NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Joints Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Joints Deck (74):
1

most articular cartilages are covered by

hyaline cartilage

2

Are synovial joints freely moveable?

Yes aka (diarthrodial joints)

3

synovial joints movement is only limited by

joint surfaces, ligaments, muscles or tendons

4

the TMJ contains _ cartilage

fibrocartilage (NOT HYALINEE cartilage)

5

most joints in our body are _ joints

synovial

6

synovial joints are classified functionally as __

diarthroses - means freely moveable

7

SOME but not all synovial joints have articular discs made of fibrocartilage, that divides the cavity into 2 separate cavities. name the 2 joints in our body that have this disc

TMJ
sternoclavicular joint

8

synovial fluid is a clear, thick fluid secreted by the

synovial membrane

9

10% of synovial joints have a washer-like structure bw bone ends called the

meniscus = absorbs shock, stabilizes the joint and spreads synovial fluid.

10

the meniscus is made of

fibrocartilage (also in TMJ)

11

does the meniscus have blood supply/nerves/lymph vessicles

no

12

can the meniscus heal itself

no

13

the most famous and most injured meniscus in our body is the

knee meniscus

14

A ___ is a fluid sac that is lined with a synovial membrane

bursa

15

function of bursa is to

reduce friction

16

which are synarthrosis joints:
a. skull sutures
b. TMJ
c. condyloid joints
d. synovial joints

a. skull sutures

17

joints aka as articulations are the structures where _ connect

bones

18

the 3 main classes of joints/articulations are based on the amount of _ they allow

motion

19

___ is an immovable, fibrous joint

synarthrosis = sutures bw the flat bones of the skull.

20

Gomphosis is what type of joint:
synarthrosis/amphiarthrosis/diarthrosis

synarthrosis

21

where are the gomphosis joints?

joint that binds teeth to the bony sockets (dental alveoli) in the mandible and maxilla

think GUMS = GOMPHosis

22

amphiarthrosis is a _ joint
ex?

slightly moveable joint. Cartilaginous
symphysis pubis = 2 os coxa bone join anteriorly

23

diarthrosis is a

freely movable joint (synovial joint)

24

1. freely moveable joint
2. slightly moveable joint
3. immovable joint
diarthrosis/amphiarthrosis/synarthrosis

1. diarthrosis/synovial
2. amphiarthrosis (cartilaginous)
3. synarthrosis (fibrous) (gomphosis) = not moveable

25

the spheno-occipital joint and epiphyseal cartilage plates are what kind of joints:
a. syndesmoses
b. synchondrosis
c. symphyses
d. sutures

synchondrosis

26

synarthrosis are _ fibrous/synovial/cartilaginous

fibrous joints = barely movable or non movable

27

sutures are connected by fibrous connective tissue and are found bw the _ bones of the _

flat
skull

28

the __ suture is b/w the frontal and parietal bones

coronal

29

the _ suture is b/w the two parietal bones

sagittal

30

the _ suture is b/w the parietal and occipital bones

lambdoid

31

the intersection of coronal and sagittal sutures

bregma

32

the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures

Lambda

33

cartilaginous joints are aka

amphiarthroses

34

primary cartilaginous joints = synchondrosis = united by

hyaline cartilage and permit no movement but growth in the length of the bone

35

the epiphyseal cartilage plates, the first rib and the sternum are what kind of joints?

cartilaginous joints (amphiarthrosis) = synchondrosis (primary cartilaginous joints)

36

Symphyses are _ joints

secondary cartilaginouse joints united by fibrocartilage and are slightly moveable.

37

the pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs are _ joints

cartilaginous joints (amphiarthrosis) = symphyses (secondary cartilaginous joints)

38

four characteristics of these joints are: joint cavity (synovial), articular cartilage, synovial membrane, articular capsule

synovial joints (diarthrodial joints)

39

gliding plane joint is a synovial joint found in

carpal bones of wrist and tarsal bones of ankle

40

hinge joint is a synovial joint found in

elbows and knees

41

pivot joints are synovial joints found between

atlas (C1) and axis (C2) of the vertebral column

42

Ellipsoidal (condyloid) joints are synovial joints found between

the forearm bones (radius and ulna) and the adjacent carpal bones

43

saddle joint is a synovial joint found

where the metarcarpal of the thumb meets the trapezium of the carpus (wrist)

44

ball and socket joint is a synovial joint allows most type of movements. these are found where

shoulder and hip joint

45

mnemonic for carpal bones

some lovers try positions that they can't handle (from lateral to medial): scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hannate

46

between the metarcarpal of the thumb meets the trapezium of the carpus (wrist) is the __ joint

saddle

47

which joint allows maximal rotational movement of the head about its vertical axis (when you shake your head "NO")?

atlantoaxial joint

48

the first cervical vertebra (C1) is the atlas/axis

atlas (C1), axis is (C2) go in abc order down the spine

49

how many vertebrae do we have in each section?

cervical 7
thoracic 12
lumbar 5
think I eat breakfast at 7, lunch at 12, dinner at 5

50

do the axis and atlas (C1 and C2) have a:
1. intervertebral disc bw them
2. intervertebral foramen

neither

51

C1 has two lateral masses and no _

vertebral body

52

1. the atlanto-occipital joint permits _ movement
2. the atlantoaxial joint permits _ movement

1. atlanto-occipital = rocking/nodding yes
2. atlantoaxial permits maximum rotation movement around axis = say no. to remember(you know the axis of your body is vertical) so rotation around it in your neck would be side to side. occipital is the back of your head so you push down up and down movement

53

when rotating the forearm with the palm turning outward this motion is

supination

54

abduction vs adduction

abduction (away= you abducted my child and ran away)
ADDuction is towards the body = adding to the body

55

___ movement is decreasing the inner angle of a joint

flexion

56

_ movement is increasing the inner angle of a joint

extension

57

_ is movement away from midline of body

abduction

58

_ is moving towards the midline of body

adduction

59

side bending of neck/torso

lateral flexion

60

rotating or pivoting around a long axis

rotation

61

rotating the forearm with the palm turning inward

pronation

62

turning the foot laterally resulting in the sole moving outward

eversion

63

draw forward shoulder

protraction

64

draw shoulders back

retraction

65

bending the elbow is what movement

flexion

66

dropping the chin to the chest is what movement

flexion

67

kicking legs back is what movement

extension (hip extension)

68

back bend is what movement

extension

69

dropping ear towards shoulder is what movement

lateral flexion

70

twisting along spinal cord (seated twist) is what movement

rotation

71

lifting arm then turning arm (like emptying a can of soda) is what movement

pronation = rotating the forearm with palm turning inward

72

standing with the weight on the inner edge of foot is what movement

eversion

73

round shoulders forward "spreading back" is what movement

protraction = draw forward shoulders

74

squeezing shoulder blades together is what movement

retraction = drawing shoulders back