Chapter 4 Spelling Words (Week 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Spelling Words (Week 2) Deck (79):
1

anaplasia

A change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form.
-plasia=formation, growth; ana=not, without

2

anatomical position

the standard reference position for the body as a whole

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anterior

pertaining to the front of the body or toward the peppy of the body.

4

aplasia

a developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue
-plasia=formation, growth; a=without, not

5

cardiac muscle

the muscle that makes up the muscular wall of the heart
-ac=pertaining to; cardi=heart

6

caudal

pertaining to the tail

7

cell

the smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter

8

cell membrane

the semipermeable barrier that is the other covering of a cell

9

cervical vertebrae

the first seven segments of the spinal column; identified as C1 through C7
-al=pertaining to; cervic=neck

10

chromosomes

the threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body

11

coccyx

the tailbone. Located at the end of the vertebral column, the coccyx results from the fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child

12

connective tissue

tissue that supports and binds other body tissue and parts

13

cranial

pertaining to the skull or cranium
--al=pertaining to; crani=skull

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cranial cavity

the cavity that contains the brain

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cytology

the study of cells
-logy=the study of; cyt=cell

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cytoplasm

a gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of the cell and contains the organs, called organelles.

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deep

away from the surface and toward the inside of the body

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distal

away from or farthest from the trunk of the body or farthest from the point of origin or a body part

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dorsal

pertaining to the back

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dorsum

the back or posterior surface of a part; in the foot, the top of the foot

21

dysplagia

any abnormal development of tissue or organs

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epigastric region

the region of the abdomen located between the right and left hypochondriac regions in the upper set ion of the abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the ribs

23

epithelial tissue

the tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body; it also lines the vessels, body cavities, glands, and body organs

24

frontal plane

any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal planes and dividing the body into front and back portions.

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genes

segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics

26

histologist

a medical scientist who specializes int he study of tissues

27

hyperplasia

an increase in the number of cells of a body part

28

hypochondriac region

the right and left regions of the upper abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs; located on either side of the epigastric region.

29

hypogastric region

the middle section of the lower abdomen, beneath the umbilical region

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hypoplasia

incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells

31

inferior

below or downward toward the tail or feet

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inguinal region

the right and left regions of the lower section of the abdomen; also called the iliac region

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intervertebral disc

a flat, circular, plate-like structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion (or shock absorber) between the vertebrae

34

lateral

toward the side of the body, away from the midline of the body

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long axis

the long axis of the body; the imaginary line created by directing a vertical line through the middle of the body from the top of the head to a space equidistant between the feet; essentially the midline of the body

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lumbar region

the right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen

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lumbar vertebrae

the largest and strongest of the vertebrae of the spinal column, located in the lower back. The lumbar vertebrae consist of five large segments of the movable part of the spinal column; identified as L1 through L5

38

lysosomes

cell organs (or organelles) that contain various types of enzymes that function in intracellular digestion; they destroy bacteria by digesting them.

39

McBurney's point

a point on the right side of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip

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medial

toward the midline of the body

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mediolateral

pertaining to the middle and side of a structure

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membrane

the thin later of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space, such as the abdominal membrane that lines the abdominal wall

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midline of the body

the imaginary "line" created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves

44

midsagittal plane

the plane that divides the body is divided into equal right and left halves

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mitochondria

cell organs (or organelles), which provide energy needed by the cell to carry on its essential functions

46

Munro's point

a point on the left side of the abdomen, about hallway between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip

47

muscle tissue

the tissue capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers.

48

navel

the umbilicus; the belly button

49

neoplasia

the new and abnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant

50

nervous tissue

tissue that transmits impulses throughout the body, thereby activating coordinating, and controlling the many functions of the body

51

nucleus

the central controlling body within a living cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane

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organ

tissues arranged together to perform a special function

53

pelvic cavity

the lower front cavity of the body, located beneath the abdominal cavity; contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs

54

peritoneum

a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera

55

plane

imaginary slices (or cuts) made through the body as if a dividing sheet were passed through the body at a particular angle and in a particular direction, permitting a view from a different angle

56

plantar

pertaining to the sole or bottom of the foot

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posterior

pertaining to the back of the body

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pronation

a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn downward and backward.

59

prone

lying facedown on the abdomen

60

proximal

toward or nearest to the trunk of the body or nearest to the point of origin of a body part

61

ribosomes

cell organs (or organelles) that synthesize proteins; often called the cell's "protein factories"

62

sacrum

the singular triangular-shaped bone that results fro the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child

63

skeletal muscle

muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skeleton

64

smooth muscle

muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines

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spinal cavity

the cavity that contains the nerves of the spinal cord; also known as the spinal canal

66

superficial

pertaining to the surface of the body or near the surface

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superior

above or upward toward the head

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supination

a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward

69

supine

lying horizontally on the back, faceup

70

system

organs that work together to perform the many functions the body as a whole

71

thoracic cavity

the chest cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachia

72

thoracic vertebrae

the second segment of 12 vertebrae that make up the vertebral bones of the chest; identified as T1 through T12

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tissue

a group of cells that performs specialized functions

74

transverse plane

any of the planes cutting across the body perpendicular to the sagittal and frontal planes, dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions

75

umbilical region

the region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen, between the right and left lumbar regions and directly beneath the epigastric region

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umbilicus

the navel; also called the belly button

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ventral

pertaining to the front; belly side

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visceral

pertaining to the internal organs

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visceral muscle

muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines (smooth muscle)