Chapter 17 Spelling Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Spelling Words Deck (87):
1

gynecology

-the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system

2

gynecologist

-a physician who specializes in the field of gynecology

3

ovum

-female egg

4

puberty

-period of life in which the ability to reproduce begins and the development of secondary sex characteristics occur (breast development, pubic hair growth, menstruation)
-reproductive organs are fully mature

5

coitus

-sexual intercourse
-also known as copulation
-only refers to heterosexual intercourse

6

menstruation

-shedding of the uterine lining through a bloody discharge
-repeats monthly throughout reproductive years

7

menopause

-also called climacteric
-end of the reproductive years marked by the cessation or stopping of the menstrual cycles

8

climacteric

-also called menopause
-end of the reproductive years marked by the cessation or stopping of the menstrual cycles

9

mammary glands

-considered an accessory organ
-produce milk (lactation) to nourish the infant
-the breasts

10

vulva

-term used to collectively refer to the external genitalia which consists of the mons pubis, labia majora, clitoris, labia minor, vestibule, urinary meatus, vaginal orifice, Bartholin's glands, and the perineum

11

labia majora

-two folds of skin containing fatty tissue and covered with hair on either side of the vaginal opening
-extends from the mons pubis to the perineum
-out surface=hair, inner surface=smooth and moist

12

labia minora

-two thin folds of tissue located within the folds of the labia majora
-extends from clitoris to the perineum
-at the lower end it comes together to form the fourchette

13

Bartholin's glands

-on either side of the vaginal orifice
-secrete a mucous that lubricates the vagina

14

clitoris

-short, elongated organ composed of erectile tissue

15

hymen

-thin layer of elastic connective tissue that forms a border around the outer opening of the vagina and pay partially cover the vaginal opening
-it may remain in tact or may be stretched or torn during sexual intercourse

16

perineum

-between vaginal orifice and the anus
-helps support the pelvic structures

17

vagina

-muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva
-contains rugae
-it is the female organ of copulation (coitus) and passageway for menstruation

18

uterus

-pear-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that houses the fertilized implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy
-also called the womb
-has 3 identifiable parts: the fundus, the body of the uterus, and the cervix of the uterus

19

myometrium

-the middle, muscular layer of the wall of the uterus

20

endometrium

-the innermost, highly vascular layer that builds up to receive a fertilized egg or is shed through a bloody discharge known as menstruation
endo=within metri/o=uterus -um=noun ending

21

fallopian tubes

-also known as the uterine tubes or oviducts
-the passageway for the ova (eggs) as they exit the ovary en route to the uterus
-lined with mucous and cilia
-one end opens at the uterus and the other in the peritoneal cavity

22

fimbriae

-the fringe-like end of the fallopian tube
-fingerlike projections that draw the ovum into the tub through wavelike motions when the ovum is released from the ovary

23

gonads

-sex organs; ovaries in the female
-a gamete-producing gland such as an ovary or testis

24

areola

-the darker pigmented area surrounding the nipples
-also called the areola mamma or the areola papillaris
-contains the sebaceous glands called Montgomery's tubercles or glands, active only during pregnancy and lactation where they secrete a waxy substance to keep the nipple soft and prevent dryness during nursing
-plural: areolae

25

pelvimetry

-the measurement of the pelvis opening

26

menarche

-the first period
-onset of menstruation

27

ovulation

-the release of the mature ovum from the ovary
-occurs appr. 14 days prior to the beginning of menses

28

premenstrual syndrome

-a drop in hormone levels when fertilization does not occur
-symptoms: irritability, fluid retention, tenderness of the breasts, and a general feeling of depression
-PMS

29

adnexa

-tissues or structures in the body that are next to or near another
-e.g in the uterus, the adnexa consists of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and ligaments of the uterus

30

cervix

-the part of the uterus that protrudes into the cavity of the vagina
-the neck of the uterus

31

corpus luteum

-a yellowish mass that forms within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation
-contains high levels of progesterone and some estrogen
-functions as a temporary endocrine gland to secrete estrogen and large amounts of progesterone that will sustain pregnancy if it occurs until the placenta forms
-if pregnancy does not occur, it will degenerate in appr. 3 days prior to the beginning of menstruation

32

cul-de-sac

-a pouch between the uterus and rectum within the peritoneal cavity
-formed by one of the ligaments that serves as support to the uterus
-blood, pus, and other drainage collect in the cul-de-sac because it is the lowest part of the abdomin

33

diaphragm

-represents a form of contraception

34

estrogen

-one of the female hormones that promotes the development of female secondary sex characteristics

35

fertilization

-the union of a male sperm and a female ovum

36

fourchette

-a tense band of mucous membranes at the posterior rim of the vaginal opening
-the point at which the labia minor connect

37

fundus

-the dome-shaped central, upper portion of the uterus between the points of inset ion of the fallopian tubes

38

gamete

-a mature sperm or ovum

39

graafian follicles

-a mature, fully developed ovarian cyst containing the ripe ovum

40

mastectomy

-surgical removal of the breast as a treatment for breast cancer
-can be simple (breast only), modified radical (breast plus lymph nodes in axilla), or radical (breast, lymph nodes, and chest muscles on affected side)

41

amenorrhea

-absence of menstrual flow
-normal=before puberty, during pregnancy, after menopause
-causes=stress, strenuous exercising, eating disorders, temporarily after stopping birth control

42

dysmenorrhea

-painful menstrual flow
-extremely common; can be severe enough to temporarily disable about 10% of people
dys=painful men=menstruation rrhea=discharge

43

menorrhagia

-abnormally long or heavy menstrual periods
-if chronic, can result in anemia
-can be caused by benign uterine fibroid tumors
men/o=menstruation rrhagia=excessive flow or discharge

44

metrorrhagia

-uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period
-may be due to:diseases of thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus, cervical polyps, fibroid tumors of the uterus, excessive build-up of the endometrium, and endometrial cancer
metr/o=uterus rrhagia=excessive discharge

45

oligomenorrhea

-abnormally light or infrequent menstruation
olig/o=few, scanty, little men/o=menstruation -rrhea=discharge, flow

46

abstinence

-abstaining from sexual intercourse
-100% effective

47

oral contraceptives

-birth control pills
-they contain synthetic forms of estrogen and progesterone hormones and are taken by mouth
-they prevent ovulation
-nearly 100% effective when taken correctly
-Advantages: convenience in pill form; decreased incidences of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome; decreased menstrual flow; regulation of menorrhagia irregularities
-Disadvantages: nausea, headaches, weight gain, spotting between periods, mild hypertension
-Do not take if: history of thromboembolic disorders, migraine headaches, over 35 and heavy soaker, if breast-feeding

48

Depo-Provera injection

-a contraception administered intramuscularly appr. every 12 weeks.
-99% effective
-prevents ovulation
-Advantages:do not have to remember to take a pill, sex act can be more spontaneous, only taken every 12 weeks
-Disadvantages: menstrual spotting, weight gain, headaches, decrease in bone mineral stored, see a doctor every 12 weeks
-Do not use if: pregnant, have had breast cancer, have thromboembolic disease, have liver disease

49

intrauterine device

- a small plastic T-shaped object with strings attached to the leg of the T.
-It is inserted into the uterus, through the vagina, and remains in the uterus
-also known as the IUD
-it prevents the implantation of an ovum into the uterus
-can be effective for 5-10years
-Disadvantages: PID as a complication, spotting or uterine cramping for a few weeks, possible heavier than normal menstrual periods, higher risk of tubal pregnancy
-Do not use if: never been pregnant; have abnormally shaped uterus; history of dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia, pelvic infections, or ectopic pregnancy

50

tubal ligation

-surgically cutting and tying the fallopian tubes to prevent passage of ova or sperm through the tubes
-female sterilization

51

cervicitis

-acute or chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix
-usually caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Haemophilus vaginalis, or Chlamydia trachoma tic
-often treated with cryosurgery

52

cystocele

-herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina
-usually happens over time and after multiple births

53

endometriosis

-the presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium
-the tissue is usually found in the abdomen
endo=within metro/o=uterus -osis=condition

54

fibrocystic breast disease

-the presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts
fibr/o=fiber cyst/o=bladder, sac, or cyst -ic=pertaining to

55

fibroid tumor

-a benign fibrous tumor of the uterus
-one of the most common types of benign tumors
fibr/o=fiber -oid=resembling

56

leiomyoma

-a benign, smooth-muscle tumor of the uterus
-often mislabeled as fibroid tumors
lei/o=smooth my/o=muscle -oma=tumor

57

ovarian cysts

-benign, globular sacs that form near or on the ovaries
-may contain fluid or may contain semi-solid material
ovari/o=ovary -an=characteristic of

58

pelvic inflammatory disease

-PID
-inflammation of the fallopian tubes
-also known as salpingitis
-most common causes are STDs
-is a major cause of infertility in women

59

salpingitis

-Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
-inflammation of the fallopian tubes
-most common causes are STDs
-is a major cause of infertility in women
salping/o=fallopian tubes -itis=inflammation

60

vaginitis

-inflammation of the vagina and the vulva
-common and happens when there is a disturbance in the normal flora or pH that allows microorganisms to grow

61

aspiration biopsy

-an invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into an area of the body, such as breast, to withdraw a tissue or fluid sample for examination and diagnosis

62

colposcopy

-visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope

63

conization

-surgical removal of a cone-shaped segment of the cervix for diagnosis or treatment
-also known as cone biopsy
-ordered if there is an abnormal pap smear

64

cryosurgery

-the destruction of tissue by rapid freezing w/ substances such as liquid nitrogen
-used to treat abnormal tissue found in the cervix and tumors

65

culdocentesis

-a surgical puncture through the posterior wall of the vagina into the cup-de-sac to withdraw intraperitoneal fluid for examination
could/o=cul-de-sac -centesis=surgical puncture

66

dilatation and curettage

-dilation or widening of the cervical canal with a dilator, followed by scraping of the uterine lining with a curet
-D&C
used to diagnose uterine disease

67

endometrial biopsy

-an invasive test for obtaining a sample of endometrial tissue (with a small curet) for examination

68

hysterosalpingography

-HSG
-Xray of the uterus and fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures

69

laparoscopy

-the process of viewing the abdominal cavity with a laproscope
lapar/o=abdominal wall -scopy=process of viewing

70

mammography

-process of examining with Xray the soft tissue of the great to detect various tumors before they can be felt

71

Papanicolaou (Pap) smear

-diagnostic test for cervical cancer
-microscopic examination of cervix and vagina cells
-also called a Pap test

72

pelvic ultrasound

-a noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis

73

pelvimetry

-the process of measuring the female pelvis, manually or by Xray to determine its adequacy for childbearing

74

anteflexion

-abnormal forward bending of an organ or part.
-the normal forward curvature of the uterus.

75

colpodynia

-pain the vagina
-vaginal pain

76

hysterectomy

-surgical removal of the uterus

77

incompetent cervix

-A cervix (the structure at the bottom of the uterus) that is incompetent is abnormally weak, and therefore it can gradually widen during pregnancy.
-Left untreated, this can result in repeated pregnancy losses or premature delivery.

78

menorrhea

-menstruation, discharge of the menses
-menstrual flow

79

oogenesis

-the process of formation of female gametes

80

oophoritis

-inflammation of an ovary

81

ovariopexy

-surgical fixation of an ovary
-the operation of elevating and fixing an ovary to the abdominal wall

82

ovary

-a female reproductive organ in which ova or eggs are produced and released monthly
-also responsible for producing estrogen and progesterone

83

Pap smear

-full name is Papanicolaou (Pap) smear
-a diagnostic test for cervical cancer
-microscopic examination of (Pap test) cells scraped from within the cervix (endocervix), from around the cervix (ectocervix), and from the posterior part of the vagina (near the cervix) to test for cervical cancer

84

pregnancy

-having a child or young developing in the uterus
-appr. 40 weeks
-also called the gestational period

85

progesterone

-secreted by the corpus luteum and placenta
-responsible primarily for changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum

86

retroversion

-the tipping backward of an entire organ or part

87

vulvovaginitis

-Inflammation of the vagina and vulva most often caused by a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection