Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (79):
The blood system does what?
-Transports oxygen and nutrients to the body and cells
-transports carbon dioxide and other waste away from the body cells
What does blood consist of?
plasma, formed elements, and cells of different types
-yellow or straw-colored fluid
-contains electrolytes, proteins, fats, glucose, bilirubin, and gases
What are the plasma proteins?
What is the production of formed elements in the blood?
what are hemocytoblasts?
undifferentiated and unspecialized stem cells--3 types
what are the 3 types of mature cells found in the blood?
erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes
what is the main component of the red blood cell
what does hemoglobin consist of?
heme and globin
what is oxyhemoglobin?
-the name given after oxygen has bonded with hemoglobin
-gives the red color to blood
-is formed when blood circulates through the lungs
-is most of the oxygen transported to the body cells
what is the primary function of the RBC?
transport oxygen to the cells of the body
What occurs once oxygen is released into the cells?
the RBC absorbs carbon dioxide for return to the lungs to be released and more oxygen is picked up
what is the normal range for erythrocytes for an adult?
4.5-6 million per cubic millimeter of blood (they are the most numerous formed elements in the blood
What are the 2 categories and 5 types of leukocytes?
-granulocytes -----neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil,
-agranulocytes---monocytes and lymphocytes
What are trhombocytes essential for?
what is an antigen?
(or called an agglutinogen) is a substance present on the RBC that can stimulate the body to make antibodies that will then react in some way with the anitgen
why must donor blood types be matched?
at times the antigen-antibody combination will result in agglutination of the RBCs if compatible blood types are not used
What are the blood group types?
What is present in A blood type?
B blood types?
AB blood type?
O blood type?
-A antigens on the RBCs; Anti-B antibodies
-B antigens on the RBCs; Anti-A antibodies
-A and B antigens on the RBCs; No antibodies present
-neither A or B antigens on the RBCs; Both A and B antibodies present
What is a donor
a person who gives blood
What is a recipient?
a person who receives blood
What blood type is the universal donor?
What blood type is the universal recipient?
what is cross-matching?
mixing the donor blood with the recipient blood and observing the mixture for agglutination
What is the Rh factor?
(first studied in rhesus monkeys) an antigen found on the RBC surface
What does Rh positive (Rh+) mean?
What does Rh negative (Rh-) mean?
-they have the Rh factor present on their RBC
-they DO NOT have the RH factor present
What are the two major concerns regarding the Rh factor?
1. if an Rh- individual is exposed to Rh+ blood through a transfusion, the Rh- person will develop anti-Rh antibodies that will cause agglutination the second time they receive a transfusion
2. if an Rh- woman gives birth to a Rh+ baby, and their blood mixes, the Rh- mother's body will develop anti-Rh antibodies that will cause problems with future pregnancies (those antibodies will attack and kill the fetus blood cells)
How is the Rh factor risk will pregnancy controlled?
the mother is given an injection of RhoGam after the birth to stop the body from developing the anti-Rh antibodies
What are the steps of blood clotting?
1.there is an injury to a vessel that creates a roughened area in the vessel
2. some of the blood platelets disintegrates as they flow over the rough spot and release thromboplastin
3. the thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin int he presence of calcium ions and clotting factors
4. the thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin in the presence of calcium ions which forms a mesh that adheres to the tissue and forms the clot.
What is osmosis?
Because of the abundance of albumins in the blood, they attract water into the vessels through the capillaries...the fluid flows from a lesser concentration of solute to a greater concentration of solute and the balance between the fluid in the blood and the fluid in the interstitial tissues is maintained (it will not leak out into the surrounding tissues)
What are the different types of anemia discussed?
-iron deficiency anemia
-sickle cell anemia
-also called bone marrow depression anemia
-characterized by pancytopenia (an inadequacy of the formed blood elements (RBCs, WBCs, Platelets)
-extreme reduction in circulating RBCs due to their destruction
iron deficiency anemia
-a deficiency of hemoglobin level due to a lack of iron in the body; there is a greater demand on stored iron than can be supplied by the body
-additional symptoms: brittle spoon-shaped nails, crack of the mouth (cheilosis), sore tongue, and pica
-MOST COMMON type of anemia
-can occur from chronic blood loss
-common in older adults
-treatment includes more iron
-a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts with marked poikilocytosis and anisocytosis
-occurs because of inadequate absorption of B12 which is necessary for the proper maturation of RBCs
-occurs in people over 60 and believed to be an autoimmune response
-sore tongue is common symptom
-bilirubin levels can elevate as a result causing jaundiced skin
-treatment is B12 for life
sickle cell anemia
-chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia where RBCs become shaped like a crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentration
-the crescent-shaped RBCs clump, forming thromboses, which occlude small blood vessels and cause areas of infarction, creating a lot of pain in hands, feet and abdominal cavity
-the cells get back their original shape when oxygen is introduced
-the back and forth shape changing weakens the RBCs and leads to hemolysis
-inherited by the presence of one gene (sickle cell trait) or two genes (sickle cell disease)
-mostly among African Americans
-complications include:heart murmurs, congestive heart failure, enlarged liver, jaundice, gallstones, reduced urine concentration, hematuria, osteomyelitis, lower extremity ulcers, and problems with eyes
acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
predominated by immature granulocytes
acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
predominated by immature lymphocytes; mostly in children and adolescents
chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
immature and mature granulocytes existing in the bloodstream and bone marrow
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
predominated by exceptional amount of lymphocytes found in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes that are abnormal, small, and mature
leukemia symptoms and treatments
-similar in all because bone marrow produces large numbers of nonfunctioning leukocytes and decreased production of platelets and RBCs
-decreased leukocytes: nail and skin infections, fever, throat and mouth ulcers, pneumonia, cystitis, and septicemia
-decreased RBCs:fatigue, lethargy, rapid pulse, difficult breathing
-decrease platelets: petechiae, epistaxis, hematuria, bruising, hemtomas, and scleral or retinal hemorrhage
-chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplant
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
-a disorder where antibodies are made by the individual that destroys his or her own platelets
-cause of prolonged bleeding time is unknown
-corticosteroids are administered and many require removal of the spleen to stop platelet destruction
measurement of the time required for bleeding to stop
and administration of blood or blood component to an individual to replace blood lost through surgery, trauma or disease
bone marrow biopsy
-the microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue which fully evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape, and size of the RBCs and WBCs and platelet precursors
-obtained through aspiration or surgical removal
bone marrow transplant
after receiving an intravenous infusion of aggressive chemotherapy or total-body irradiation to destroy all malignant cells and to inactivate the immune system, the marrow cells are infused intravenously into the recipient
complete blood cell count
-Incudes: RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC indices, WBC count, WBC differential, Blood smear, and platelet count
concentration measurement of the hemoglobin in the peripheral blood
partial thromboplastin time
-a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body
-assesses various blood clotting factors
the count of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood
red blood cell count
-the measurement of the circulation number of RBCs in 1mm3 of peripheral blood
a diagnostic analysis for pernicious anemia
white blood cell count
measurement of the circulation number of WBCs in 1mm3 of peripheral blood
lymphatic system consists of what?
lymphatic vessels, fluid, nodes and lymphatic organs-spleen, tonsils, and thymus
how do lymphatic vessels differ from the vessels of the cardiovascular system?
they do not form a closed circuit, instead they originate in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissues
what are the two most important functions of the lymphatic system?
1. to produce anitbodies and lymphocytes that are important to immunity
2. to maintain a balance of fluid in the internal environment
-it is an important part of the immune system
-originate in the tissue spaces as blind-sacs because the accumulation of fluid within the tissue spaces would cause edema
-transport lymph into lymphatic vessels
-have valves to prevent the backward flow of fluid
-transport fluid in only one direction, away from tissues, toward the thoracic cavity
-they merge to form lymphatic ducts
the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct
lymph from where drains into the right lymphatic duct
drainage from the right side of the head and neck, the right upper extremity, and the right side of the chest and empties into the right subclavian vein
lymph from where drains into the thoracic duct
remaining regions of the body which empties into the left subclavian vein
where are the major concentration of lymph nodes in the body?
1. cervical lymph nodes
2. submandibular lymph nodes
3. axillary lymph nodes
4. inguinal lymph nodes
what two processes occur when lymph passes through the stationary lymph nodes?
-old dead cells and bacteria present in the lymph are filtered out
-phagocytes engulf and destroy the bacteria
-located in the mediastinum near the middle of the chest just beneath the sternum
-it secretes a hormone called thymosin which stimulates the red bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes (T cells)
-it completes most of its essential work during childhood
-located left upper quadrant, just below the diaphragm, behind the stomach
-largest lymphatic organ
-plays an important role in immunity by filtering blood
-macrophages of the spleen remove pathogens from circulating blood, remove old dead red cells and forming bile from their breakdown
-serves as a storage reservoir for blood
-can release blood back into circulation during hemorrhage emergencies
what are the two types of acquired immunity?
passive acquired immunity
active acquired immunity
passive acquired immunity
acquired artificially by injecting antibodies from the blood of another person or animal into a person's body to protect him or her
-this immunity is immediate but short lived (about 2 weeks)
-example: gamma globulin to individuals who have been exposed to measles or infectious hepatitis
-example: passage of mother's immunity through birth
active acquired immunity
-either acquired naturally as a result of having the disease or artificially inoculated with a vaccine to develop antibodies for future interactions with the disease
artificial acquired immunity
a person receives a vaccine to stimulate formation of antibodies to the disease
immune reaction (immune response)
a defense of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies
the 2 types of immune responses?
humoral immune response
cell-mediated immune response
humoral immune response
B lymphocytes come in contact with antigens and produce antibodies known as immunoglobulins
cell-mediated immune response
-after the T cells mature in the thymus and go circulating, they come in contact with specific invading antigens, multiply rapidly and engulf and digest the antigen
-the multiplied cells are called memory cells and remain in circulation for many years
-when something happens to the immune system causing it to function abnormally; the body forms antibodies that react against its own tissues
-there are two categories: the collagen diseases (SLE, scleroderma & rheumatoid arthritis) and the autoimmune hemolytic disorders (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired hemolytic anemia)
a local reaction
one that occurs at the site where treatment or medication was administered
one that evidenced by generalized body symptoms such as runny nose, itchy eyes, hives, and rashes
most common cause of anaphylactic shock?
CAT scan; a collection of X-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contract medium