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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Spelling Words Deck (140):
1

plasma

-the fluid portion of blood that is essential for transporting the cellular elements around the body
-90% water; rest is electrolytes, proteins, fats, glucose, billirubin, and gases

2

albumin

-a plasma protein
-60% of the plasma proteins
-helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure
-their abundance attracts water into vessels by osmosis

3

edema

the swelling of the tissues (because of fluid seeping out of the blood into the interstitial tissues)

4

globulin

-a plasma protein made by the liver and helps the synthesis of antibodies
-36% of the plasma proteins
-three types=alpha, beta, gamma
-alpha and beta globulins=transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins in the blood
-gamma globulins=the antibodies that function in immunity

5

fibrinogen

-Factor I
-a plasma protein converted into fibrin in the presence of calcium ions
-4% of all plasma proteins
-largest plasma protein
-essential in the process of blood clotting, coagulation

6

differentiation

-a cell becomes specialized in function, each having a different purpose
-3 classifications-erythrocytes, leukocytes, & thrombocytes

7

erythrocyte

-tiny biconcave shaped disk that is thinner in the center (to allow for the bonding of oxygen) than around the edges
-mature red blood cells (RBCs)
-no nucleus
-120 day lifespan
-hemoglobin is the main component
-the most numerous formed element in blood

8

hemoglobin

-the main component of a RBC
-consists of heme and globin
-carries oxygen and carbon dioxide

9

leukocytes

-larger than erythrocytes but fewer in number
-white blood cells (WBCs)
-does have a nucleus
-does not possess hemoglobin
-Their are five types in two categories (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes)

10

granulocytes

-a group of leukocytes ----neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
-they have granules in their cytoplasm that absorbs dies

11

neutrophils

-60-70% of all WBCs
-multi-lobed nuclei
-phagocytic, they respond to infections and tissue damage by engulfing and destroying bacteria
-do not absorb acid or base dye well, remain neutral colored

12

eosinophils

-2-4% of WBCs
-have a nucleus with 2 lobes
-increase in numbers in response to an allergic reaction
-stain a rosy red

13

basophils

-secrete histamine during allergic reactions
-secrete heparin
-have a nucleus with 2 lobes
-1% of all WBCs
-stain a dark blue with base dye

14

monocytes

-3-8% of all WBCs
-the largest WBC
-kidney bean shaped nucleus
-phagocytic

15

lymphocytes

-20-25% of all WBCs
-large, spherical-shaped nucleus
-play an important role in the immune process; some are phagocytic and others produce antibodies to destroy bacteria

16

thrombocyte

-a platelet
-small disk shaped fragment of a megakaryocyte
-contain no hemoglobin
-essential for normal coagulation
-numbers average 200,000-500,000

17

antigens

-also called an agglutinogen
-a substance on a RBC that can stimulate the body to make antibodies
-usually a protein and reacts specifically with the antibody it caused formation of

18

antibodies

-produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances
-a substance present in the plasma that reacts in some way with the antigen that stimulated its formation
-once established, they are programmed to recognize the antigen as "foreign to the body" and will "attack it" it they come in contact with it again

19

agglutination

clumping of the red blood cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies

20

coagulation

-the clotting of blood
-the process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of blood

21

allergen

a substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body

22

allergy

a hypersensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental

23

anaphylaxis

an exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen

24

anisocytosis

a condition of the blood where the RBCs are of variable and abnormal size
aniso=unequal cyt/o=cell -osis=condition

25

ascites

an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes

26

bilrubin

orange-yellow pigment of bile formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span

27

corpuscle

any cell of the body, red or white

28

dyscrasia

an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, or prenatal Rh incompatibility

29

electrophoresis

the movement of a charged particle through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field; the particles of certain substance will migrate in a predictable direction and speed
electr/o-electrical; electricity -phoresis=transmission

30

erythremia

an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs
erythr/o=red -emia=blood condition

31

erythroblast

immature RBC
erythr/o-=red -blast=immature cell

32

erythropoiesis

the process of RBC production
erythr/o=red -poiesis=formation

33

erythropoietin

a hormone, synthesized in the kidneys and released in the blood stream in response to anoxia (lack of oxygen)
-the hormone stimulates and activates the production of the erythrocytes thereby increasing the blood's capacity to carry oxygen

34

fibrin

an insoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot

35

globin

a group of 4 globulin protein molecules that become bound by the iron in heme molecules to form hemoglobin

36

hematologist

a medical specialist in the field of hematology

37

hematology

the study of blood and blood-forming tissues

38

heme

iron; binds with and carries oxygen in the RBCs, and releasing it to tissues that give off excess carbon dioxide

39

hemolysis

the breakdown of RBCs and the release of hemoglobin that occurs at the end of the life span of the red cell
hem/o=blood -lysis=destruction or detachment

40

hemorrhage

the loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time, internally or externally; may be arterial, venous, or capillary
hem/o=blood -rrhage=excessive flow or discharge

41

hemostasis

the termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by coagulation in the body
hem/o=blood -stasis=stopping or controlling

42

heparin

a naturally occurring anti-clotting factor in the body

43

hyperalbumininemia

an increased level of albumin in the blood
hyper=excessive albumin/o=protein/albumin
-emia=blood condition

44

hyperbilirubinemia

higher than normal levels of bile pigment, bilirubin in the blood

45

hyperlipemia

excessive levels of blood fats, usual caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins to high-density lipoproteins; also called hyperlipidemia

46

hyperlipidemia

same as hyperlipemia

47

leukocytopenia

abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs to lower than 5,000 per cubic millimeter

48

megakarocyte

an extremely large bone marrow cell

49

myeloid

of or pertaining to the bone marrow or the spinal cord

50

pancytopenia

a decrease in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
pan=all cyt/o=cell -penia=deficiency

51

platelet

a clotting cell; a thrombocyte

52

prothrombin

-Factor II
-a plasma protein precursor of thrombin
- synthesized in the liver if adequate vit. K is present

53

reticulocyte

an immature erythrocyte consisting of a meshlike pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus

54

septicemia

systemic infection where pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, they spread from an infection some where in the body

55

seroconversion

a change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine

56

serology

the branch of lab medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by elvaluating antigen-antibody reactions

57

serum

clear, thin, and sticky fluid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation; contains NO blood cells, platelets, or fibrinogen

58

splenomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the spleen

59

stem cell

a formative cell; whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types

60

thrombin

an enzyme formed from prothrombin, calcium, and thromboplastin in plasma during the clotting process; it causes fibrinogen to change to fibrin which is essential in the formation of a clott

61

thrombocytopenia

abnormal hematologic condition where the numbers of platelets is reduced

62

thromboplastin

a complex substance that initiates the clotting process by converting prothrombin into thrombin in the presence of calcium ion

63

thrombus

a clot

64

anemia

-a condition where there is a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood to levels below the normal range, resulting in a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells
-there are various types named according to the cause
-symptoms of all types: fatigue, paleness of skin, headache, fainting, tingling sensations, numbness, loss of appetite, swelling of lower extremities, difficulty breathing

65

aplastic anemia

-bone marrow depression anemia
-an inadequacy of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
-due to an insult to the bone marrow's stem cells
-can develop after an infection, injury to bone marrow, b/c of neoplastic disorder of bone marrow, chemotherapy drugs, certain antibiotics, medications, radiation or toxic chemical exposure
-treated with blood transfusion or bone marrow transplant

66

hemolytic anemia

-hemolytic=the rupture or destruction of RBCs
-this anemia type=extreme reduction in circulating RBCs due to their destruction; reasons for the destruction can vary
-an=without -emia=blood condition
hem/o=blood -lytic=destruction

67

granulocytosis

abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection

68

eosinophilia

allergic conditions such as parasitic infection or asthma, there is a spiraling of eosinophilic granulocytes

69

hemochromatosis

-a rare iron metabolism disease with iron deposits throughout the body, usually a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias
- usually in men over 40
-have a enlarged liver and bronze skin
-secondary complications: congestive heart failure or diabetes mellitus
-treatment: blood transfusions

70

hemophilia

-involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times
-Hemophilia A: called 'classic hemophilia' is the result of a deficiency or absence of antihemophilic factor VIII, which results in traumatic or spontaneous bleeding in the joints, gums, or mouth; most common characteristic is hematuria
-Hemophilia B: called 'Christmas disease' is the deficiency of a coagulation factor IX
-Hemophilia A and B are only distinguished through laboratory differentiation of factor deficiencies
-other less common forms of hemophilia are: Von Willebrand's disease and Rosenthal's disease

71

leukemia

-excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia, and thrombocytopenia
-classified as acute or chronic
-Acute:rapid onset and swiftly progresses to thrombocytopenia, progressive anemia, infective lesions in throat and mouth, high fever, and severe infection; affects adults and elderly
-Chronic: gradual progression

72

multiple myeloma

-a malignant plasma cell neoplasm that causes an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often entirely replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure
-bones become so fragile that movement can result in a fracture
-almost everyone has the Bence Jone's protein in their urine
-symptoms: susceptibility to infections, anemia, hypercalcemia and renal damage
-poor survival rate

73

polycythemia vera

-abnormal increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes, and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity (thickness)
-exact cause is unknown
-increased blood volume congests the spleen and liver with RBCs as well as stasis and thrombosis in other areas
-clinical manifestations include light-headedness, headaches, visual disturbances, vertigo, ruddy cynosis, of the face, and eventually congestive heart failure
-blood must be removed

74

purpura

-a collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red-purple skin discolorations
-caused from a decreased number of circulation platelets (thrombocytopenia)
-may produce a factor that will damage its own platelets
-idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

75

thalassemia

-a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia where the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient creating hypochromic microcytic RBCs
-most frequently seen in Mediterranean descent people
-blood transfusions to save life is necessary and will eventually lead to accumulation of iron in the liver, heart and pancreas which leads to failure of the organs

76

direct antiglobulin test

-also called Combe's test
-used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh-negative woman

77

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

-ESR
-a test performed on the blood to measure the rate at which red blood cells settle out in a tube of unclotted blood
-with an inflammation, the protein content of plasma is increased, so RBCs tend to clump on top of one another, raising their weight and increasing the ESR
-ERS increase occurs in: pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction, severe anemia, and cancer
-ERS decrease occurs in:congestive heart failure, sickle cell anemia, polycythemia vera, and angina pectoris

78

hematocrit

an assessment of the RBC % in total blood volume

79

lipid profile

measures the lipids in the blood

80

prothrombin time

PT; a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation; assess clotting proficiency of factors I, II, V, VII and X; a PT higher than 30 is at risk of hemorrhage

81

red blood cell morphology

an examination of the RBC on a stained blood smear to identify the form and shape of the RBCs
-can see poikilocytosis and anisocytosis

82

reticulocyte count

a measurement of the number of circulating reticulocytes in the blood specimen

83

rouleaux

an aggregation of RBCs viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact or may occur with persons with multiple myeloma as a result of abnormal proteins

84

white blood cell differential

a measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBCs present in 1 mm3 of peripheral blood
-measured include neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils

85

lymph

-moving fluid that comes from the blood and returns to the blood via lymphatic vessels
-once interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels, it is known as lymph

86

immunity

the state of being protected from a disease

87

immunization

the process of creating immunity to a specific disease

88

immunology

the study of reaction of tissues of the immune system to antigenic stimulation

89

immunologist

the health specialist whose training and experience is concentrated in immunology

90

phagocytosis

the process of engulfing and destroying bacteria

91

tonsils

-masses of lymphatic tissue in a protective ring under the mucous membrane
-3 groups: pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) near nasal cavity and throat; palatine tonsils we can easily see; lingual tonsils near the tongue base
-help protect against bacteria
-serve as the fist line of defense from the external environment

92

acquired immunity

immunity that is the result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent as a result of having the disease or receiving an immunization

93

adenoids

the pharyngeal tonsils near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx

94

hypersensitivity

-abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimulus
-tissue damage resulting from exaggerated immune responses
-caused by 4 different mechanisms: IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity response-acute systemic response; cytoxic type II hypersensitivity reaction-antibodies and antigens bond on body cells; immune complex-mediated type III sensitivity response-huge antibody, antigen and complement proteins interact to form massive complexes; delayed type IV hypersensitivity responses-involve T cells

95

immunotherapy

a treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity

96

lymphadenopathy

any disorder of the lymph nodes or vessels, characterized by enlargement

97

lymphocyte

small, agranulocytic leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the bone marrow

98

macrophage

any phagocytic cell that helps fight infection and dispose of waste; found in the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lungs, brain, and spinal cord

99

natural immunity

immunity in which we are born; also called genetic immunity

100

pathogens

disease-producing microorganisms

101

susceptible

a state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents

102

T cells

-cells important to the immune response
-they mature in the thymus
-after maturation, they enter the blood stream and circulate the body providing defense against disease

103

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

-AIDS
-conditions that destroy the body's immune system in the final phase of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
-primarily destroys helper T cells with CD4 receptors

104

cytomegalvirus

-a large species-specific herpes-type virus with a wide variety of disease effects
-serious for people with AIDS, newborns, and those treated with immunosuppressive drugs
-results in retinal or gastrointestinal infection

105

hypersplenism

a syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen; many causes

106

Kaposi's sarcoma

locally destructive malignant neoplasm of the blood vessels forming lesions on the skin, visceral organs or mucous membranes; associated with AIDS; occurs due to an overgrowth of cells that narrow the vessel diameter

107

lymphoma

-a lymphoid tissue neoplasm typically malignant, beginning with enlarge lymph nodes and progressing to anemia, weakness, fever, and weight loss
-Types of lymphoma: Burkitt's lymphoma-on jaw or abdomen seen mostly in Central Africa; Hodgkin's disease-progressive painless enlargement of malignant tumor of the nodes and spleen seen first in the cervical region in mostly males; Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma-any type of lymphoma other than Hodgkin's lymphoma

108

mononucleosis

usually caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), typically benign, acute infection of the B lymphocytes

109

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disease where antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites reducing neuromuscular transmissions with facial muscle weakness symptom or even paralysis
my/o=muscle -asthenia=loss of strength

110

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

caused by a worldwide parasite, Pneumocystis carinii for which most people have immunity to unless immune system is compromised
pneum/o=lungs; air cyst/o=sac -is=noun ending
pneumon/o=lungs; air -ia=condition

111

sarcoidosis

systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small rounded lesions in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, liver, and other organs seen mostly in African American females between 20-40; can cause disability
carc/o=flesh -oid=resembling -osis=condition

112

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

-ELISA
-a blood test used for screening for an antibody to the AIDS virus

113

western blot

test that detects the presence of the antibodies to HIV and confirms the ELISA test

114

lymphangiogram

an X-ray assessment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot
lymph/o-lymph angi/o-vessel -gram-record or picture

115

bilrubin

the pigment of bile from the break down of RBCs at the end of their life

116

immune

protects the body; the system consists of bone marrow, thymus, lymphoid tissues & vessels, nodes, and spleen

117

immunideficiency

the failure of the immune system

118

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disease, antibodies block or destroy the acetylcholine receptor sites

119

pernicious anemia

mature RBC deficiency; consists of circulating megaloblast, poikilocytosis, and anisocytosis

120

poikliocytosis

RBC shape variation

121

polycythemia

condition of excessive cells in the blood

122

sickle cell anemia

hereditary, crescent-shaped RBCs cause low oxygen; RBCs clot causing infarction and pain

123

blastocyte

immature cell

124

chromophilic

pertaining to the tendancy to color----e.g. basophils and eosinophils are chromophilic

125

cytogenesis

the formation and development of cells

126

erythrocytopenia

RBC deficiency

127

erythrocytosis

RBC condition

128

hemogram

blood record

129

monocytopenia

monocyte deficieny

130

morphology

the study of the forms of things

131

karyocyte

a cell with a nucleus

132

isotonic

same osmotic pressure as those around them

133

myeloblast

immature bone marrow or spinal cord cell

134

nucleus

the central control center of a cell

135

phagocyte

a cell that engulfs and/or destroys things

136

prothrombin time (PT)

test for the clotting formation time. time it takes to convert prothrombin into thrombin

137

rouleaux

an aggregation of RBCs viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact or may occur with persons with multiple myeloma as a result of abnormal proteins

138

sideroblast

immature iron-rich RBC in the bone marrow

139

spheroid

resembling a sphere

140

spherocytosis

condition of a sphere shaped cell