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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (42):
1

True or False: The purposes of the respiratory system are respiration, producing sound, and defending against foreign bodies.

True. It is more than just breathing

2

A small but very important flap covers the larynx so that food cannot pass into the airway during swallowing. It is called the:
a. adenoids
b. palatine tonsils
c. oropharynx
d. epiglottis

d. It means above or on top of the glottis. When food gets into our pharynx before a swallow is initiated and we choke, this is when we say “it went down the wrong pipe

3

True or False: When the doctor listens to our lungs in the office, he is performing percussion.

False. Auscultation is the correct term

4

The medical term element for breathing is _________.
a. –pneum
b. glottis
c. –pnea
d. –capnia

c. The element -pneum/on means lung or air, and -capnia refers to carbon dioxide in the blood.

5

True or False: Hypoxemia usually causes hypoxia.

True. The insufficiency of oxygenated blood means oxygen cannot get to the tissues.

6

Yelling too much at a ball game can cause this condition.
a. stridor
b. laryngitis
c. rhinorrhea
d. wheeze

b. Excessive yelling, like cheering your favorite team on, abuses the vocal cords.

7

True or False: Recurrent episodes of tonsillitis can lead to a common procedure in children called a pharyngectomy.

False. The pharynx must stay, but a tonsillectomy will remove the culprit tissue

8

Which one of these conditions is NOT brought on by smoking?
a. bronchiectasis
b. bronchogenic carcinoma
c. emphysema
d. chronic bronchitis

a. This is caused by an infection

9

True or False: Hyaline membrane disease only affects premature newborns

True. The lungs have not fully developed, thus putting them at great risk for this condition at birth.

10

Pulmonary embolism is caused by thrombus (clot). In the cardiovascular system, which term was mentioned that could be the source?
a. varicose veins
b. patent ductus arteriosus
c. aneurysm
d. deep vein thrombosis

d. A blood clot in the leg can break loose and be carried to the lungs.

11

True or False: Byssinosis is also called black lung disease.

False. Black lung refers to anthracosis, which is caused by breathing coal dust.

12

A patient is found to have a large amount of fluid in the pleural cavity. A _____________ is performed to relieve the patient's respiratory distress.
a. chest x-ray
b. bronchoscopy
c. pulmonary function test
d. thoracentesis

d. Thor/a means chest, and -centesis means surgical puncture. A needle is inserted into the pleural cavity, and the fluid is aspirated into a container and sent for laboratory analysis

13

functions of the respiratory system

-exchange gases between the body and the air
-provides oxygen to the body cells for energy
-remove carbon dioxide from the body cells
-producing sound
-assisting in the body's defense against foreign materials

14

external respiration

oxygen is inhaled into the lungs, passes through capillaries of the lungs into the pulmonary bloodstream; carbon dioxide passes from the blood through the same capillaries into the lungs and is exhaled

15

internal respiration

inhaled oxygen circulates from the pulmonary bloodstream in the lungs, back through the heart, to the systemic bloodstream to the body cells

16

what is part of the upper respiratory tract?

nose, pharynx, and larynx

17

What is part of the lower respiratory tract?

trachea, bronchi, and lungs

18

The nose

-air enters this way
-composed of cartilage and bone covered with skin
-after air enters the nose it passes through the nasal cavity

19

the nasal cavity

-divided into left and right chambers by a septum

20

what are the mucous membranes of the internal nose lined with and what do they do?

-cilia
-sweep dirt and foreign material toward the throat for elimination

21

what are the lungs made of?

alveoli, blood vessels, elastic tissue, and nerves

22

what are the smaller divisions of the lungs called?

lobes; left lung=two lobes and right lung=3 lobes

23

what is the lower part of the lung called?

the base; resting on the diaphragm

24

what is the hilum?

the portion of the lung in the midline region where the blood vessels, nerves, and bronchial tubes enter and exit

25

Explain the process of breathing

1. phrenic nerve stimulates the diaphragm to contract and flatten (descend), thus enlarging the chest cavity
2. the enlargement creates a decrease in the pressure within the thorax and draws air into the lungs called inhalation
3. when the diaphragm relaxes, it rises back into the thoracic cavity, increasing the pressure within the thorax
4. the increased pressure that causes the air to be forced out of the lungs is called exhalation (expiration)

26

inspection

visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture

27

asymptomatic

without symptoms

28

laryngalgia

pain in the larynx

29

cough

forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration; the glottis is partially closed, the accessory muscles of expiration are brought into action, and the air is noisily expelled

30

what are coughs due to?

-irritation of the airways
-dust, smoke, or mucus
-infection

31

types of coughs

-nonproductive, unproductive: not effective in bringing up sputum "dry cough"
-productive: effective in bringing up sputum "wet cough"

32

types of sputum

-mucoid: resembling mucus
-mucopurulent: containing mucus and pus
-purulent: containing pus
-serous: resembling serum; containing a thin, watery fluid

33

pleural rub

friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space; heard on auscultation

34

sneeze

to expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa

35

diphtheria

-serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx, or larynx
-includes sore throat, dysphonia, and fever
-caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterium, which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiplies
-the bacteria releases a toxin into the bloodstream that can quickly damage the heart and nerves, resulting in heart failure, paralysis, and death
-uncommon in the US because of immunization
-part of the DPT immunization

36

status asthmaticus

severe asthma attack that is unresponsive to conventional therapy and lasts longer than 24 hours, considered an emergency

37

influenza

-a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection
-the flu
-symptoms: sore throat, cough fever, muscle pain, and weakness
-incubation period is 1-3 days after exposure
-treatment: bed rest, plenty of fluids, and medications for pain
-recovery 3-10 days

38

sudden infant death syndrome

-completely unexpected death of an infant that seems healthy
-also known as SIDS or crib death
-appr. 7000 death each year
-more often in the 3rd or 4th month of life, premature babies, males, and infants living in poverty
-at risk infants are monitored with a an apnea alarm mattress

39

lung scan

-visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
-records the pattern of pulmonary radioactivity after the patient has received the medication

40

pulmonary function tests

-a variety of tests used to assess respiratory function
-most commonly used is a spirometer to measure the patient's breathing capacity

41

sputum specimen

-a specimen of material expectorated from the mouth
-if after a cough, it may contain material from the throat and bronchi

42

tonsillectomy

-surgical removal of the palatine tonsils
-often combined with an adenoidectomy
-called a T & A when both are removed at the same time