Chapter 8 Diagnostics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Diagnostics Deck (31):

Babinski's reflex*

-Reflex tested by stroking the sole of the foot, beginning at mid-heel and moving upward and lateral to the toes.
-Positive Babinski’s occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes
-normal in infants; abnormal in adults representing an upper motor neuron disease of the pyramidal tract


brain scan

-Nuclear counter scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes
-Isotopes concentrate in abnormal tissue of brain, indicating a pathological process (usually in normal tissue, the isotopes do not cross the blood-brain barrier)


What does a brain scan help diagnose?

acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds


cerebral angiography

-a process
-Visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel
-May use carotid, femoral, or brachial artery


What can be visualized with a cerebral angiography?

occlusions or aneurysms, vascular and nonvascular tumors, hematomas, and abscesses


cerebrospinal fluid analysis

-Laboratory analysis of cerebrospinal fluid
-CSF obtained from a lumbar puncture analyzed for the presence of bacteria, blood, or malignant cells as well as for the amount of protein and glucose present
-normal CSF is clear and colorless without blood cells, bacteria or malignant cells
-normal protein level 15-45 mg/dl
normal glucose level 50-70 mg/dl


CT scan of the brain

-Analysis of a three-dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as X-ray beams pass through successive horizontal layers of the brain
-CT = computerized tomography
-CAT=computerized axial tomography
-Images look down through the top of the head


What do CT scans help detect?

intracranial tumors, cerebral infarctions, ventricular displacement or enlargement, cerebral aneurysm, intracranial bleeds, multiple sclerosis, hydrocephalus, and brain abscess



-Neurosurgical procedure for pain control accomplished through a laminectomy
-Surgical interference of pathways within the spinal cord that control pain
-intent is to interrupt the tracts of the nervous system that relay pain sensations


cisternal puncture

-Insertion of a short, beveled spinal needle into the cisterna magna in order to drain CSF or to obtain a CSF specimen


Cisterna magna

shallow reservoir of CSF between the medulla and the cerebellum



-Surgical procedure that makes an opening into the skull
-a bone flap must be created
-or a free-form flap where a portion is completely removed
-or a burr hole that allows the access to the brain



-Measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp
-can detect ventricular dilation or a vital shift of the midline
-there are limitation to this procedure


electroencephalography (EEG)

-Measurement of electrical activity in the brain and recorded through electrodes
-Sleep-deprived EEG= Individual deprived of sleep for 24 hours before test
-Ambulatory EEG=Provides prolonged readings of electrical activity of brain over a 24-hour period of time, while person is awake or asleep; can confirm epilepsy
-helps provide info about cranial neurological problems, epileptic seizures, focal damage in the cortex, psychogenic unresponsiveness, and cerebral death



process of recording the electrical activity of muscle by inserting a small needle into the muscle and delivering a small current that stimulates the muscle



-Surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more vertebrae in order to relieve pressure from the spinal cord


lumbar puncture

-insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space, generally between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae
-Performed under strict aseptic technique


A patient is comatose, and the doctor needs to evaluate brain death. Which test would be performed?
A. cisternal puncture
B. CT scan
C. echoencephalogram
D. electroencephalogram

d. This will record any electrical activity occurring in the brain and guide the next step in the decision-making process


what can a lumbar puncture help diagnose?

meningitis, brain tumors, spinal cord tumors, encephalitis, and cerebral bleeding


magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

-Noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation
-Provides far more preciseness and accuracy than most diagnostic tools
-absorbed radio frequency signals change the alignment of hydrogen atoms in the body and analyzed.
-persons with implanted metal devices cannot undergo an MRI due to the strong magnetic field
-can be used for all parts of the bod-the abdomen, chest, joints, nervous system, pelvis, and spinal column


what is an open MRI scanner?

not placed in a tubelike machine, it is much more open for people with claustrophobia



-Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture in order to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through x-ray examination
-aids in the diagnosis of adhesions and tumors producing pressure on the spinal canal or of intervertebral disc abnormalities



Neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision of cranial or peripheral nerves; to interrupt the tracts that relay pain sensations



-Process used to radiographically visualize one of the ventricles or fluid occupying spaces in the central nervous system (CNS)
-accomplished by removing CSF and replacing it with oxygen, air, or helium



-Sleep study or sleep test that evaluates physical factors affecting sleep
-Physical activity and level of sleep are monitored by a technician while the patient sleeps
-Useful in evaluating sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, sleep walking, night terrors, restless leg syndrome, insomnia, and narcolepsy


positron emission tomography (PET)

Computerized radiographic images of various body structures produced when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected
-color-coded images show the degree and intensity of the metabolic process
-used to access dementia, brain tumors, cerebral vascular disease, and brain tumors


Romberg test

used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance


stereotaxic neurosurgery

-Neurosurgery on a precise location of an area within the brain that controls specific function(s)
-May involve destruction of brain tissue with various agents such as heat, cold, and sclerosing or corrosive fluids
-it is possible for these tiny lesions to create lasting pain relief



Surgical procedure used to interrupt a portion of the sympathetic nerve pathway, for the purpose of relieving chronic pain



-Through a craniotomy, the anterolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgically divided in an attempt to relieve pain
-morbidity and mortality rates are high


transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

Form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site