Chapter 11 Spelling Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Spelling Words Deck (82):
1

adenoids

-lymphatic tissue on the wall of the nasopharynx
-also called the pharyngeal tonsils
-they help filter out bacteria and foreign matter
-hypertrophy in young children can get bad enough to interfere with breathing
aden/o=gland -oid=resembling

2

alveoli

-air cells or air sacs of the lungs
-known as the pulmonary parenchyma (functional units of the lungs)
-have very thin walls to allow for the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood

3

anthracosis

-black lung disease or coal worker's pneumoconiosis
-the accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs do to breathing smoke or coal dust
-the bronchioles and alveoli become clogged with coal dust leading to "coal macule" (blackish dots on the lungs). The macules enlarge causing the bronchiole to dilate and cause the development of focal emphysema.

4

apex

the upper most portion of the lung, rising about 2.5 to cm above the collarbone.

5

apnea

-temporary cessation of breathing
-without breathing
-may be related to stimuli reduction in respiratory system (orverbreathing) or failure of the respiratory center to discharge impulses (breath is held voluntarily)

6

asbestosis

-lung disease as a result of inhaling asbestos particles
-has been associated with the later development of lung cancer, especially mesothelioma, even up to 20 years later

7

asthma

-paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane
-occurs most frequently in childhood or early adulthood
-it is a reversible progress; an attack can be short or long
-secondary sources can trigger an attack such as fatigue, fumes, endocrine changes, and emotional situations
-often relieved with epinephrine

8

auscultation

-process of listening for sounds within the body
-usually sounds of the thoracic or abdominal viscera for abnormalities
-it is performed with a stethoscope

9

bradypnea

-abnormally slow breathing
-a respiratory rate slower than 12 respirations per minute
-can indicate: neurological or electrolyte disturbance, infection, a protective response to pain, or the person is in excellent health

10

bronchi

-the two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs
-provides the passageway for air movement
-divides into the bronchioles

11

bronchiectasis

-chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung
-the infection damages the bronchial wall which creates sputum that could obstruct the bronchi
-bronchial walls with become permanently distended from coughing
-symptoms include: chronic cough, copious amounts of sputum, hemoptysis, and clubbing of the fingers
-subject to repeated pulmonary infections
bronchi/o=bronchus -ectasis=stretching or dialatation

12

bronchioles

-the subdivision of the brochi
-they terminate at the alveoli
bronchi/o=bronchus -ole=small or little

13

capillaries

-any of the minute good vessels
-connect the ends of the smallest arteries (arterioles) with the beginnings of the smallest veins (venues)
-the alveoli are surrounded by a network of them

14

diaphragm

-the musculomembranous wall separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
-aids in respiration

15

epiglottis

-thin, leaf-shaped structure of cartilage
-located posterior to the root of the tongue
-covers the entrance of the larynx when swallowing

16

glottis

-the sound-producing apparatus of the larynx, consisting of the two vocal folds and the intervening space

17

laryngopharynx

-lower portion of the pharynx that extends from the vestibule of the larynx to the lowermost cartilage of the larynx

laryng/o=larynx pharyng/o=pharynx

18

larynx

-the enlarged upper end of the trachea below the root of the tongue
-the voice box
-consists of reed-like folds of tissue that stretch across the larynx; these vocal cords vibrate as air passes through the space between them
-connects the pharynx with the trachea
-supported by nine cartilages; the most prominent being the thyroid cartilage that forms the Adam's apple

19

mediastinum

-The space between the lungs
-the mass of organs and tissues separating the lungs
-contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi

20

nares

-external nostrils
-the entrance to the nose

21

nasopharynx

part of the pharynx located above the soft palate (postnasal space)

nas/o=nose pharyng/o=pharynx

22

oropharynx

central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and upper portion of the epiglottis
or/o=mouth pharynx/o=pharynx

23

palatine tonsils

-lymphatic tissue located in the depression of the mucous membrane of fauces (the constricted opening leading from the mouth and the oral pharynx) and the pharynx
-the tonsils
-are normally enlarged in small children

24

paranasal sinuses

-hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
-they enhance the sound of the voice and lighten the skull
para=near, beside, beyond, two like parts nas/o=nose
-al=pertaining sinus/o=sinus -es=plural ending

25

parietal pleura

-portion of the pleura that is closet to the ribs and lines the thoracic cavity

pleur/o=pleura -a=noun ending

26

pharynx

-passageway for air from the nasal cavity to larynx and food from mouth to esophagus.
-serves both the respiratory and digestive systems
-the throat
-divided into 3 sections: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx (or hypo pharynx)

pharyng/o=pharynx

27

phrenic nerve

-the nerve known as the motor nerve to the diaphragm
-stimulates the diaphragm to contract or flatten to enlarge the chest cavity

phren/o=mind, also pertains to the diaphragm
ic=pertaining to

28

pleura

the double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and surrounds the lungs

29

pleural space

-the space that separates the visceral and parietal pleurae
-contains fluid that acts as a lubricant to the pleural surfaces during respiration

pleur/o=pleura -al=pertaining to

30

pulmonary parenchyma

-the functional units of the lungs (e.g. alveoli)
-have very thin walls that allow for the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood

31

septum

-a wall dividing two cavities
-e.g. the right and left chambers of the nasal cavity

32

sputum

-substance coughed up from the lungs, trachea, and bronchi that is expelled through the mouth
-not the same as saliva, which is secreted by the salivary glands
-types include: mucoid, mucopurulent, purulent, serous

33

trachea

-a cylinder-shaped tube lined with rings of cartilage (to keep it open) that is 4.5" long, from the larynx to the bronchial tubes in front of the esophagus
-the windpipe
-extends into the chest and serves as a passageway for air to the bronchi
-consists of muscular tissue embedded with 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of cartilage separated by fibrous connective tissue providing rigidity

34

thorax

-the chest
-the part of the body between the base of the neck and the diaphragm

35

visceral pleura

-portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs
-the part that covers the lungs

36

palpation

the process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs

37

percussion

using fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity
-tapping over a solid structure=dull flat sound
-tapping over an air-filled structure (e.g. lungs) produces a clear, hollow sound
-therefore lungs would turn into a dull flat sound if filled with fluid

38

cyanosis

-bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark discoloration of the skin due to abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
-bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes, especially lips, tongue, and fingernail beds

39

dysphonia

-difficulty in speaking
-hoarseness
-when the larynx becomes inflamed as a result of infection or overuse
dys=bad, difficult, painful, disordered phon/o=sound
-ia=condition

40

dyspnea

-air hunger causing labored or difficult breathing, sometimes includes pain
-normal when exercising
-symptoms: audible labored breathing, distressed anxious expression, dilated nostrils, protrusion of abdomen and expanded chest, gasping, and marked cyanosis

41

epistaxis

-hemorrhage from nose
-nosebleed
-caused by: blow to the nose, fragile blood vessels. high blood pressure, dislodging of crested mucus, secondary to local infections, or dry nasal mucous membrane

42

expectoration

-the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
-the expulsion of mucus or phlegm from the throat or lungs

43

hemoptysis

-expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs
hem/o=blood -ptysis-spitting

44

hypercapnia

-increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
-results from inadequate ventilation or from great differences between ventilation and perfusion of the blood
hyper=excessive -capnia=condition of carbon dioxide content in the blood

45

hypoxemia

-insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood
-occasionally associated with decreased oxygen content
hypo=under, below, beneath, less than normal ox/o=oxygen -ia=condition

46

Kussmaul respirations

-very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis
-this hyperventilation is the body's way of attempting to decrease the acidosis and counteracting the effect of the ketone buildup that occurs with diabetic acidosis

47

orthopnea

-a respiratory condition where there is a discomfort in breathing that can be relieved by sitting, erecting, or standing
orth/o=straight pnea=breathing

48

rales

-abnormal sound produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or are constricted by spasm or thickening of walls
-also known as a crackle
-heard usually during inhalation
can be described as: bibasilar, bubbling, coarse, crackling, crepitant, post-tussive, moist, or sticky

49

rhinorrhea

-thin, watery discharge from the nose
rrhin/o=nose -rrhea=discharge; flow

50

rhonchi

-rales or rattlings in the throat especially when it resembles snoring
-loud, coarse, rattling sounds produced by the passage of air through obstructed airways
-described as: coarse, high-pitched, humming, low-pitched, musical, post-tussive, sibilant (hissing), sonorous (loud), or whistling

51

stridor

-harsh sound during respiration
-high-pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages
-heard without a stethoscope, usually during inhalation

52

tachypnea

-abnormal rapidity of breathing
-nervous tachypnea is respiratory rate of 40 or more per minute
-occurs in hysteria and neurasthenia
-if prolonged, will cause excess loss of carbon dioxide and hyperventilation syndrome (-treatment: breathe into a paper bag and keep calm and assured

53

wheeze

-a whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from a narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway
-often heard without a stethoscope, usually during exhalation
-occurs in asthma, croup, hay fever, mitral stenosis, and pleural effusion
-may result from tumors, foreign obstructions, bronchial spasm, tuberculosis, obstructive emphysema, or edema

54

coryza

-inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes
-known as rhinitis or the common cold
-usually referring to the symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection
-nasal discharge and obstruction, sore throat, sneezing, general malaise, fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches, and possibly a cough
-usually lasts a week or more and without fever

55

croup

-a childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, tachypnea, inspiratory stridor, and laryngeal spasm
-treatment: high-humidity atmosphere
-caused by an allergen, foreign body, infection, or new growth

56

laryngitis

-inflammation of the larynx
-results in dysphonia, cough, and difficulty swallowing
-common result of abuse of the voice and upper respiratory tract infection; other causes chronic bronchitis or chronic sinusitis
-includes scratchy throat, hoarseness, or aphonia, and severe cough
-treatment: resting the voice, avoiding irritants, using cool vaporizer

57

pertussis

-acute upper respiratory infectious disease
-caused by Bordetella pertussis bacterium
-whooping cough
-early stages are suggestive of the common cold
-as it progresses, the cough is more violent
-treated with antibiotics if caught early, supportive care if not
-part of the DPT immunization

58

pharyngitis

-inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in a sore throat
-usually caused by a viral infection, but can be bacterially caused
-acute pharyngitis: fiery, red, pharyngeal membranes and swollen tonsils flecked with exudate; enlarged and tender cervical lymph nodes
-fever, malaise, and sore throat
-strep throat when caused by group A streptococcus

59

rhinitis

-inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose
-results in obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing
-also known as coryza
-often caused by a viral infection but can also be an allergy or other factors

60

sinusitis

-inflammation of a sinus, usually paranasal sinus
-results in pain and feelings of pressure, purulent nasal discharge
-acute sinusitis: usually the result of a common cold, allergy, or upper reparatory tract infection complication
-treatment: antibiotics, decongestants, and analgesics

61

tonsillitis

-inflammation of the palatine tonsils located in the oropharynx
-symptoms: sore throat, fever, snoring, and difficulty in swallowing
-tonsils are enlarged and red w/ yellowish exudate
-acute tonsillitis: has a sudden onset with fever and chills, malaise, headache
-treatment: bed rest, liquid diet, antipyretics, analgesics, and saline gargles; at times antibiotics depending on causative organism

62

bronchitis

-inflammationof the mucuos membrane of the bronchial tubes
-often preceded by the common cold
-symptoms: productive cough, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pain
-Acute bronchitis:usually caused by a viral infection or sometimes a bacterial infection or airborne irritants
-often revolves w/out treatment, antibiotics if its bacterial, bed rest, fluids, antipyretics, analgesics, and cool vaporizer
-Chronic bronchitis:cigarette smoking or pollution; determined if there is a productive cough for 3 months of 2 consecutive years

63

bronchogenic carcinoma

-malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi
-lung cancer
-usually associated w/ history of cigarette smoking
-increased rate in women than men and now exceeds breast cancer deaths
-symptoms:persistant cough, blood-streaked sputum (hemoptysis), chest pain, and voice change
-survival rate low due to late detection and inoperable tumors

64

emphysema

-chronic pulmonary disease with an increase beyond normal size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole from either dilation of the alveoli or destruction of their walls
-permanent distention of the air spaces appears to be the end stage of a process that has progressed for years
-major cause is cigarette smoking
-there is a chronic obstruction to the inflow and outflow of air
-lungs loose elasticity and are in a chronic state of hyperexpansion and take on a "barrel chest" appearance
-treatment:improving quality of life and slowing progression, bronchodilators and mucous thinning medicine, and treatment of any infection to treat any hypoxia

65

empyema

-pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity (pyothorax)
-usually the result of a primary infection in the lungs
-symptoms: fever, night sweats, pleural pain, dyspnea, anorexia, and weight loss
-treated with antibiotics and aspiration of the fluid

66

hyaline membrane disease

-also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of a premature infant
-severe impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn
-rarely presents in newborns after 37 week gestation or weighing over 5 lbs.
-shortly after being born, infant will have a low Apgar score, tachypnea, tachycardia, retraction of the rib cage during inspiration, cyanosis, and grunting during expiration

67

lung abscess

-localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by WBCs that have migrated to fight the infection
-usually produces pneumonia-like symptoms and a productive cough w/ blood and purulent or foul-smelling sputum
-most occur because of aspiration of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal material

68

pleural effusion

-accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
-results in compression of the underlying portion of the lung and dyspnea
-usually secondary to some disease
-confirmed with chest X-ray, ultrasound, physical examination, and thoracentesis
-treatment is to prevent it and relieve any discomfort

69

pleuritis (pleurisy)

-inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
-when they become inflamed (due to pleurisy) there is a sharp, "knifelike" pain
-can be heard on auscultation
-may be primary or secondary

70

pneumonia

-inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants
-most common bacterial pneumonia is caused by Streptococcus pneumonia
-AIDS patients---pneumocystis pneumonia from the parasite Pneumocystis carinii
-milds cases resolve without treatment; worst cases need hospitalization

71

pneumothorax

-a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity
-the air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the visceral pleura, causing the lung to collapse
-symptoms: sudden sharp pain, dyspnea, and cough, pain to the shoulder

72

pulmonary edema

-swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces
-most common cause is congestive heart failure because pulmonary vessels receive more blood from right than left ventricle causing the fluid to leak out into the airways
-nails and skin become cyanotic
-it is a medical emergency

73

pulmonary embolism

-the obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus that dislodges from another location and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lung
-onset is sudden
-symptoms:chest pain (most common), dyspnea, and tachypnea
-massive pulmonary embolism is a medical emergency and people usually die within 2 hours of having it

74

pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale)

-hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart resulting form disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall
-heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease
-ventilation is reduced, blood pressure raises as a result
-develops because of pulmonary hypertension that eventually creates hypertrophy of right ventricle
-most frequent case is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
-treatment involves finding the underlying cause

75

tuberculosis

-infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis tubercle bacillus
-characterized by inflammatory infiltrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous (cheese like) necrosis in the tissues of the lungs
-other organ systems may be infected
-the cavitation (necrotic area of the lung) is usually in the apex
-primary infection usually consists of localized lesion and regional adenitis
-spread by droplet infection
-sputum might have a greenish tint
-diagnosis-tuberculin skin test (PPD) and chest X-ray

76

byssinosis

-a lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp
-also known as brown lung disease
-wheezing and tightness of chest
-does not occur with bleached cotton

77

silicosis

-a lung disease from the inhalation of silica (quartz) causing the formation of small nodules
-overtime the nodules enlarge and grow together to form dense masses
-the lung eventually can not expand fully and secondary emphysema may develop
-must be exposed for 10-20 years for the disease to develop

78

bronchoscopy

-the examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube called a bronchoscope or endoscope
-inserted via the nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea
-used to remove foreign objects, suction obstructions and mucus out, obtain a biopsy, or observe airways for disease

79

laryngoscopy

the examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube called a laryngoscope or endoscope
-inserted via the mouth or nose to view larynx visually

80

thoracentesis

-the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
-the needle is passed through the patient's skin and chest wall
-must be careful that no air enters the pleural space

81

palpation

-the process of examining by applying hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs

82

hypoxia

-deficiency of oxygen
-inadequate supply of oxygen to the tissues, usually do to hypoxemia