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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (123):
1

How many skeletal muscles?

over 600

2

What are the functions of the muscular system?

-allowing us to move about freely through contracting and extending
-support and maintain body posture through a low level of continual contraction (gravity keeps the body in good alignment)
-have a great affect on body temperature because of the heat produced when contracting

3

What are the 3 types of muscles?

smooth, skeletal muscle*, and cardiac muscle*

4

What are skeletal muscles* called? Where are they found?

They are called voluntary (operate under conscious control) muscles and striated muscles
They attach to the bones

5

What are smooth muscles called?
Where are they found?

-visceral muscles and involuntary (not under conscious control)
-walls of hollow organs and tubes such as stomach, intestines, and respiratory passageways, and blood vessels

6

What controls smooth muscles?

hormones and the autonomic nervous system

7

What is cardiac muscle?

muscle of the heart

8

What is the thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue that holds muscle fibers together called?

fascia*

9

What is a tendon?

ATTACH MUSCLE TO BONE; The fascia* and the partitions within the muscle extend to form a strong fibrous band of tissue; they attach the muscle to the bone as it becomes continuous with the periosteum of the bone

10

What is an articulation*?

when muscles cross at least one joint, attaching to both of the bones; when movement occurs, one of the bones moves more freely than the other

11

What is the point of attachment of the muscle to the bone that is 'less movable'?

the origin

12

What is the point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that 'moves'?

insertion

13

Will the name of the particular bone name the point of insertion or origin?

insertion

14

What are the muscles listed that move the head and neck?

buccinator*, temporal*, masseter*, sternocleidomastoid

15

What is the cheek muscle?

buccinator*

16

What is the muscle on the temples above the ear?

temporal*

17

What is the jaw muscle?

masseter* (Raises the mandible and closes the jaw)

18

What muscle extends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process?

sternocleidomastoid or sternomastoid*

19

What are the muscles listed for the upper extremities?

trapezius*, latissimus dorsi*, pectoralis major, deltoid*, biceps brachii*, triceps brachii*

20

What is the triangular shaped muscle on the shoulder, back of neck and inserts into the clavicle and scapula?

trapezius*

21

Where is the latissimus dorsi*?

in the lower thoracic region between the humerus and scapula, forms the posterior border of the axilla(armpit)

22

what is the large fan-shaped muscle that crosses the upper part of the front of the chest?

pectoralis major (originates from the sternum and crosses over to the humerus)

23

what muscle covers the shoulder joint?
Where does it originate and insert?

-the deltoid* muscle
-originates from the clavicle and inserts on the lateral side of the humerus

24

Name a muscle used for intramuscular injections.

deltoid *muscle

25

What is the muscle with two heads?
Where does it originate and insert?

the biceps brachii*
-originates from the scapula and inserts on the radius

26

What muscle has three heads?
Where does it originate and insert?

-triceps brachii*
-originates from the scapula and the humerus and insert onto the olecranon process of the ulna

27

What is another name for the trunk of the body?

torso*

28

What muscles are included in the trunk muscles?

the diaphragm*, abdomen, and perineum

29

What is the perineum?

The lower end of the trunk, between the thighs; male-between the scrotum and the anus; females-vaginal opening and the anus

30

What do perineal muscles control?

assisting in erections of the penis or the clitoris, emptying the urethral canal, constricting the urethra, and tightening the anal sphincter

31

What are the muscles of the lower extremities listed?

gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, quadriceps femoris*, hamstring muscles*, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior

32

True or False: Of the 3 types of muscle, cardiac is the only one that is voluntary.

False. Skeletal is voluntary. Thankfully, we do not have to think about making our heart beat (cardiac) or moving food through our digestive tract (smooth).

33

If you have a tension headache and the back of your neck feels like it is in a vice grip, which muscle is most likely responsible?
a. trapezius
b. sternocleidomastoid
c. biceps brachii
d. latissimus dorsi

a. The trapezius muscle covers the back of the neck and shoulders, which is where most tension headaches occur

34

What muscle forms most of the fleshy part of the buttock
and originates from ilium and inserts in the femur?

gluteus maximus

35

What muscle is located above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscle, originates from posterior part of ilium and inserts in greater trochanter of the femur?

gluteus medius

36

What muscle forms anterior part of the thigh and helps extend the thigh?

quadriceps femoris*

37

What muscles are located in posterior part of the thigh, help flex leg on the thigh, and helps extend the thigh?

hamstring muscles*

38

What muscle is the main muscle of the calf, attaches to heel bone by way of Achilles tendon and is used to plantar flex foot and flex toes?

grastrocnemius*

39

What muscle is positioned on the front of the leg and used to dorsiflex foot and turn foot inward?

tibialis anterior*

40

What is arthralgia?

pain in the joints; symptoms present in many joint diseases
arthr/o=joints -algia=pain

41

A runner suddenly grabs the back of his or her leg in pain. Which muscle group was injured?
a. quadriceps femoris
b. gastrocnemius
c. hamstring
d. tibialis anterior

c. The quadriceps muscle group is on the anterior surface of the upper leg, and the hamstring group is on the posterior surface

42

involuntary muscles

muscles that act without conscious control; controlled by the autonomic nervous system and hormones

43

muscle fiber

individual muscle cell

44

origin

the point of attachment that is less movable

45

pelvic girdle weakness

weakness of the muscles of the pelvic girdle*; occurs in muscular dystrophy*

46

smooth muscle

muscles in the walls of hollow organs and tubes such as stomach, intestines, respiratory passageways, and blood vessels; visceral muscles; act involuntarily

47

trunk

the main part of the body

48

muscular dystrophy*
What is it?
How is it diagnosed?
What is the most common type?
Treatment?

-Group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration; no evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue
-onset early in life with elevated enzyme test (CPK), abnormal muscle biopsy* results, and an electromyogram*
-Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (appear by age 3)
-exercise programs, corrective surgery, breathing exercises

49

What are the specifics of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy? What happens?

-the muscles atrophy* and contractures form; muscle tissue is replaced by fat as muscle fibers degenerate; may first appear as pelvic girdle but extend to the shoulders and eventually all muscles; scoliosis is common; death often occurs in late adolescence

50

what is polymyositis*?
Are there stages?
Symptoms?
Causes?
Who does it affect?
Treatment?

-Chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles and characterized by muscle weakness and degeneration (atrophy)
-when there is an upper body rash, it is called dermatomyositis; there are periods of remission; the onset is gradual
-first weakness of the hips and shoulders, then arthralgia* accompanied by edema, neck may become terribly weak
-unknown, thought to be autoimmune reaction
-twice as many women get it between 40-60 years old
-high doses of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, along with reduction in activites

51

rotator cuff tear

Tear in muscles that form a “cuff” over upper end of arm
Rotator cuff helps to lift and rotate the arm
Also helps to hold head of humerus in place during abduction of arm

52

strains

an injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon*

53

True or False: The term muscular dystrophy means development of bad muscle, while polymyositis means inflammation of many muscles.

True. Both diseases affect skeletal muscle, but their effects are different.

54

muscle biopsy*
What is it?
What is it used to diagnose?
What are the 2 different types?
What muscle is it usually taken from?

-Extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, through biopsy needle or incisional biopsy, for purpose of examining it under a microscope
-atrophy* or inflammation (as in polymyositis)
-incisional biopsy or needle biopsy
-deltoid* muscle

55

electromyography*
What is it?
What two ways is it done?
What is the name of the device that records it?

-Process of recording strength of contraction of a muscle when stimulated by electric current
-applied to the skin or a needle inserted into the muscle
-oscilloscope
electr/o=electrical, electricity
my/o=muscle
-graphy=the process of recording

56

What is a point at which two individual bones connect?

joint

57

what is another name for joint?

articulation*

58

what determines the range of motion for that body part?

the type of joint-ranging from free to limited

59

Name an immovable joint?

suture (purpose to bind bones together)

60

How are joints classified?

either their structure (type of connective tissue or presence of a fluid-filled joint) or their function (their range of movement)

61

What are the structural joints listed?

fibrous joint*, cartilaginous joint*, synovial joint*

62

Fibrous*

-Surfaces of bone fit closely together
-Held together by fibrous connective tissue
-Immovable joint
-Example: suture between the skull bones

63

cartilaginous joint*

-Bones are connected by cartilage
-Limited movement joint
-Example: Symphysis, Joint between the pubic bones of the pelvis

64

synovial joint

-Space between the bones = joint cavity
-Joint cavity lined with synovial membrane*
-Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid*
-Bones are held together by ligaments*
-the surfaces are protected by articular cartilage
-Free movement joint
-Example = shoulder

65

What are sacs of synovial fluid* called?

bursa*

66

What is the function of a bursa?

lubricate the area around the joint

67

What are the two functionally classified joints listed?

hinge joint* and ball-and-socket joint

68

hinge joint*

Allows a back and forth type motion
Example: elbow

69

ball-and-socket joint

Allows movement in many directions around a central point
Example: shoulder joint and hip joint

70

True or False: The cartilaginous joint between the 2 halves of the pelvis (symphysis) is vital for childbirth.

True. This softens during pregnancy, which allows for expansion as the baby passes through the pelvic bones and into the birth canal.

71

What enables our movable joints to move freely and without pain?
a. cartilage
b. fibrous tissue
c. connective tissue
d. synovial membrane

d. This membrane secretes synovial fluid for lubrication in the joint cavity

72

flexion*

Bending motion
Decreases angle between two bones

73

extension*

Straightening motion
Increases angle between two bones

74

abduction*

Movement of a bone away from midline of the body

75

adduction*

Movement of a bone toward midline of the body

76

rotation*

Turning of a bone on its own axis

77

supination*

Act of turning the palm up or forward

78

pronation*

Act of turning the palm down or backward

79

dorsiflexion

Narrows the angle between the leg and the top of the foot
Foot is bent backward, or upward, at the ankle

80

plantar flexion

Increases angle between the leg and the top of the foot
Foot is bent downward at the ankle
Toes pointing downward, as in ballet dancing

81

circumduction

Movement of an extremity around in a circular motion
Can be performed with ball-and-socket joints

82

closed manipulation

the manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision; also called closed reduction

83

closed reduction

closed manipulation

84

ganglionectomy

surgical removal of a ganglion

85

malasie

a vague feeling of weakness

86

When bodybuilders are showing off their muscles, what movement are they using?
a. extension
b. flexion
c. abduction
d. circumduction

b. This contracts the muscle and shows its definition.

87

True or False: When I turn my head, I am rotating vertebrae in my neck

True. C2, also called the axis, is an important vertebra for head movement

88

adhesive capsulitis*
What is it?
What causes it?
What are the three stages?
Treatment?

-Shoulder condition characterized by a stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement, and pain; Also known as “frozen shoulder”
-may be idiopathic (cause unknown), or due to underlying cause such as trauma, oseteoarthritis, or systemic diseases
-the painful stage, the adhesive stage and recovery stage
-ice to decrease pain, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NASAIDS), physical therapy, and exercise

89

arthritis*
What is it?
What are the four types

-inflammation of the joints
-ankylosing*, spondylitis*, gout*, osteoarthritis*, and rheumatiod arthritis*

90

ankylosing spondylitis*
What is it?
What is another name for it?
Symptoms?
Treatment?

-Type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column that causes deformities of the spine
-also known as Marie-Strumpell disease and rheumatoid spondylitis
-arthralgia, weight loss, and generalized malaise; spine becomes stiff with kyphosis
-anti-inflammatory medications and physical therapy

91

bunion* (hallux valgus*)
What it is?

-Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
-a result of arthritis
-application of padding to relieve pressure, medications to relieve pain and inflammation, or a bunionectomy*

92

The treatment for bunions is surgical removal of the bony overgrowth. If -ectomy is the element for surgical removal, what is the correct term?
a. buniectomy
b. bonyectomy
c. bunionectomy
d. ectomy

c. It is simply the condition added to the suffix. No combining vowel is needed since ‑ectomy begins with a vowel.

93

dislocation
What is it?
What is it called if a dislocation is not complete?
Treatment?

-Displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint, Causes loss of function of the joint, often tears the ligament
-partial dislocation or sublaxation
-any joint but most common in shoulder, fingers, hip, and knee
-closed manipulation or reduction within 30 minutes and immobilization

94

ganglion**
What is it? Where?
Treatment?

-Cystic tumor (jelly-like substance) developing on a tendon, Sometimes occurs on back of wrist
-nothing if is does not bother the person; otherwise a ganglionectomy can be performed or needle aspiration*

95

gout*
What is it?
Treatment?

-Acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe
-hereditary, person does not metabolize uric acid properly and crystals cause inflammation
especially eating red meats
-

96

herniated disk

Rupture of the central portion of the vertebral disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal, Also called a ruptured disk or a slipped disk

97

lyme disease

Acute, recurrent inflammatory infection, transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick
Circular rash, flu symptoms
treat with antibiotics

98

osteoarthritis

Most common form of arthritis
Results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as hips and knees
Also known as degenerative joint disease
not curable, medications, physical therapy, or joint replacement

99

True or False: A herniated disk is referring to one of the cushions between the vertebral bodies. If inter- means between, the term to describe it must be interdiskal.

False. The correct term is intervertebral, between the vertebrae.

100

rheumatoid arthritis

Chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body
Mainly the small peripheral joints
woman 2x or 3x more than men get it
swan neck deformity is associated with it
associated with the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint and the distal interphalangeal (DIP)

101

sprain

Injury involving ligaments that surround and support a joint
Caused by a wrenching or twisting motion

102

systemic lupus erythematosus

Chronic, inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs
Characteristic “butterfly rash” appears on the face

103

True or False: The most common form of arthritis is bony arthritis, also known as osteoarthritis.

True. This is simply a result of wear-and-tear over the years.

104

arthrocentesis*

Surgical puncture of a joint with a needle for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis

105

arthrogram

an X-ray of a joint after injection of a contrast medium

106

arthrography

Process of X-raying the inside of a joi

107

arthroplasty

Surgical repair of a joint

108

arthroscopy

Visualization of the interior of a joint using an endoscope

109

rheumatoid factor

Blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis

110

erythrocyte (sedimentation) sed rate

Blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood
associated with inflammatory conditions- >the sed rate, >the severity of the inflammation

111

An MRI of the knee shows a possible meniscus tear. The doctor opts to look right into the joint with a scope. This is called an _________.
a. arthrotomy
b. arthrostomy
c. arthroplasty
d. arthroscopy

d. If the problem cannot be fixed during arthroscopy, then an arthroplasty, or knee replacement, may be performed

112

DIP

distal interphalangeal (joint)

113

ESR (sed rate)

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

114

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus

115

MCP

metacarpophalangeal (joint)

116

MTP

metatarsophalangeal (joint)

117

OA

osteoarthritis

118

PIP

proximal interphalangeal (joint)

119

RA

rheumatoid factor

120

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

121

sciatica

if the sciatic nerve is being pinched, pain will radiate down the buttocks and back of leg

122

crepitation

clicking or clacking sounds in the joints

123

Difference between sprain and strain

sprain involves the ligament around a joint and a strain involves a muscle or attachment of a tendon