Chapter 8 Spelling Words Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 8 Spelling Words > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Spelling Words Deck (180):
1

absence seizure

a small seizure w/ a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds, a petit mall seizure

2

acetylocholine

a neurotransmitter- facilitates nerve impulses

3

afferent nerves

impulses TO the CNS/brain and spinal cord

4

agnosia

loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli; unable to interpret even when organs are functioning correctly
a-without gnos-understand -ia-condition

5

agraphia

inability to convert one's thoughts into writing
a-without graph-record -ia-condition

6

alexia

inability to understand words
a-without -lexia-reading

7

analgesia

without sensitivity to pain
an-without algesia- sensitivity to pain

8

analgesic

(pertaining to) act of relieving pain

9

anesthesia

without feeling or sensation
an-without -ethesia=feeling, sensation

10

anacephaly

born without a brain

11

aneurysm

dilation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation; caused usually hypertension and atherosclerosis

12

aphasia

inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease of the brain
a-without -phasia-speech

13

apraxia

inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly; not sensory or motor impairment or paralysis
a-without -praxia-perform

14

arachnoid membrane

the middle meninge layer

15

astrocyte

a star-shaped neuroglial cell found in the CNS; most numerous neuroglial cell; attaches to brain's blood capillaries, forming part of the blood-brain barrier
astr/o-star-shaped -cyte-cell

16

astrocytoma

a tumor of the brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes
astr/o-star-shaped cyt/o-cell -oma-tumor

17

ataxia

condition without order; without muscle coordination
a-without tax/o-order -ia-condition

18

aura

the sensation an individual experiences prior to onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure. may be a sensation of light or warmth and may precede the attack by hours or only a few seconds

19

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

the part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary movement such as heart, smooth muscles and the glands; breaks into the PNS and SNS

20

axon

the part of the nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body

21

blood-brain barrier

a protective characteristic of the capillary walls of the brain that prevent passage of harmful substance from the bloodstream into the brain tissue of CSF

22

Babinski's reflex

stroking the sole of the foot to see if the foot dorsiflexes and toes fan out; a positive if there is a reaction; positive good in infants, but not good in children and adults

23

Bell's palsy

the permanent or tempoary paralysis of one side of the face due to trauma to the face, unknown infection, or tumor pressing on the facial nerve

24

bradyesthesia

slowly removing sensation of feeling

25

bradykinesia

abnormally slow movement
brady-slow kinesia-movement

26

brain abscess

localized accumulation of pus anywhere in the brain tissue

27

Brudzinski's sign

a positive sign of meningitis, flexion of arm, hip, and knee when neck is passive

28

burr hole

a hole drilled into the skull

29

carpal tunnel syndrome

the pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of tendons often because of repetitive overuse

30

cauda equina

the lower end of the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves below L1; looks like a horse tail

31

causalgia

a acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve, sometimes accompanied by erythema of the skin; injuery to the peripheral nerves
caus/o-burn algia-pain

32

cephalalgia

pain in the head; headache
cephal/o- head -algia-pain

33

cerebellum

the part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movements; located behind the brain stem.

34

cerebellospinal

leading from the cerebellum to the spine

35

cerebral angiography

process of visualization/recording of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, brachial)

36

cerebral concussion

the brief interruption of brain function, w/ loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds

37

cerebral contusion

a small scattered venous hemorrhage in the brain (bruise of the brain tissue) occurs when brain strikes the inner skull

38

cerebral palsy

collective term to describe congenital (at birth) brain damage; permanent but not progressive; four types; characterized by child's lack of voluntary control over muscles

39

cerebritis

inflammation of the brain/cerebrum

40

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid around the brain and spinal cord that protects it from physical blow or impact--cushion
cerebr/o-brain; cerebrum spin/o-spine -al-pertaining to

41

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

a stroke; death of brain tissue due to decrease in blood flow

42

cerebrum

the largest, top part of the brain; responsible to memory, consciousness, sensations, emotions, voluntary movements

43

Cheyne-Stokes respirations

abnormal breathing pattern; apnea followed by rapid breathing

44

coma

a deep sleep; does not respond to external stimuli

45

comatose

pertains to being in a coma

46

chordotomy

procedure for pain control through a laminectomy where interference of pathways within the spinal cord that controls pain

47

cisternal puncture

insertion of spinal needle into the cisterna magna to remove CSF specimen

48

cluster headache

extreme pain around one eye; occurs 2-3 hours after falling asleep

49

contracture

a permanent shortening of a muscle causing a joint to remain in an abnormally flexed position, with resultant physical deformity

50

convolution

a gyrus; elevated fold of the cerebrum

51

craniotomy

surgical incision into the skull or cranium

52

degenerative disk

deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wear on the disk

53

dementia

progressive, irreversible disorder where deteriorating memory, judgment, and ability to think occurs

54

demyelination

destruction of the myelin sheath

55

dendrite

a projection from a nerve cell body; receives impulses and conducts them on to the cell body

56

diencephalon

the part of the brain between the cerebrum and midbrain; consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland

57

diplopia

double vision; also called ambiopia
dipl/-double opia-vision

58

dura mater

outermost layer of the three meninges

59

dyslexia

impairment of the ability to read; letters and words are often reversed

60

dysphasia

difficult speech

61

dystonia

abnormal muscle tone

62

echoencephalography

ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain; the test has limitations
echo-sound encephal/o-brain -graphy-process of recording

63

electroencephalography (EEG)

measurement of electrical activity in the brain from electrodes placed on the scalp; can be a slep-deprived EEG or an ambulatory EEG
electr/o-electricity encephal/o-brain -graphy-process of recording

64

embolism

abnormal condition in which a blood clot (embolus) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood

65

epidural space

the space immediately outside the dura mater; contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues

66

epilepsy

recurrent episodes of sudden brief attacks of seizures

67

fissure

a deep groove on the surface of an organ

68

fontanelle or fontanel

infant's soft spot

69

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain caused by a virus, such as measles or mumps, or a tick or mosquito bite

70

ganglion

a knotlike mass of nerve tissue found outside the brain or spinal cord (plural: ganglia)

71

glioma

the gluey substance (neuroglia) in the brain has a tumor
gli-gluey substance oma-tumor

72

grand mal seizure

the big seizure; sudden loss of consciousness, involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and alternating between relaxation and contraction; also called a tonic-clonic seizure

73

Guillain-Barre syndrome

acute polyneuritis of the PNS; myelin sheaths are destroyed

74

gyrus

(plural gyri) elevated folds of the cerebrum

75

hematoma

a collection of blood; in this chapter there is discussion of an epidural and a subdural hematoma

76

hemiparesis

slight of partial paralysis of one half of the body (right or left side)
hemi-half -paresis-paralysis

77

hemiplegia

paralysis of one half of the body
hemi-half -plegia-paralysis

78

herniated disk

rupture or herniation of the disk center (nucleus pulposus) through the disk wall and into the spinal canal, causing pressure on the spinal cord or nerve root

79

herpes zoster

shingles

80

hypothalamus

part of the brain stem; below the thalamus; controls body temperature, sleep and appetite

81

interneurons

connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves

82

kinesiology

the study of muscle movement
kinesi/o-movement -logy-study of

83

lathargy

a state of being sluggish; see stupor

84

longitudinal fissure

a deep groove in the middle of the cerebrum that divides it into two halfs

85

medulla oblongata

part of the brain stem; the most essential part of the brain stem; cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers located there

86

meninges

the three protective layers of membrane that surround the brain and spinal cord
mening/o-meninges -es-noun ending

87

microglia

small neuroglial cells found in the interstitial tissue that engulf cellular debris , waste products, and pathogens

88

midbrain

the uppermost part of the brain stem

89

motor nerves

efferent nerves

90

myelin sheath

protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body; act as an electrical insulator to speed up the conduction of nerve impulses

91

narcolepsy

uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep
narc/o-sleep -lepsy-seizure, attack

92

neuralgia

nerve pain; sharp, severe, spasmlike pain along the course of one or more nerves
neur/o-nerve -algia-pain

93

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve
neur-nerve -itis-inflammation

94

neuroglia

the supporting tissue of the nervous system
neur/o-nerve gli-gluey substance -a-noun ending

95

neurologist

one who specializes in treating the diseases and disorders of the nervous system

96

neurology

the study of the nervous system and its disorders

97

neuron

a nerve cell

98

neurosurgeon

a physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system

99

neurosurgery

any surgery involving the nervous system

100

neurotransmitter

a chemical that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses

101

nuchal rigidity

rigidity of the neck; neck is resistant to flexion; seen in people with meningitis

102

occlusion

a blockage

103

palliative

soothing

104

paraplegia

paralysis of lower extremities and trunk, usually due to spinal cord injuries
para-near, beside, beyond, two like parts -plegia-paralysis

105

parasympathetic nerves

nerves of the ANS; they regulate slowing heart rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions, and relaxing sphincters

106

parasympathomimetic

copying or producing the same effects as those of the parasympathetic nerves; "to mimic" the parasympathetic nerves

107

paresthesia

a sensation of numbness or tingling

108

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

part of the nervous system outside the CNS; consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

109

phagocytosis

the process in which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris

110

pia mater

the innermost meninge layer

111

pineal body

the pineal gland; located in the diencephalon of the brain; regulates biological clock and produces melatonin

112

plexus

a network of interwoven nerves

113

pons

part of the brain between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain; a bridge between the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum

114

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremities and trunk; cause by injury to the spinal cord at the cervical vertebrae

115

receptor

a sensory nerve ending; receives impulses and responds to stimuli

116

rhizotomy

a surgical resection of a spinal nerve root to relieve pain; also called a radiculotomy
rhiz/o-root tomy-process of cutting

117

sciatica

inflammation of the sciatic nerve; pain goes along the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg

118

sensory

pertaining to sensation

119

sensory nerves

transmitter nerves toward the CNS; afferent nerves

120

shingles

herpes zoster; acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox; painful lesions along the path of a spinal nerve

121

somatic nervous system

the part of the PNS that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles contractions

122

stimulus

any agent of factor capable of initiating a nerve impulse

123

stupor

a state of lethargy; person is unresponsive and seems unaware of his or her surroundings

124

subarachnoid space

the space just under the arachnoid membrane that contains cerebrospinal fluid

125

subdural space

the space located just beneath the dura mater that contains serous fluid

126

sulcus

a depression or shallow groove on the surface of an organ e.g. a sulcus that separates any of the convolutions of the cerebral hemisphere

127

sympathetic nerves

nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions such as increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and raising blood pressure

128

sympathomimetic

copying or producing the same effects as those of the sympathetic nerves; "to mimic" the sympathetic nerves

129

synapse

the space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another through which nerve impulses are transmitted

130

syncope

fainting

131

thalamus

located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain; receives all sensory stimuli, except those of smell and relays them to the cerebral cortex

132

thrombosis

an abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel

133

tonic-clonic seizure

a seizure where muscle contraction or tension is followed by relaxation, creating a "jerking" movement of the body; a grand mal seizure

134

ventricle

a small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid

135

hydrocephalus

a condition in which CSF accumulates in the brain, typically in young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage.

136

petit mal seizure

small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss oc consciousness only a few seconds; blank facial expression; also known as absence seizure

137

migraine headache

recurring, pulsating, vascular headache (dilation of the vessels) usually on one side of the head; may be preceded by an aura with sensory disturbance

138

intracranial tumors

tumors occurring in any region of the brain; may be malignant or benign; may be primary or secondary; classified according to the tissue they originate from

139

metastatic intracranial tumors

a secondary intracranial tumor; occur as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as the lung or breast
intra-within crani/o-skull; cranium -al-pertaining to

140

meningitis (acute bacterial)

bacterial infection of the meninges; dangerous or deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics
mening/o-meninges -itis-inflammation

141

multiple sclerosis (MS)

degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it sclerosed (hardened) or scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impulses

142

myasthenia gravis

chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder causing severe skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue
my/o-muscle -asthenia-loss of strength

143

neuroblastoma

highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system

144

Parkinson's disease

degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system; dysfunction of motor, autonomic system, and mental and emotional

145

peripheral neuritis

inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves; effects depend on the nerve involved
e.g. trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), Bell's palsy, carpal tunnel syndrome

146

poliomyelitis

infectious viral disease that enters through the respiratory system; affects the ability of the spinal cord and brain motor centers to receive stimulation; affected muscles can become paralyzed because of lack of stimulation

147

postpolio syndrome

progressive weakness occurring at least 30 years after the initial poliomyelitis attack

148

Reye's syndrome

acute brain encephalopathy along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections; occurs in children between 5-11 and is fatal; studies link Reye's syndrome to aspirin use for viral illnesses

149

primary intracranial tumors

arise from gliomas, malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue, and from tumors that arise from the meninges; 5 types of gliomas listed

150

Tay-Sachs disease

congenital disorder caused by altered lipid metabolism that causes accumulation of a certain lipid that leads to progressive neurological deterioration both physically and mentally

151

meningomyelocele

cyst-like sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meninges, CSF, and spinal cord segments; a type of spina bifida cystica

152

spina bifida occulta

congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed, a dimpling over the area may occur; hair grows out of the area.

153

trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)

short periods of severe unilateral pain, which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve; pain activated by heat, touch, and chewing

154

laminectomy

surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more of the vertebrae to relieve pressure on the spinal cord

155

lumbar puncture

insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space between L3 and L4 to get a CSF sample/specimen

156

myelography

introducing a contrast medium into the subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to see the spinal cord and vertebral through an x-ray
myel/o-spinal cord, bone marrow graphy-process of recording

157

neurectomy

surgical procedure that makes incision into nerves to interrupt the transmission/tract to relieve pain
neur/o-nerve ectomy-surgical removal

158

pneumoencephalography

used to visualize radiographically one of the ventricles or fluid-occupying spaces in the CNS; accomplished by removing CSF and replacing it with injected air, oxygen, or helium
pneum/o-lungs, air encephal/o-brain -graphy-process of recording

159

positron emission topography (PET)

a scan that produces computerized radiographic images of various body structures when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected; used to assess dementia and tumors

160

Romberg test

used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance

161

spina bifida cystica

a congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back, usually at the level of the fifth lumbar or first sacral vertebrae; 2 types=meningocele and meningomyelocele

162

meningocele

type of spina bifida cystica; cyst-like sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae containing meninges and CSF

163

myelocele

swelling or herniation of the spinal cord
myel/o-spinal cord or bone marrow cele-swelling or herniation

164

stereotaxic neurosurgery

performed on a precise location of an area within the brain that controls specific function(s) and may involve destruction of brain tissue with various agents such as heat, cold, and sclerosing or corrosive fluids

165

tractotomy

a craniotomy that involves dividing the brain stem anterolaterally to attempt to relieve pain

166

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings or a nerve close to the pain site
trans-across, through cutane/o-skin -ous-pertaining to

167

Alzheimer's disease

deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning; progressive and extremely debilitating

168

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups; caused by decreased nerve innervation; Lou Gehrig's disease
a-without,not my/o-muscle troph/o-development -ic-
scler/o-hard -osis-condition

169

anesthesiologist

specializes in taking away sensation or feeling

170

hyposthenia

abnormal lack of strength

171

intrathecal

within the sheath (or maybe spinal cord, not sure)

172

narcosis

state of sleep (or stupor, unconsciousness)

173

oligodendrocytes

neuroglial cell with dendrite projections that coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath
oli/o-few, little, scanty dendr/o-trees, branches -cyte-cell

174

neuropathy

nerve disease

175

sympathectomy

surgical removal of sympathetic nerves; surgical procedure used to interrupt a portion of the sympathetic nerve pathway for the purpose of relieving chronic pain

176

ventriculostomy

surgical opening of the ventricle of the brain

177

cerebral cortex

thin outer layer of nerve tissue known as grey matter

178

efferent nerves

nerves going away from the CNS; motor nerves

179

gait

style of walking

180

Huntington's chorea

inherited, neurological disease that affects the basal ganglion; causes jerky, involuntary movements and dementia