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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Spelling words Deck (125):
1

acoustic

relating to sound or the sense of hearing

2

tympanotomy

-surgical incision into the eardrum to relieve pressure
-also called a myringotomy
-tubes in the ear to aid in: avoiding a potential spontaneous rupture of the tympanic membrane, relieve pain, restore hearing, improve speech problems and learning deficits, equalize pressure in the middle ear
-tubes are removed after the middle ear heals

3

ambiopia

-double vision caused by each eye focusing separately
-also known as diplopia
ambi/o=both sides -opia=visual condition

4

amblyopia

-reduced vision that is not correctable with lenses and with no obvious pathological or structural cause
-dullness or dimness of vision
ambly/o=dull, dim -opia=visual condition

5

anisocoria

inequality in the diameter of the pupils of eyes
aniso=unequal cor/o=pupil -ia=condition

6

aphakia

-without a lens in the eye
a=without, not phak/o=lens -ia=condition

7

aqueous

watery
aque/o=water -ous=pertaining to

8

Argyll-Robertson pupil

-a pupil that constricts upon accommodation but not in response to light
-can be due to miosis or advanced neurosyphilis

9

blepharochalasis

-relaxation of the skin of the eyelid, usually upper eyelid where skin may droop over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open
blephar/o-eyelid

10

blepharoptosis

-drooping of the upper eyelid
-it is the result of a weakened muscle
-usually only one eye but may be both
-may be caused by an underlying disease
blephar/o=eyelid -ptosis=drooping or prolapse

11

conjunctivitis

-inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
-may be bacterial infection, a viral infection, allergy, or environmental
conjunctiv/o=conjuntiva -itis=inflammation

12

cycloplegia

-paralysis of the ciliary muscle
cycl/o=ciliary body -plegia=paralysis

13

dacryoadenitis

inflammation of the lacrimal gland
dacry/o=tears aden/o=gland -itis=inflammation

14

dacryorrhea

excessive flow of tears
dacry/o=tears -rrhea=discharge, flow

15

diplopia

-double vision caused by each eye focusing separately
-ambiopia
di-double -opia=vision

16

ectropion

-eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelid
-causes exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining
-tears are unable to flow into the tear ducts and go down the face instead
-exposure and dryness leads to irritation
-frequently affects older populations
-causes: weakened muscle, facial nerve paralysis and eyelid tissue atrophy

17

emmetropia

-a state of normal vision
-eye is at rest and the image is focused directly on the retina

18

entropion

-inversion (turning inward) of the edge of the eyelid
--may result in damage to the cornea
-occurs in older populations
-cause:development of loose fibrous tissue in the lower eyelid, resulting in extreme tightening of the eyelid muscle

19

episcleritis

-inflammation of the outermost layers of the sclera
epi=upon scler/o=sclera of eye -itis=inflammation

20

esotropia

-an obvious inward of one eye in relation to the other eye
-also called crosseyes
eso=within -tropia=to turn

21

extraocular

pertaining to the outside of the eye
extra=outside, beyond ocul/o=eye -ar=pertaining to

22

funduscopy

-the examination of the fundus of the eye, the deepest part or base, w/ an ophthalmoscope through a procedure called a ophthalmoscopy

23

hemianopia

-loss of vision, or blindness, in 1/2 of the visual field
hemi=half an=without =opia=visual condition

24

hemianopsia

-hemianopia
hemi=half an=without =opsia=visual condition

25

iridocyclitis

-inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye
irid/o=iris cycl/o=ciliary body -itis=inflammation

26

iritis

-inflammation of the iris
ir/o=iris

27

keratoconjunctivitis

-inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye
kerat/o=cornea of the eye conjunctiv/o-conjunctiva

