muscles elevate the tongue

palatoglossus and styloglossus

337

what muscles shorten the tongue

superior and inferior longitudinal muscles

338

what muscles narrow the tongue

transverse

339

what muscle flatten the tongue

vertical

340

Upper lip:
1. artery supply
2. motor supply
3. sensory supply

1. superior labial artery (VII) and superior labial of infraorbital
2. VII
3. V2: superior labial nerve

341

lower lip:
1. artery supply
2. motor supply
3. sensory supply

1. inferior labial artery (VII branch) and mental nerve
2. Facial nerve
3. mandibular V3: mental nerve

342

cheek:
1. artery supply
2. motor supply
3. sensory supply

1. buccal artery
2. VII: buccal branch
3. upper cheek sensory: V2 zygomaticofacial
lower half of cheek: buccal nerve (v3)

343

the maxillary sinus:
1. artery supply
2. innervation
3. drainage?

1. infraorbital artery
2. V2
3. middle meatus

344

the maxillary sinus:
1. what is superior to it?
2. medial?
3. inferior

1. orbit
2. nasal cavity
3. maxillary teeth

345

the frontal sinus:
1. artery supply
2. innervation
3. drainage?

1. anterior ethmoid (branch of ICA -->ophthalmic artery -> anterior ethmoid)
2. V1
3. middle meatus

346

ethmoidal sinus:
1. artery supply
2. innervation
3. drainage?

1. anterior/posterior ethmoid artery
2. V1
3. anterior: middle meatus, posterior: superior meatus

347

are all the paranasal sinuses paired?

yes

348

the sphenoid sinus:
1. artery supply
2. innervation
3. drainage?

1. posterior ethmoid and sphenopalatine artery
2. V1 and V2
3. sphenoethmoidal process

349

how many paranasal sinuses do we have

Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity (maxillary sinuses), above the eyes (frontal sinuses), between the eyes (ethmoidal sinuses), and behind the ethmoids (sphenoidal sinuses).

350

how are the sinuses named

The sinuses are named for the facial bones in which they are located.

351

Malignancies of the paranasal sinuses comprise approximately 0.2% of all malignancies. About 80% of these malignancies arise in the __ sinus.

maxillary

352

The spheno-ethmoidal recess, above and posterior to the __ concha, receives the opening of the __sinus

superior
sphenoidal

353

underneath the superior concha is the _

superior meatus

354

the superior meatus drains the

receives the openings of the posterior ethmoidal cells

355

under the middle concha is the

middle meatus

356

the middle meatus receives the contents of the

the maxillary and frontal sinuses

357

Most anterior ethmoidal cells open on an elevation called the ethmoidal bulla. A curved slit (hiatus semilunaris) inferior to the bulla receives the opening of the __ sinus.

maxillary

358

The inferior meatus, which lies between the inferior concha and the palate, receives the termination of the _

nasolacrimal duct.

359

Bleeding from the nose (epistaxis) occurs usually from the junction between septal branches of the _ arteries.

superior labial and sphenopalatine

360

The paranasal sinuses are supplied by branches of the _and _ nerves

ophthalmic and maxillary

361

__ sinusitis is frequently accompanied by toothache. Infection may spread among the various sinuses, the nasal cavity, and the teeth

Maxillary

362

Anterior and posterior __ sinus groups drain into the middle and superior meatuses, respectively

ethmoid

363

The _sinus drains into the middle meatus in a variable manner directly or by a frontonasal duct, which opens into the frontal recess or the ethmoidal infundibulum

frontal

364

Its superior aspect of the _ sinus is related to the hypophysis (pituitary) and the optic nerves and chiasma and laterally to the cavernous sinus and internal carotid artery

sphenoid

365

The sphenoidal sinus drains into the spheno-ethmoidal recess superior to the __ concha. The sinus is divided into right and left parts by a bony septum.

superior