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Flashcards in Chapter 22 (Not the spelling words) Deck (38):
1

drug

Any substance that when taken into the body, may modify one or more of its functions

2

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA)

-1938
-Regulates quality, purity, potency, effectiveness, safety, labeling, and packaging of food, drug, and cosmetic products
-Enforced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

3

Controlled Substances Act

-Regulates manufacture, distribution, and dispensing of controlled substances
-Drugs that have the potential of being abused and of causing physical or psychological dependence
-Enforced by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

4

Schedule I drugs

-Not considered to be legitimate for medical use in the United States
-Used for research only and cannot be prescribed
-High risk for abuse
-Examples: LSD, heroin, marijuana

5

Schedule II drugs

-Accepted medical use but have a high potential for abuse or addiction
-Must be ordered by written prescription
-Cannot be refilled without a new, written prescription
-Examples: morphine, cocaine, codeine, Demerol, Dilaudid

6

Schedule III drugs

-Moderate potential for abuse or addiction, low potential for physical dependence
-May be ordered by written prescription or by telephone order
-Prescription expires in 6 months – may not be refilled more than 5 times in 6-month period
-Examples: Tylenol with codeine, Butisol, Hycodan

7

Schedule IV drugs

-Less potential for abuse or addiction than those of Schedule III, with limited physical dependence
-May be ordered by written prescription or by telephone order
-May be refilled up to 5 times in a 6-month period – prescription expires in 6 months
-Examples: Librium, Valium, Darvon, Equanil

8

Schedule V drugs

-Have a small potential for abuse or addiction
-May be ordered by written prescription or by telephone order
-No limit on prescription refills
-Some of these drugs may not need prescription
-Examples: Robitussin-AC, Donnagel-PG, Lomotil

9

Drug Standards

-Rules established to control strength, quality, and purity of medications prepared by various manufacturers
-Require all preparations called by the same drug name to be of a uniform strength, quality, and purity
-United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary (USP/NF)=Contains formulas and information that provide standards for preparation and dispensation of drugs.
Recognized by U.S. government as the official listing of standardized drugs in the United States.
FDCA specifies a drug is official when it is listed in USP/NF

10

Drug References

-Available for health professionals responsible for safe administration of medications
-Provide the following information: Composition, action, indications for use, contraindications for use, precautions, side effects, adverse reactions, route of administration, dosage range, and what forms are available

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Physicians’ Desk Reference

-Published yearly by Thomson Reuters
-Manufacturers pay to list information about their products in the PDR
-Same information that appears on package inserts (as required by the FDA)
-Generic name, indications, contraindications, adverse effects, dosage, and route of administration
-Additional references:
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Nonprescription Drugs
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Ophthalmology
Drug Interactions and Side Effects Index
Indications Index

12

Drug Facts and Comparisons

-drugs according to their therapeutic classification
-Same basic facts as other drug references
-Particularly helpful in comparing the various drugs within each category to other products
-In reference to effectiveness, content, and cost

13

Drug sources

Plants
Minerals
Animals
Synthetic

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generic name

-Name that was established when drug was first manufactured
-Written in lowercase letters
-Official name of a drug
-Each drug has only one generic name
-Original manufacturer is only company that can use generic name for the first 17 years

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brand name

-Name under which the drug is sold by a specific manufacturer
-Spelling always begins with a capital letter
-Also known as the trade name
-Name is owned by the drug company and no other company may use that name
-Each brand name carries a registered trademark symbol ®

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drug action

How drugs produce changes within the body

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drug effect

-Changes that take place in the body as a result of drug action
-Slowing down or speeding up processes
-Destroying certain cells or parts of cells
-Replacing substances that the body lacks or fails to produce

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desired effect

Effect of drug in the body that was intended

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side effect

-Additional effect on the body by the drug that was not part of the goal for that medication
-Not usually severe enough to warrant discontinuing the medication

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local effect

Response to a medication that is confined to a specific part of the body

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ROA=Oral

-Given by mouth and swallowed
-Advantage: Easiest and safest method; Most economical method
-Disadvantage: Slow method of absorption; Possibility of being destroyed by gastric juices

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ROA=sublingual

-Placed under the tongue – dissolves in saliva
-Advantage: More rapid absorption rate than oral; Higher concentration of medication reaches bloodstream
-Disadvantage: Not convenient route of administration for bad-tasting medications or irritating medications

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ROA=buccal

-Placed in mouth next to cheek (tablet form)
-Advantage: More rapid absorption rate than oral; Higher concentration of medication reaches bloodstream
-Disadvantage: Possibility of swallowing the pill

24

ROA=inhalation

-Medication is sprayed or inhaled into nose, throat, and lungs
-Advantage: Good absorption due to large surface contact area; Provides rapid treatment
-Disadvantage:Sometimes difficult to regulate dose; Not suitable method for medications that irritate mucous membrane lining

25

ROA=rectal

-Medication is inserted into rectum and slowly absorbed into mucous membrane lining of rectum (suppository)
-Advantage: One method of choice when patient is nauseated or cannot take medications orally
Disadvantage: Absorption is slow and irregular

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ROA=vaginal

-Medication is inserted into the vagina in the form of a suppository, cream, foam, or tablet
-Advantage: Easiest method for treating the specific area
-Disadvantage: Medications sometimes stain underwear; No other disadvantages

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ROA=topical

-Medication is applied directly to the skin or mucous membrane for a local effect to area
-Advantage:Easy method, convenient
-Disadvantage: Slow absorption through skin

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ROA=transdermal

-Method of applying a pre-measured amount of medicine to unbroken skin through an adhesive-backed disk
-Advantage:Good method for administering medications slowly into bloodstream over a period of time
-Disadvantage: Units can be dangerous if they come in contact with skin of children or pets

29

ROA=parenteral

-Administered by injecting medication into body using a needle and syringe
-Must be in liquid form
-Administered by one of following methods: Intradermal, Intramuscular, Intravenous, or Subcutaneous

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ROA=intradermal

-Small amount of medication is injected just beneath epidermis
-Used for allergy testing, tuberculin skin testing, and some vaccinations
-Needle angle: 10- to 15-degree

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ROA=intramuscular

-Medication is injected directly into muscle
-Used for administering antibiotics, medications that might be irritating to layers of the skin, and medications that require dosages larger than amount allowed for subcutaneous injections
-Needle angle: 90-degree

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ROA=intravenous

-Medication is injected directly into the vein, entering the bloodstream immediately
-Used when medication is needed quickly
-Used for infusing medication over a period of time, by adding the medication to a bag of intravenous fluids
-Needle angle: 25-degree

33

ROA-subcutaneous

-Medication is injected into subcutaneous layer, or fatty tissue, of skin
-Used for administering insulin, hormones, and local anesthetics
-Needle angle: 45-degree

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antidiuretic

-Suppresses the formation of urine
Example: vasopressin (Pitressin)

35

diuretic

-Increases urine secretion
Example: furosemide (Lasix)

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common charting abbreviations guidelines

-Medical abbreviations are a form of shorthand
-Serve as a universal language for medical professionals
-Provide specific information and/or orders in an abbreviated format
-Health professional should use standard abbreviations accepted by their place of employment
-When abbreviations have more than one meaning

37

controlled substances

-drugs that have the potential for abuse
-placed into 5 categories

38

first-dose effect

-an undesired effect of a medication that occurs within 30-90 minutes after administration of the first dose