28

keratoconus

-cone-shaped protusion of the center of the cornea, no inflammation

29

keratomycosis

-fungal growth in the cornea
kerat/o=cornea myc/o=fungus -osis-condition

30

lacrimal

-pertaining to tears
lacrim/o=tears -al=pertaining to

31

lacrimation

-the secretion of tears from the lacrimal glands

32

miosis

-abnormal constriction of the pupil
mi/o=smaller -sis=condition

33

miotic

-an agent that causes constriction of the pupil
mi/o=smaller ic=pertaining to

34

mydriasis

-abnormal dilation of the pupil
mydr/o=widen -iasis=presence of abnormal condition

35

mydriatic

-an agent that causes dilation of the pupil
mydr/o=widen -iatic=pertaining to a condition

36

nasolacrimal

-pertaining to the nose and lacrimal ducts
nas/o=nose lacrim/o=tears -al=pertaining to

37

nystagmus

-involuntary, rhythmic jerking movements of the eye.
-quivering side to side, up and down, or a combination
-caused by alcohol or certain drugs, lesions on brain or inner ear, congenital abnormalities, nerve injury at birth, or abnormal retinal development

38

ophthalmologist

-a medical doctor who specializes in the comprehensive care of the eyes and visual system; prevention and treatment; can deliver total eye care
ophthalm/o=eye -logist

39

ophthalmology

-the branch of medicine that specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders of the eye
ophthalm/o=eye -pathy=disease

40

optic

-pertaining to the eyes or sight

41

optician

-a health professional (not an MD) who specializes in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses for glasses or contact lenses
optic/o=eye, vision -ian=specialist in a field of study

42

optometrist

-doctor of optometry (O.D.) responsible for examination of the eye, and associated structures to determine vision problems
-they can also prescribe lenses or optical aids

43

palpebral

-pertaining to the eyelid

44

papilledema

-swelling of the optic disc, visible upon ophthalmoscopic examination of the interior of the eye

45

phacomalacia

-softening of the lens of the eye
phac/o=lens malac/o=softening -ia=condition

46

photophobia

-abnormal sensitivity to light, especially by the eyes
phot/o=light -phobia=abnormal fear

47

presbyopia

-loss of accommodation for near vision
-poor near-vision due to the natural aging process
-eyes cannot focus on an image accurately due to its decreasing loss of elasticity
-usually results in hyperopia

48

pupillary

-pertaining to the pupil of the eye

49

retinopathy

-any disease of the retina
retin/o=retina -pathy=disease

50

sclerectomy

-excision or removal of a portion of the sclera of the eye
scler/o=sclera -ectomy-surgical removal

51

scotoma

-an area of depressed vision (blindness) within the usual visual field, surrounded by an area of normal vision
-a defined area in on or both eyes that has a decreased visual function
scot/o=darkness -oma=tumor

52

uveitis

-inflammation of the uveal tract of the eye; includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid
-inflammation of all or part of the middle vascular layer of the eye

53

vitreous

-pertaining to the vitreous body of the eye
vitre/o=glassy -ous=pertaining to

54

astigmatism

-a refractive error that causes light rays entering the eye to be focused irregularly on the retina due to an abnormally shaped cornea or lens
-causes blurred vision and discomfort
-verified through an ophthalmoscopic examination
-corrected though contact lenses or glasses

55

blepharitis

-acute or chronic inflammation of the eyelid
-from seborrheic, allergic, or bacterial origin
-redness, swelling, burning and itching of eyelid margin; usually mucous drainage; sometimes scaling, granulation, or crusting

56

monochromatism

-color blindness: inability to perceive visual colors sharply
-two types: daltonism-unable to distinguish green from reds, sex-linked inherited disorder OR Achromatic vision: person cannot distinguish any color, only white, gray and black, defect or absence of the cones
mono=one chromat/o=color -ism=condition

57

cataract

-the lens becomes progressively cloudy, losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina
-classified as senile: after the age of 50, found in 95% of people over 65 OR secondary: results from a trauma, radiation injury, inflammation, medications,diabetes mellitus
-treatment: surgical intervention, phacoemulsification, extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE)

58

chalazion

-a cyst or nodule on the eyelid
-from an obstruction of a meibomian gland which lubricates the eyelid margin

59

conjunctivitis, acute

-inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eyeball
-most commonly called pinkeye
-but can also be from allergies, environment, or systemic diseases

60

corneal abrasion

-disruption of the cornea's surface epithelium
-usually from an eyelash, a small foreign body, contact lenses, or a scratch from a fingernail; or from a chemical irritant or dryness of eye

61

diabetic retinopathy

-consequence of long-term or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
-tissues of the retina experience scarring due to: abnormal dilation and constriction of vessels; hemorrhages; microaneurysm; abnormal formation of new vessels causing leakage of blood into the vitreous humor
-the leading cause of blindness in the US

62

exophthalmia

-abnormal protrusion of the eyeball, usually with the sclera noticeable over the iris
-usually due to an expanded volume of the orbital contents
-may be from a tumor, edema, or underlying disease such as hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease)
ex=out ophthalm/o=eye -ia=conditon

63

glaucoma

-ocular disorders due to increase in intraocular pressure
-may be primary or secondary, acute or chronic
-pressure leads to inhibited blood supply to the optic neurons, which leads to degeneration and atrophy of the optic nerve and finally total loss of vision
-chronic open-angle glaucoma: primary from breakdown in drainage of aqueous humor circulation
-acute closed-angle glaucoma: rapid primary of increased intraocular pressure in a short period of time b/c of mouth of drainage system being narrow and closed completely; can lose sight w/in 3 days

64

hordeolum

-stye
-bacterial infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceous gland originating with redness, swelling, and mild tenderness in the margin of the eyelash
-will drain after 3 or 4 days
-squeezing will spread the infection

65

hyperopia

-a refractive error where the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired close vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused behind the retina because the eyeball is shorter than normal
-also called farsightedness
-light rays focus behind the retina
hyper=excessive -opia=visual condition

66

hyphema

- a bleed into the anterior of the eye
-from a postoperative complication or from a blunt eye injury
-it is an emergency b/c of pressure damage from the blood

67

keratitis

-corneal inflammation caused by a microorganism, trauma to the eye, a break in the sensory innervation of the cornea, a hypersensitivity reaction, or a tearing defect
-when preceded by URI herpes simplex is often the cause

68

myopia

- a refractive error where the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately
-impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina b/c the eyeball is longer than normal
-also called nearsightedness due to the clarity of close objects
-light rays focus in front of the retina

69

nyctalopia

-night blindness
-inadequate vision at night or in faint light following reduction in the synthesis of rhodopsin, a compound in the rods of the retina that enables the eye to adjust to low-density light
-from retinal deterioration, vit. A deficiency or a congenital defect
nyctal/o=night -opia=visual condition

70

ophthalmia neonatorum

-a purulent (contains pus) inflammation of the conjunctiva and/or cornea in the newborn
-b/c of exposure to viral, bacterial, chemical, or chlamydial agents
ophthalm/o=eye -ia=condition ne/o=new nat/i=pertaining to birth

71

pterygium

-an irregular growth developing as a fold in the conjunctiva, usually on the nasal side of the cornea that can disrupt vision if it extends over the pupil
-caused by allergies and excessive ultraviolet light exposure

72

retinal tear

-an opening in the retina that allows leakage of vitreous humor

73

scleritis

-inflammation of the sclera
-left untreated may lead to perforation and loss of eye

74

strabismus

-failure of the eyes to gaze in the same direction due to weakness in the muscles controlling the position of one eye.
-most common type is nonparalytic strabimus, an inherited defect where the eye position of the two eyes has no relationship
-convergent strabismus (crosseye): esotropia; the affected eye turns inward; develops in infancy or early childhood
-divergent strabimus (walleye): exotropia; affected eye turns outward

75

synechia

-an adhesion in the eye that develops as a complication of trauma or surgery or as a secondary condition of one of the following pathological condition: cataracts, glaucoma, keratitis, or uveitis
-the adhesion causes the iris to adhere to the lens or the cornea, resulting in the blockage of flow of aqueous humor between the posterior and anterior chambers causing pressure to rise
-treatment involves dilation by using a mydriatic

76

trachoma

-an infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis which is chronic and will lead to blindness without effective treatment
-it is contagious
-early symptoms:tearing, pain, photophobia, and inflammation
-without treatment follicles will form on the upper eyelid, then granulation, and resulting in blindness

77

corneal transplant

-surgical transplantation of a donor cornea (cadaver's) into the eye of a recipient, usually under local anesthesia
-young donors are preferred b/c of direct link between endothelial layer to age and health

78

electronystagmography

-a group of tests used in evaluating the vestibulo-ocular reflex (the normal reflex produced by stimulation of the vestibular apparatus in which eye position compensates for motion of the head)
-where damage exists, the reaction is absent or blunted

79

electroretinogram (ERG)

-a recording of the changes in the electrical potential of the retina after the stimulation of light
-by using a contact lens electrode placed on the cornea
-evaluates retinal disease

80

extracapsular cataract

-surgical removal of the anterior segment of the lens capsule along with the lens, allowing for the insertion of an intraocular lens implant
-proven to result in fewer complications during the extracapsular cataract extraction

81

fluorescein staining

-application of a fluorescein-stained sterile filter paper strip moistened with a few drops of sterile saline or sterile anesthetic solution to the lower cul-de-sac of the eye to visualize a corneal abrasion
-the abrasion stains bright green
-should not be used by a dropper bottle

82

gonioscopy

-the process of viewing the anterior chamber angle of the eye for evaluation, management, and classification of normal and abnormal angle structures
-determines whether the drainage of the eye is open or closed
goni/o=angle -scopy=process of viewing

83

iridectomy

-extraction of a small segment of the iris to open an anterior chamber angle and permit the flow of aqueous humor between the anterior and posterior chambers to relieve intraocular pressure

84

keratoplasty

-the transplantation of corneal tissue from one human eye to another to improve vision in the affected eye
-also called corneal grafting

85

ophthalmoscopy

-the examination of the external and internal structures of the eye with an ophthalmoscope
-can even view blood vessels

86

phacoemulsification

-the method of removing a lens by using ultrasound vibrations to split up the lens material into tiny particles that can be suctioned out the eye

87

photo-refractive keratectomy

-a surgical procedure in which a few layers of corneal surface cells are shave off by an excimer laser beam to flatten the cornea and reduce myopia

88

retinal photocoagulation

-surgical procedure that uses an argon laser to treat conditions such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy by: retinal detachment (creating an area of inflammation that will develop adhesions and cause a "welding" of the layers); diabetic retinopath (seal microaneurysms and areas of leakage and to reduce risk of hemorrhage)

89

tonometry

-the process of determining the intraocular pressure by calculating the resistance of the eyeball to an applied force causing indentation

90

trabeculectomy

-surgical excision of a portion of corneoscleral tissue to decrease the intraocular pressure in persons with severe glaucoma

91

trabuculoplasty

-surgical creation of a permanent fistula used to drain fluid (aqueous humor) form the eye's anterior chamber
-can also be done with a laser

92

audiometry

-the process of checking one's hearing to determine the lowest tones heard by the ear
-how well a person can hear various frequencies of sound waves
-more specific than bone conduction tests

93

audiogram

the chart illustrating the lowest or faintest sounds detected by the ear

94

cerumen

-earwax that lubricates the ear

95

auditory

-pertaining to the sense of hearing
audit/o=hearing -ory=pertaining to

96

aural

-pertaining to the ear
aur/o=ear -al=pertaining to

97

auriculotemporal

-pertaining to the ear and temporal area of the skull
auricul/o=ear tempor/o=temple -al=pertaining to

98

barotitis media

-inflammation or bleeding of the middle ear
-caused by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure (scuba diving or descent of an airplane)
-especially occurs when someone has an URI
bar/o=pressure ot/o=ear -itis=inflammation
medi/o=middle -a=noun ending

99

cochlear

-pertaining to the cochlear, snail-shaped structure in the middle ear

100

labyrinthitis

-inflammation of the inner ear
-particularly of the 3 semicircular canals in the inner ear, which are fluid-filled chambers and control balance
-primary symptom is vertigo; or nystagmus and sensorineural hearing loss
-typically from a virus

101

mastoiditis

-inflammation of the mastoid process
-usually the extension of a middle ear infection
-chronic mastoiditis can be from cholesteatoma
-must be dealt with surgically if antibiotics do not work b/c of close proximity to the brain

102

myringoplasty

-surgical repair of the eardrum with a tissue graft
-corrects hearing loss
-also called a tympanoplasty
myring/o=eardrum -plasty=surgical repair

103

otalgia

-pain in the ear
-an earache
-also called otodynia
ot/o=ear -algia=pain

104

otitis media (acute)

-acute inflammation of the middle ear
-predominantly affects infants, toddlers, and preschoolers
- inflamed causing fluid behind the tympanic membrane
ot/o=ear itis=inflammation medi/o=middle -a=noun ending

105

otodynia

-an earache
-otalgia

106

otomycosis

-fungal infection of the external auditory meatus of the ear
ot/o=ear myc/o=fungus -osis=condition

107

otorrhea

-drainage from the ear, usually relates to inflammation of the ear

108

presbycusis

-loss of hearing due to the natural aging process
presby/o=old age

109

purulent

-containing pus

110

salpingoscope

-an instrument used to examine the nasopharynx and the eustachian tube
salping/o=eustachian tube

111

serous

-pertaining to producing serum

112

stapedectomy

-surgical removal of the stapes (middle ear and insertion of a graft and prosthesis
-stapes often diseased by otosclerosis

113

tinnitus

-ringing or thinking noise heard in the ears
-may be a sign of ear injury, disease, or toxic levels of some medications (such as aspirin)

114

tympanoplasty

-myringoplasty

115

tympanotomy

-myringotomy

116

vertigo

-a sensation of spinning around or of having things int he room or area spinning around the person
-result of equilibrium disturbance

117

cholesteatoma

-a slow-growing cystic mass made up of epithelial cell debris and cholesterol found in the middle ear
-occurs as a congenital defect or as a result of chronic otitis media (tympanic membrane perforations form epithelial cell debris which clump in the middle ear and form an infected cystlike mass)

118

sensorineural deafness

-hearing loss b/c of inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to teh auditory nerve or the cochlea or to leasions of the 8th cranial nerve

119

Méniére's disease

-chronic inner ear disease where there is an over accumulation of endolymph (fluid in the labyrinth) characterized by reoccurring episodes of vertigo, hearing loss, feeling of pressure or fullness in the affected ear, and tinnitus
-episodes last hours or days
-cause is unknown

120

otitis externa (OE)

-inflammation of the outer or external ear canal
-also called swimmer's ear
-inflammation from the growth of bacteria or fungi in the external ear

121

serous otitis media

-a collection of clear fluid in the middle ear that may follow acute otitis media or be due to an obstruction of the eustachian tube
-popping or snapping in the ear

122

suppurative otitis media

-- a purulent collection of fluid in the middle ear, causing the person to experience pain , an elevation in temperature, dizziness, decreased hearing, vertigo, and tinnitus
-also called acute otitis media
-major concern is rupture of the tympanic membrane

123

otosclerosis

-a condition where the footplate of the stapes becomes immobile and secured to the oval window, resulting in a hearing loss (due to the inability of the stapes to rock the oval window)

124

Rinne test

-tuning fork test
-examination that compares bone conduction and air conduction
-tuning fork placed on mastoid process and then moved to in front of the ear
-good hearing will hear it longer in front of the ear, hearing problems will hear it longer at the bone site

125

otoplasty

-removal of portion of the ear cartilage to being the pinna and auricle nearer the head