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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (39):

Which layer of the heart is required for muscle contraction?
a. epicardium
b. endocardium
c. myocardium
d. pericardium

c. Myo = muscle.


True or False: Getting oxygenated blood to the lungs is vital to other body systems.

False. The lungs convert deoxygenated blood to oxygenated, which is vital to other body systems.


In looking at the diagram of the heart, what is unique about the pulmonary arteries and veins?
a. Nothing else uses “pulmonary” in the name.
b. The arteries carry deoxygenated blood and veins carry oxygenated blood.
c. Each is connected to the opposite lung.
d. There is nothing unique about them.

b. This is the only exception in all of the body’s arteries and veins.


True or False: If a patient has angina pectoris, the first concern is a heart attack.

True. It is standard protocol that if a patient comes in with chest pain, this is top priority


In coronary artery bypass grafting, what large vessel is the main source of the new blood supply?
a. vena cava
b. pulmonary artery
c. brachiocephalic artery
d. aorta

d. The grafts taken from other parts of the body are connected to the aorta and then connected past the occlusion of the affected coronary artery.


True or False: Another term for the backflow of blood into the left atrium is regurgitation

True. This condition can produce an extra sound in the heartbeat called a murmur


What would be the term for surgical removal of an aneurysm?
a. aneurysmectomy
b. aneurysmoectomy
c. aneurysmotomy
d. aneurysmoplasty

a. The element -ectomy means surgical removal. No combining vowel is used because it already starts with a vowel


True or False: Venous insufficiency is not as severe as varicose veins.

False. Varicose veins are simply enlarged superficial veins, while venous insufficiency is a decreased return of venous blood from the legs. This may lead to ulceration of the skin


Which of the congenital abnormalities mentioned require surgical correction?
a. tetralogy of Fallot
b.patent ductus arteriosus
c. coarctation of the aorta
d. all of them

d. Medicine is not effective on any of these defects


True or False: Ventricular fibrillation must be corrected within 3 to 4 minutes, or the result is death

True. CPR and defibrillation (countershock) must be performed to reestablish an adequate rhythm


A patient with angina pectoris has an abnormal EKG and elevated cardiac enzymes. __________________ is then performed to determine the extent of cardiovascular disease.
a. Exercise stress testing
b. Cardiac catheterization
c. Holter monitoring
d. Computed axial tomography

b. This is standard procedure to determine the need for bypass surgery versus stent placement.


True or False: The PET scanner is helpful in detecting coronary artery disease, which is less invasive than cardiac catheterization.

True. However, these machines are very costly, which limits their use.



the study of the heart



a physician who specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders of the heart


what is the center of the circulatory system?

the heart


parietal pericardium

the outer covering of the pericardium


visceral pericardium

the tight covering over the heart surface; the inner layer of the pericardium; also known as the epicardium


pericardial cavity

the space between the parietal and visceral pericardium filled with lubrication fluid


the layers of the heart?

epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium


how many heart chambers?

-4 chambers, upper/receiving chambers (right and left atria) and lower/pumping chambers (right and left ventricles)


What are the heart septums?

-the septum dividing the right and left sides of the heart
-the interatrial septum dividing the atria
-the interventricular septum dividing the ventricles


the circulation of the heart

from the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava, deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium, through the tricuspid valve, into the right ventricle, into the pulmonary valve, into the right and left pulmonary arteries, into the lungs====pulmonary circulation
then oxygenated blood travels from the lungs into the left atrium via four pulmonary veins, into the mitral (bicuspid) valve into the left ventricle, through the aortic valve into the aorta and to the rest of the body=====systemic circulation


does the heart use a lot of oxygen?

yes, approximately three times more oxygen than other organs of the body


sinoatrial node

the pacemaker of the heart; it sets the rhythm for the entire heart; impulse is initiated from the SA node


atrioventricular node

the AV node relays the impulse to the ventricles through a bundle of specialized muscle fibers called the bundle of His


The bundle of His

these impulses cause the ventricles to contract; divides into right and left bundle branches that terminate in fibers called Purkinje fibers


Perkinje fibers

fan out into the muscles of the ventricles forming the electrical impulse-conducting system of the heart


diastolic phase

the ventricles relax and fill with blood


systolic phase

the ventricles contract


blood pressure

the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries; maximum pressure is systolic pressure (top #) and minimum pressure is diastolic pressure (bottom #)


What is blood pressure measured with ?

a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope



absence of contractions of the heart


dependent edema

a fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity; usually greater in the lower extremities than in tissue levels above the level of the heart


Homan's sign

pain felt in the calf of the leg or behind the knee when dorsiflexing the foot of the patient; pain indicates thrombophlebitis



insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood



low-pitched humming or fluttering sound heard on auscultation



SA node or mechanical devise to maintain normal heart rhythm


serum sickness

a hypersensitivity that may occur 2 or 3 weeks after getting an antiserum



an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve