Chapter 13 Spelling Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Spelling Words Deck (91):
1

acromegaly

- a chronic metabolic condition
-enlargement of face, jaw and extremities
-due to hypersecretion of the human growth hormone from the pituitary gland after puberty
acr/o=extremities -megaly=enlargement

2

Addison's disease

-life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
-results from an autoimmune process, a neoplasm, an infection, or a hemorrhage in the gland
-diagnosis from an ACTH stimulation test

3

adenohypophysis

the anterior pituitary gland

4

adenoma

a glandular tumor
aden/o=gland -oma=tumor

5

adenopathy

-any disease of a gland (usually enlarged)
aden/o=gland -pathy=disease

6

adrenalectomy

-surgical removal of one or both of the adrenal glands
adren/o=adrenal gland -ectomy=surgical removal

7

adrenocortical

-pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal glands
adren/o=adrenal glands cortic/o=cortex -al=pertaining to

8

adrenomegaly

enlargement of the adrenal glands

9

aldosterone

-a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
-regulates sodium and potassium balance in the blood

10

androgen

-any steroid hormone (e.g. testosterone) that increases male characteristics

11

antidiuretic

-pertaining to the suppression of urine production
-an agent given to suppress the production of urine
anti=against di/a=through ur/o=urine -etic=pertaining to

12

Conn's disease

-condition where excessive amounts of aldosterone causes the body to retain extra sodium and excrete extra potassium leading to an increased volume of blood (hypervolemia) and hypertension
-caused by an aldosteronoma, a benign aldosterone-secreting adenoma or adrenal hyperplasia

13

cortex

pertaining to the outer region of an organ or structure

14

cortisol

-a steroid hormone occurring naturally in the body
-also called hydrocortisone

15

cretinism

-a congenital condition caused by a lack of thyroid secretion
-characterized by dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin, and large tongue

16

corticosteroid

-any of the steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones) or any synthetic equivalents
-divided into two major groups, the glucocorticoids (regulate metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins in body; necessary to maintain normal blood pressure; have anti-inflammatory affect and mineralocorticoids (regulates salts processed in body)

17

Cushing's syndrome

-a condition of the adrenal gland with a cluster of symptoms because of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in the blood
-the excessive amounts have wither secreted from the adrenal cortex or are present because of large glucocorticoid doses
-primary Cushing's syndrome is b/c of a benign or malignant adrenal tumor causing the excessive production of cortisol
-secondary Cushing's syndrome is a result of Cushing's disease, a disorder of the pituitary or hypothalamus
-moon face is famous symptom

18

diabetes insipidus

-a metabolic disorder with polydipsia and polyuria
-disorder of the pituitary gland due to a deficiency in secretion of the antidiuretic hormone

19

diabetes mellitus

-a disorder of the pancreas where the beta cells of the islet of Langerhans fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin or able to use insulin
-the body cannot metabolize carbs, fats, and proteins appropriately
-causes excessive ketones in the urine, glycosuria, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, muscle weakness, pruritus, and fatigue
-Type1: autoimmune disorder; formally known as insulin-dependent diabetes; prone to diabetic ketoacidosis; injects insulin
Type2: occurs after age 30 in often overweight people; can be controlled with diet and exercise but sometimes needs insulin

20

diabetic retinopathy

-a disorder of the blood vessels of the retina of the eye where the capillaries of the retina experience localized area of bulging, hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring
retin/o=retina -pathy=disease

21

dipsosis

a condition of thirst

22

dwarfism

-generalized growth retardation of the body due to the deficiency of the human growth hormone
-also known as congenital hypopituitarism or hypopituitarism
-very short with a small body, absence of secondary sex characteristics, may include some mental retardation

23

endocrine gland

-a ductless gland that produces a hormone which secretes directly into the bloodstream instead of exiting through ducts
endo=within crine=secrete

24

endocrinologist

-a physician who specializes in the medical practice of treating the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system

25

endocrinology

-the field of medicine that deals with the study of the endocrine system and of the treatment of the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system

26

epinephrine

-a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla
-plays an important role in the body's response to stress by increasing the heart rate, dilating the bronchioles and releasing glucose into the bloodstream

27

estrogen

-one of the female hormones
-promotes the development of sex characteristics

28

euthyroid

-pertaining to a normally functioning thyroid gland
eu=well, easily, good, normal thryroid/o=thyroid gland

29

exocrine gland

-a gland that opens onto the surface of the skin through ducts in the epithelium, such as an oil gland or a sweat gland
exo=outward -crine=secrete

30

exophthalmia

-an abnormal condition where a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs
ex=outward ophthalm/o=eye -ia=condition

31

exophthalmos

same as exophthalmia
ex=outward ophthalm/o=eye -os=a suffix indicating a singular noun

32

gestational diabetes

-occurs during pregnancy with signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus but disappears after the delivery of the baby
-usually in the later part of the pregnancy
-risks:obesity, over 30 yrs old, history of birthing large babies, family history of diabetes, previous stillborn, previous births with defects

33

gigantism

-a proportional overgrowth of the body's tissue due to the hypersecretion of the human growth hormone before puberty
-especially in the long bones
-often caused by an adenoma of the anterior pituitary

34

glucagon

-a hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose

35

glucogenesis

-the formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of from carbohydrates
gluc/o=sugar, sweet -genesis=formation; production of

36

glycogenesis

-the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use
glyc/o=sugar, sweet

37

glucose

the simplest form of sugar in the body
-a simple sugar found in certain foods and major source of energy for the body

38

glycosuria

the presence of sugar in the urine

39

goiter

-enlargement of the thyroid gland due to hyperplasia
-results from a deficient amount of iodine in the diet

40

gonads

female sex glands (ovaries) and make sex glands (testes)

41

gluconeogenesis

-the synthesis of glucose from molecules that are not carbohydrates, such as amino and fatty acids.

42

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

-a test that evaluates the person's ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose load by measuring the glucose levels: prior to glucose; 30 min. after glucose; 1 hr after glucose; 2 hours after glucose; 3 hours after glucose
gluc/o=sugar, sweet -ose=carbohydrate

43

glycogenolysis

-The hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose.

44

gonadotropic

stimulating the gonads; applied to hormones of the anterior pituitary

45

gonadotropin

-any hormone that stimulates the gonads, especially follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

46

hirsutism

-excessive facial and/or body hair in women

47

hypercalcemia

-elevated blood calcium level
hyper=excessive glyc/o=sugar, sweet -emia=blood condition

48

hyperglycemia

-elevated blood sugar level
hyper=excessive glyc/o=sugar emia=blood condition

49

hypergonadism

-excessive activity of the ovaries or testes

50

hyperinsulinism

-excessive amount of insulin in the body

51

hyperkalemia

-elevated potassium level
hyper=excessive kal/i=potassium -emia=blood condition

52

hypernatremia

-elevated blood sodium level
hyper natr/i=sodium -emia

53

hyperparathyroidism

-hyperactivity of any of the four parathyroid glands
-results in oversecretion of parathyroid hormone which leads to excessive levels of calcium in the blood and low levels of calcium in the bones
-also called hypercalcemia
hyper parathyroid/o -ism

54

hyperpituitarism

-overactivity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

55

hyperthyroidism

-hypertrophy and overactivity of the thyroid gland
-increased thyroid excretion causing increased metabolism
--also called Grave's disease; three significant complications: exophthalmia; thyroid storm (thyrotoxicosis); and heart disease
-three distinguishing features: hyperthyroidism; thyroid gland enlargement (goiter); exophthalmia (unnatural protrusion of the eyes)

56

hypocalcemia

-less than normal blood calcium level
-hyper calc/o=calcium -ism

57

hypoglycemia

-less than normal blood sugar level
hypo glyc/o -emia

58

hypokalemia

-less than normal potassium level
hypo kal=potassium -emia

59

hyponatremia

-less than normal sodium levels
hypo natr/i=sodium -emia

60

hypoparathyroidism

-less than normal activity of any of the four parathyroid glands resulting in decreased production of parathyroid hormone
-results in hypocalcemia, nerve and muscle weakness with spasms or tetany

61

hypophysectomy

-surgical removal of the pituitary gland

62

hypothyroidism

-less than normal activity of the thyroid gland
-there is a shortage of the thyroid hormone causing an extremely low metabolism due to a reduced usage of oxygen
-also called myxedema
-can be the result of: congenital thyroid defects; faulty hormone synthesis; thyroiditis or iodine deficiency

63

medulla

-the internal part of the a structure or organ

64

hypopituitarism

-complex syndrome resulting from the absence or deficiency of the pituitary hormone
-symptoms: metabolic dysfunction, growth retardation, and sexual immaturity
-leads to hypothyroidism

65

insulin

-produced by the beta cells
-makes it possible for glucose to pass from the blood through the cell membranes to be used for energy
-promotes the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use as needed (glycogenesis)

66

lactogen

-any substance that enhances lactation

67

metabolism

- a sum of all physical and chemical processes that take place within the body

68

myxedema

-the most severe form of hypothyroidism in the adult
-hands and face get puffy, thickened edematous skin, an enlarged tongue, slow speech, loss of and dryness of hair, sensitivity to cold, drowsiness, and mental apathy

69

norepinephrine

-a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla
-plays an important role in the body's response to stress by raising the blood pressure

70

oxytocin

-hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
-stimulates contractions during childbirth and stimulates the release of milk from breasts in response to the suckling reflex of the infant
oxy=rapid, sharp toc/o=childbirth -in=enzyme

71

polydipsia

excessive thirst
poly -dipsia=thirst

72

pancreatic cancer

-a life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas
-95% of people die 1-3yrs after diagnosis

73

pancreatitis

-acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas

74

parathyroidectomy

-surgical removal of the parathyroid gland

75

pheochromocytoma

-a vascular tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces extra epinephrine and norepinephrine, leading to persistent or intermittent hypertension and heart palpitations
phe/o=dusky chrom/o=color cyt/o=cell -oma=tumor

76

polyuria

excessive urine

77

primary aldosteronism

-due to oversecretion of aldosterone by an adrenal adenoma, marked by hypokalemia, alkalosis, muscular weakness, polyuria, polydipsia, and hypertension

78

progesterone

-female hormone secreted by the ovaries
-primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum and for development of the maternal placenta ofter implantation of a fertilized ovum

79

somatotropic hormone

-hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth
-also called growth hormone

80

syndrome

-a group of symptoms occurring together indicative of a particular disease or abnormality

81

tetany

-severe cramping and twitching of the muscles and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints
-a complication of hypocalcemia

82

thymopoietin

-a hormone secreted by the thymus
-thought to stimulate the production of T-cells

83

thymosin

-a hormone secreted by the thymus
-thought to stimulate the production of T-cells

84

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid gland

85

thyroxine

-a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
-helps maintain normal body metabolism

86

triiodothyronine

-a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
-helps regulate growth and development of the body and control metabolism and body temperature

87

virilism

-the development of masculine physical traits in the female
-also called masculinization
-may be due to dysfunction of the adrenal gland
-due to the excessive secretion of adrenocoritcal androgens from the adrenal cortex

88

thyrotoxicosis

-an acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone
-also known as thyroid storm or thyroid crisis

89

radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test

-a thyroid function test that evaluates the function of the thyroid gland by administering a known amount of radioactive iodine and later placing a gamma ray detector over the thyroid gland to determine the percentage or quantity of radioactive iodine absorbed by the gland over specific time periods

90

serum glucose test

measures the amount of glucose in the blood at the time the sample was taken

91

thyroid echogram

and ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules