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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (79):

The blood system does what?

-Transports oxygen and nutrients to the body and cells
-transports carbon dioxide and other waste away from the body cells


What does blood consist of?

plasma, formed elements, and cells of different types



-yellow or straw-colored fluid
-90% water
-contains electrolytes, proteins, fats, glucose, bilirubin, and gases


What are the plasma proteins?



What is the production of formed elements in the blood?



what are hemocytoblasts?

undifferentiated and unspecialized stem cells--3 types


what are the 3 types of mature cells found in the blood?

erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes


what is the main component of the red blood cell



what does hemoglobin consist of?

heme and globin


what is oxyhemoglobin?

-the name given after oxygen has bonded with hemoglobin
-gives the red color to blood
-is formed when blood circulates through the lungs
-is most of the oxygen transported to the body cells


what is the primary function of the RBC?

transport oxygen to the cells of the body


What occurs once oxygen is released into the cells?

the RBC absorbs carbon dioxide for return to the lungs to be released and more oxygen is picked up


what is the normal range for erythrocytes for an adult?

4.5-6 million per cubic millimeter of blood (they are the most numerous formed elements in the blood


What are the 2 categories and 5 types of leukocytes?

-granulocytes -----neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil,
-agranulocytes---monocytes and lymphocytes


What are trhombocytes essential for?



what is an antigen?

(or called an agglutinogen) is a substance present on the RBC that can stimulate the body to make antibodies that will then react in some way with the anitgen


why must donor blood types be matched?

at times the antigen-antibody combination will result in agglutination of the RBCs if compatible blood types are not used


What are the blood group types?



What is present in A blood type?
B blood types?
AB blood type?
O blood type?

-A antigens on the RBCs; Anti-B antibodies
-B antigens on the RBCs; Anti-A antibodies
-A and B antigens on the RBCs; No antibodies present
-neither A or B antigens on the RBCs; Both A and B antibodies present


What is a donor

a person who gives blood


What is a recipient?

a person who receives blood


What blood type is the universal donor?



What blood type is the universal recipient?



what is cross-matching?

mixing the donor blood with the recipient blood and observing the mixture for agglutination


What is the Rh factor?

(first studied in rhesus monkeys) an antigen found on the RBC surface


What does Rh positive (Rh+) mean?
What does Rh negative (Rh-) mean?

-they have the Rh factor present on their RBC
-they DO NOT have the RH factor present


What are the two major concerns regarding the Rh factor?

1. if an Rh- individual is exposed to Rh+ blood through a transfusion, the Rh- person will develop anti-Rh antibodies that will cause agglutination the second time they receive a transfusion
2. if an Rh- woman gives birth to a Rh+ baby, and their blood mixes, the Rh- mother's body will develop anti-Rh antibodies that will cause problems with future pregnancies (those antibodies will attack and kill the fetus blood cells)


How is the Rh factor risk will pregnancy controlled?

the mother is given an injection of RhoGam after the birth to stop the body from developing the anti-Rh antibodies


What are the steps of blood clotting?

1.there is an injury to a vessel that creates a roughened area in the vessel
2. some of the blood platelets disintegrates as they flow over the rough spot and release thromboplastin
3. the thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin int he presence of calcium ions and clotting factors
4. the thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin in the presence of calcium ions which forms a mesh that adheres to the tissue and forms the clot.


What is osmosis?

Because of the abundance of albumins in the blood, they attract water into the vessels through the capillaries...the fluid flows from a lesser concentration of solute to a greater concentration of solute and the balance between the fluid in the blood and the fluid in the interstitial tissues is maintained (it will not leak out into the surrounding tissues)


What are the different types of anemia discussed?

-aplastic anemia
-hemolytic anemia
-iron deficiency anemia
-pernicious anemia
-sickle cell anemia


aplastic anemia

-also called bone marrow depression anemia
-characterized by pancytopenia (an inadequacy of the formed blood elements (RBCs, WBCs, Platelets)


hemolytic anemia

-extreme reduction in circulating RBCs due to their destruction


iron deficiency anemia

-a deficiency of hemoglobin level due to a lack of iron in the body; there is a greater demand on stored iron than can be supplied by the body
-additional symptoms: brittle spoon-shaped nails, crack of the mouth (cheilosis), sore tongue, and pica
-MOST COMMON type of anemia
-can occur from chronic blood loss
-common in older adults
-treatment includes more iron


pernicious anemia

-a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts with marked poikilocytosis and anisocytosis
-occurs because of inadequate absorption of B12 which is necessary for the proper maturation of RBCs
-occurs in people over 60 and believed to be an autoimmune response
-sore tongue is common symptom
-bilirubin levels can elevate as a result causing jaundiced skin
-treatment is B12 for life


sickle cell anemia

-chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia where RBCs become shaped like a crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentration
-the crescent-shaped RBCs clump, forming thromboses, which occlude small blood vessels and cause areas of infarction, creating a lot of pain in hands, feet and abdominal cavity
-the cells get back their original shape when oxygen is introduced
-the back and forth shape changing weakens the RBCs and leads to hemolysis
-inherited by the presence of one gene (sickle cell trait) or two genes (sickle cell disease)
-mostly among African Americans
-complications include:heart murmurs, congestive heart failure, enlarged liver, jaundice, gallstones, reduced urine concentration, hematuria, osteomyelitis, lower extremity ulcers, and problems with eyes


acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

predominated by immature granulocytes


acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

predominated by immature lymphocytes; mostly in children and adolescents


chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

immature and mature granulocytes existing in the bloodstream and bone marrow


chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

predominated by exceptional amount of lymphocytes found in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes that are abnormal, small, and mature


leukemia symptoms and treatments

-similar in all because bone marrow produces large numbers of nonfunctioning leukocytes and decreased production of platelets and RBCs
-decreased leukocytes: nail and skin infections, fever, throat and mouth ulcers, pneumonia, cystitis, and septicemia
-decreased RBCs:fatigue, lethargy, rapid pulse, difficult breathing
-decrease platelets: petechiae, epistaxis, hematuria, bruising, hemtomas, and scleral or retinal hemorrhage
-chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplant


idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

-a disorder where antibodies are made by the individual that destroys his or her own platelets
-cause of prolonged bleeding time is unknown
-corticosteroids are administered and many require removal of the spleen to stop platelet destruction


bleeding time

measurement of the time required for bleeding to stop


blood transfusion

and administration of blood or blood component to an individual to replace blood lost through surgery, trauma or disease


bone marrow biopsy

-the microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue which fully evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape, and size of the RBCs and WBCs and platelet precursors
-obtained through aspiration or surgical removal


bone marrow transplant

after receiving an intravenous infusion of aggressive chemotherapy or total-body irradiation to destroy all malignant cells and to inactivate the immune system, the marrow cells are infused intravenously into the recipient


complete blood cell count

-Incudes: RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC indices, WBC count, WBC differential, Blood smear, and platelet count


hemoglobin test

concentration measurement of the hemoglobin in the peripheral blood


partial thromboplastin time

-a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body
-assesses various blood clotting factors


platelet count

the count of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood


red blood cell count

-the measurement of the circulation number of RBCs in 1mm3 of peripheral blood


Schilling test

a diagnostic analysis for pernicious anemia


white blood cell count

measurement of the circulation number of WBCs in 1mm3 of peripheral blood


lymphatic system consists of what?

lymphatic vessels, fluid, nodes and lymphatic organs-spleen, tonsils, and thymus


how do lymphatic vessels differ from the vessels of the cardiovascular system?

they do not form a closed circuit, instead they originate in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissues


what are the two most important functions of the lymphatic system?

1. to produce anitbodies and lymphocytes that are important to immunity
2. to maintain a balance of fluid in the internal environment
-it is an important part of the immune system


lymphatic capillaries

-originate in the tissue spaces as blind-sacs because the accumulation of fluid within the tissue spaces would cause edema
-transport lymph into lymphatic vessels


lymphatic vessels

-have valves to prevent the backward flow of fluid
-transport fluid in only one direction, away from tissues, toward the thoracic cavity
-they merge to form lymphatic ducts


lymphatic ducts

the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct


lymph from where drains into the right lymphatic duct

drainage from the right side of the head and neck, the right upper extremity, and the right side of the chest and empties into the right subclavian vein


lymph from where drains into the thoracic duct

remaining regions of the body which empties into the left subclavian vein


where are the major concentration of lymph nodes in the body?

1. cervical lymph nodes
2. submandibular lymph nodes
3. axillary lymph nodes
4. inguinal lymph nodes


what two processes occur when lymph passes through the stationary lymph nodes?

-old dead cells and bacteria present in the lymph are filtered out
-phagocytes engulf and destroy the bacteria



-located in the mediastinum near the middle of the chest just beneath the sternum
-it secretes a hormone called thymosin which stimulates the red bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes (T cells)
-it completes most of its essential work during childhood



-located left upper quadrant, just below the diaphragm, behind the stomach
-largest lymphatic organ
-plays an important role in immunity by filtering blood
-macrophages of the spleen remove pathogens from circulating blood, remove old dead red cells and forming bile from their breakdown
-serves as a storage reservoir for blood
-can release blood back into circulation during hemorrhage emergencies


what are the two types of acquired immunity?

passive acquired immunity
active acquired immunity


passive acquired immunity

acquired artificially by injecting antibodies from the blood of another person or animal into a person's body to protect him or her
-this immunity is immediate but short lived (about 2 weeks)
-example: gamma globulin to individuals who have been exposed to measles or infectious hepatitis
-example: passage of mother's immunity through birth


active acquired immunity

-either acquired naturally as a result of having the disease or artificially inoculated with a vaccine to develop antibodies for future interactions with the disease


artificial acquired immunity

a person receives a vaccine to stimulate formation of antibodies to the disease


immune reaction (immune response)

a defense of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies


the 2 types of immune responses?

humoral immune response
cell-mediated immune response


humoral immune response

B lymphocytes come in contact with antigens and produce antibodies known as immunoglobulins


cell-mediated immune response

-after the T cells mature in the thymus and go circulating, they come in contact with specific invading antigens, multiply rapidly and engulf and digest the antigen
-the multiplied cells are called memory cells and remain in circulation for many years


autoimmune disorder

-when something happens to the immune system causing it to function abnormally; the body forms antibodies that react against its own tissues
-there are two categories: the collagen diseases (SLE, scleroderma & rheumatoid arthritis) and the autoimmune hemolytic disorders (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired hemolytic anemia)


a local reaction

one that occurs at the site where treatment or medication was administered


systemic reaction

one that evidenced by generalized body symptoms such as runny nose, itchy eyes, hives, and rashes


most common cause of anaphylactic shock?



CT scan

CAT scan; a collection of X-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contract medium


systemic lupus erythrocytosis

(SLE) inflammatory connective tissue disease, chronic, where immune complexes are formed form the reaction of SLE autoantibodies and their corresponding antigens; the complexes are deposited in the connective tissues of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and other tissues