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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (67):
1

cell

the smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter

2

cell membrane

a semipermeable barrier that allows certain substance to pass through while blocking others

3

tissue

sells grouped together to perform specialized functions

4

organs

tissues arranged together to perform a special function

5

system

organs that work together to perform the many functions of the body as a whole

6

the terms relating to cells (from PP)

Anaplasia
Aplasia
Dysplasia
Hyperplasia
Hypoplasia
Neoplasia

7

the types of tissues

Connective
Epithelial
Muscle
Skeletal
Smooth or Visceral
Cardiac
Nervous

8

The _______ are the smallest structural units, leading up to ______________, which perform important bodily functions.

cells....body systems

9

Of the 4 types of tissue, how many do you think are involved in a body system such as the digestive system?
a. 4
b. 3
c. 2
d. None

a. 4 . Epithelial tissue is required for creation of the organ structures themselves; muscle tissue is required to move food through the organs and out of the body; nervous tissue is required to stimulate the muscle activity; connective tissue is required to hold the structures in the body cavities. In fact, these 4 tissues are involved in each of the 13 body systems.

10

What is the midsagittal plane?

Divides body into equal right and left portions, Midline of the body; Medial-toward the midline; Lateral-away from the midline

11

What are frontal or coronal planes?

any vertical plane passing through the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal planes and dividing the body into front and back portions; Divides body into front and back portions

12

What is a transverse plane?

Any plane cut across the body, perpendicular to the sagittal and the frontal planes and dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions; Cuts across body into Superior (cranial, cephalic) and Inferior (caudal)

13

True or False: A frontal view is when you divide the body into equal left and right portions.

False. Frontal is looking at the front of something, so it divides the body in front and back portions.

14

True or False: A radiologist dictates a craniocaudal view was performed. This means the film was shot from the top of the head downward toward the tail.

True. Cranial means skull, and caudal means tail.

15

How many abdominal regions are there?

Nine

16

How are they listed?

Move from top to bottom, one row at a time

17

What are the abdominal regions?

Right hypochondriac region
Epigastric region
Left hypochondriac region
Right Lumbar region
Umbilical region
Left lumbar region
Right Inguinal region
Hypogastric region
Left Inguinal region

18

What are the superficial organs in the right hypochondriac region?

the right lobe of the liver and the gallbladder

19

What are the superficial organs in the epigrastric region?

parts of the right and left lobes of the liver and a major portion of the stomach

20

What are the superficial organs in the Left hypochondriac region?

a small portion of the stomach and a portion of the large intestine.

21

What are the superficial organs in the Right Lumbar Region?

portions of the large and small intestines

22

What are the superficial organs in the umbilical region?

a portion of the transverse colon and portions of the small intestine

23

What are the superficial organs in the left lumbar region?

portions of the small intestine and part of the colon

24

What are the superficial organs in the right inguinal (iliac) region?

portions of the small intestine and the appendix

25

What are the superficial organs in the hypogastric region?

urinary bladder, portions of the small intestine, and the appendix

26

What are the superficial organs in the left inguinal region?

portions of the colon and the small intestine

27

What are the four quadrants?

1- RUQ (right upper quadrant)
2-LUQ (left upper quadrant
3-RLQ (Right lower quadrant)
4-LLQ (Left lower quadrant)

28

What is the landmark of the quadrants?

the umbilicus or navel

29

What are the other two reference points that use the umbilicus as a landmark?

Munro's Point and McBurney's Point

30

Where is Munro's Point and what is it used for?

located on the left side of the abdomen, halfway between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip, used as a point of entry for abdominal puncture when performing laparoscopic surgery.

31

Where is McBurney's Point and what is it used for?

located on the right side of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the with side of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip, when tenderness exists, appendicitis may be suspected.

32

Looking at the diagram of the 9 body regions, what number would be the right lumbar region?
a. 3
b. 6
c. 8
d. 7

b. . Remember, you are looking at a mirror image; direction is the opposite of what you see on the page

33

True or False: McBurney’s point is the landmark for the 4 abdominal quadrants.

False. The umbilicus is the center of the outer square of all 4 quadrants

34

What are the two main body cavities?

Dorsal and Ventral

35

What cavities are in the Dorsal Cavity?

Spinal ( nerves of the spinal cord) and Cranial Cavity (the brain)

36

What cavities are in the Ventral Cavity?

Thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic

37

What is contained in the Thoracic Cavity?

heart, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and trachea

38

What is in the abdominal cavity?

(separated by from the thoracic by the diaphragm) liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and kidneys

39

What is in the pelvic cavity?

urinary bladder and reproductive organs

40

True or False: Basically, anything in front of the spine is considered a ventral cavity.

true. . Only the brain and spine are in the dorsal cavity

41

The ___________ cavity is separated by the diaphragm from the ___________ cavity.
a. pelvic, abdominal
b. abdominal, thoracic
c. thoracic, pelvic
d. thoracic, abdominopelvic

d. The abdominal cavity is closer, but the thoracic cavity is physically separated from both.

42

What are the divisions of the back?

Cervical vertebrae (C1 – C7)
Thoracic vertebrae (T1 – T12)
Lumbar vertebrae (L1 – L5)
Sacrum
Coccyx

43

What was the coccyx?

a single bone that is the result of the fusion of the four individual coccygeal bones in the child

44

When describing a vertebral body’s location, you will use the _________ letter of each division.
second
last
first
next to last

c. Cervical is C, thoracic is T, lumbar is L, and sacrum is S. There is no letter used for the coccygeal bones

45

True or False: As long as you know where the divisions are in the spine, you can count from either the top or the bottom to correctly identify each vertebra.

True. For instance, T12 could be found by counting from the cervical vertebrae, but it is much closer to start with the lumbar (L5) and work your way up.

46

What are the directional terms?

Superficial vs. Deep
Anterior vs. Posterior
Ventral vs. Dorsal
Superior vs. Inferior
Cranial vs. Caudal

47

Superficial

pertaining to the surface of the body or near the surface

48

deep

away from the surface and toward the inside of the body

49

anterior

pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body

50

posterior

pertaining to the back of the body

51

ventral

of or pertaining to a position toward the belly of the body; frontward; anterior

52

dorsal

pertaining to the back or posterior

53

medial

toward the midline of the body

54

lateral

toward the side of the body, away from the midline of the body

55

superior

above or upward toward the head

56

inferior

below or downward toward the tail or feet

57

cranial

pertaining to the head

58

caudal

pertaining to the tail

59

distal

away from or farthest from the trunk of the body or farthest from the point of origin of the body part

60

proximal

toward or nearest to the trunk of the body or nearest to the point of origin of a body part

61

supine

lying horizontally on the back, face-up

62

prone

lying face-down on the abdomen

63

supination

a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward

64

pronation

a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn downward and backward

65

plantar

pertaining to the sole or the bottom of the foot

66

dorsum

the back or posterior surface of a part; in the foot, the top of the foot

67

Common nouns can help in keeping directional terms straight. For instance, something in close proximity is __________ and something that is in the distance is __________.
a. medial, lateral
b. distal, proximal
c. superior, inferior
d. proximal, distal

d. . Word associations make it easier for terms to “stick”, i.e. close proximity = proximal, distance = distal