NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Body Cavities, Ears and Eyes Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Body Cavities, Ears and Eyes > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Body Cavities, Ears and Eyes Deck (108):
1

which organs are retroperitoneal?
stomach/kidneys/liver/gallbladder/IVC/spleen

SAID PUCKER

IVC, kidneys

2

the abdominal cavity is the major part of the abdominopelvic cavity. it is bound by the _ and _

thoracic diaphragm and the pelvic inlet

3

the abdominal cavity includes both the peritoneal cavity and the retroperitoneal space. peritoneum is a __ space bw the parietal and visceral layers of peritoneum

potential

4

peritoneum is a thin, _ membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities

serous = ballon into which organs are pressed into from the outside.

5

the peritoneum has both _ and _ layers just like the pleural cavity

visceral and parietal

6

the _ peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities

parietal

7

the __ peritoneum covers the organs

visceral

8

the potential space bw the two layers of peritoneum is called the

peritoneal cavity

9

the peritoneal cavity can be divided into 2parts: greater and lesser sac.
the _ sac is the main component of the cavity and extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis

greater

10

the lesser sac is smaller and lies behind the __

stomach

11

the two sacs are in free communication with one another through an oval window called the _ or _

epiploic foramen or opening of the lesser sac

12

an organ is intraperitoneal when it is almost totally covered with _

visceral peritoneum

13

name the intraperitoneal organs

stomach jejunum ileum spleen transverse colon liver and gallbladder

14

retroperitoneal organs lie behind the peritoneum and are only _ covered with visceral peritoneum

partly

15

the retroperitoneal organs are

aorta IVC kidneys adrenals pancrease ureters most of duodenum and ascending and descending colon

16

mesenteries

2 layered folds of peritoneum connecting parts of the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall. these folds permit blood, lymph vessels and nerves to reach viscera

17

pt comes in w/diffuse abdominal pain, loss of appetite and a fever. on palpation of the lower right abdomen he feels pain and even greater rebound pain when the pressure is release. the diagnosis is appendicitis. the appendix is located in which abdominal region

iliac

18

the ovaries, uterus urinary bladder, ureters, rectum, prostate, vas deferens, seminal vesicles sigmoid colon are in what quadrant

hypogastric (9 quadrants, this is the center bottom one)

19

the small intestine is in

all the 9 quadrants

20

the cecum and ascending colon is in the

right iliac

21

the left kidney is in the

left hypochondriac

22

the right kidney is in the

right hypochondriac

23

in an elderly adult the thymus is mostly atrophied and the remains lie in the _mediastinum

superior

24

in a pubescent boy the thymus is at its largest with a mass of 35g. when it is this size the thymus will be in which other division of the mediastinum?

anterior mediastinum

25

the mediastinum contains the

lungs, heart, large vessels of the heart, esophagus, thymus lymph nodes bvs and nerves

26

the mediastinum is divided into _ areas

4

27

the inferior mediastinum is divided into

anterior middle and posterior

28

the superior mediastinum divided?

no

29

the sympathetic chain ganglia are in which mediastinum

posterior

30

azygos vein is in which mediastinum

posterior

31

the hemiazygos veins are in the

posterior mediastinum

32

the main bronchi are in the

middle mediastinum

33

the diaphragm is located in the _cavity (abdominal/thoracic)

thoracic (think breathing so with the lungs in the thorax)

34

the dorsal/ventral cavity contains the cranial cavity and vertebral cavity

dorsal

35

1. the vertebral and cranial cavity communicate with each other thru the
2.the dorsal cavity is lined with _ and the fluid in these cavities are

1. foramen magnum
2. meninges
cerebrospinal fluids

36

the 2 CLOSED cavities are

anterior (ventral) and dorsal (posterior)

37

the _-cavity is divided into the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity

ventral

38

the thoracic cavity is surrounded by

ribs and chest muscles.

39

the pleural cavities contain the

lungs and mediastinum (which contains the heart, large vessels of the heart, trachea, esophagus thymus, lymph nodes)

40

the abdominopelvic cavity has 2 regions. the abdominal cavity contains the

stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other internal organs

41

the pelvic cavity contains the

bladder and repro structures and rectum

42

in the male the pelvic cavity contains the

paired ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, and the unpaired prostate.

43

in the female the pelvic cavity contains the

paired ovaries and upaired uterus

44

the two cavities in the ventral cavity communicate thru an opening in the diaphragm called the

hiatum

45

extracellular fluid comprises + % of the amount of total body water?
25%/33%/50%/66%

33%

46

the body's water is compartmentalized into several major divisions. the intracellular fluid (ICF) comprise what fraction of the body's water?

2/3 (inside cells)
=66%

47

if your body weight is 60% water, how much ICF?

40%

48

ICF is aka cellular soup made up of

mostly potassium and organic anions, proteins, etc

49

is the ICF homogenous

no

50

extracellular fluid (ECF) makes up _ of total body water

1/3 (33%)

51

the ECF is primarily

NaCl and NaHCO3 soln

52

the ECF is divided into 3 subcompatments:

1. interstitial fluid
2. plasma
3. transcellular fluid

53

ISF (interstitial fluid) surrounds cells but does not

circulate. = 3/4 of ECF

54

Plasma circulates as extracellular component of blood. it makes up _ of the ECF

1/4 (25%)

55

transcellular fluid is a set of fluids outside normal compartments. these 1-2 L of fluid make up the _

CSF, digestive juices, mucus etc

56

__ fluid bathes cells

tissue fluid

57

___ is ECF in the cochlea in 2 of its 3 compartments: the scala tympani and scala vestibule

perilymph

58

the ionic composition of perilymph is comparable to that of plasma and CSF. the major cation is

sodium

59

___ is the fluid in the membranous labyrinth of inner ear.

endolymph

60

the main cation in endolymph is __ which is secreted from the stria vascularis. this means that it is __ that depolarizes the electric current in the hair cells

potassium
potassium depolarizes NOT SODIUM!

note: Perilymph starts with P but has Na2+
ENdolymph has an N in it but contains K+ (opposite of what you would want to remember)

61

all of the following are anatomic structures of the auricle exept one:
tragus
helix
antrum
concha

antrum

62

the ___ear consists of the auricle (pinna) and the external auditory canal. it receives sound waves

external

63

the __consists of cartilaginous antihelix, crux of the helix, lobule tragus, and concha

auricle

64

the external auditory canal is narrow and measures 1 inch long. the cannal connect the _ with the _

auricle and tympanic membrane in middle ear

65

the tympanic cavity is the _ ear

middle

66

the middle ear/tympanic cavity is _ filled

air

67

the malleus is aka

hammer

68

the stapes is aka

stirrup

69

the incus is aka

anvil

70

the two muscles in the middle ear are the

stapedius (smaller muscle) and tensor tympani muscle

71

the tympanic membrane consists of

layers of skin, fibrous tissue, mucous membrane = transmits sound vibration to the inner ear

72

the inner ear is closed, fluid filled spaces within what bone

temporal

73

the inner ear is a bony labryrinth which includes 3 connected structures =

vestibule, semicircular canals, and the cochlea

74

vestibule, semicircular canals, and the cochlea are lined with a serous membrane that forms the

membranous labyrinth

75

perilymph fills the space bw the

bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth

76

within the cochlea lies the cochlear duct, which houses the

organ of Corti

77

the receptor organ for hearing is the organ of Corti that transmits sound to the cochlear branch of the __ nerve

acoustic VIII

78

otitis media

middle ear infections

79

middle ear infections (otitis media) are prevalent and may be due to connections bw the tympanic cavity and both the mastoid air cells and the nasopharynx. what is the most frequent microbe causing ear infections?

streptococcus pneumoniae

80

the auditory tube equalizes the pressure on either side of the typmpanic membrane. the middle ear communicates posteriorly with the mastoid air cells and the mastoid antrum thru the

aditus ad antrum

81

which helps lens change its shape to better focus light to the retina?

ciliary body

82

most of the focusing of light happens on the cornea/lens

cornea

83

can the cornea regenerate

yes the outer layer is epithelium which is tough and regenerates quickly

84

if cornea is reshaped to focus light better the _ is usually cut or removed

epithelia

85

myopia is shortsightedness. the image is __

before the retina (think it is right in front of me=right in front of retina) and you need concave glasses bc I cant see far bc I live in a cave

86

the white part of the eye that you can see is the

sclera

87

the sclera provides

protection and structure

88

conjunctiva is a _ layer that functions to

mucous, keep eye moist. thin membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelid and the white part of the eyeball (the sclera).

89

pink eye infections are common in the

conjunctiva

90

lacrimal glands are found on the inner/outer part of each eye and produce __

outer tears
think lacrimal = lateral

91

vitreous humor is gel like substance in the _ of eye (front/back?)

back (think vitreous = v in back vs aqueous =A in front)

92

vitreous humor gives eyeball its

shape

93

the aqueous humor is watery region in the _ of the eye

front (if ever confused, remember you wouldn't want gel like material in front of eye!)

94

the aqueous humor is separated into two regions: the _

anterior chamber in front of the iris and the posterior chamber behind it.

95

the canal of __ drains water in the aqueous region and is sometimes blocked leading to the disease =

Schlemm
glaucoma

96

canal of Schlemm is a channel in the eye that collects aqueous humor from the anterior chamber and delivers it into the bloodstream via the _veins

anterior ciliary

97

the dark black circle of the eye

pupil

98

what contracts with brightness and expands darkness - the pupil or the iris?

pupil!

99

the iris is the colored part of the eye. it contains the ___, a muscle used to narrow the pupil and the ___ a muscle used to dilate the pupil

sphincter pupillae
dilator pupillae

100

the main purpose of the _ is to focus light by changing its shape

lens

101

the ciliary body are muscles attached to the _ to help it change its shape and better focus

lens

102

the retina is the innermost/outermost layer of sensitive tissue

innermost

103

when light is transmitted to the _ it can be transmitted to the brain

retina

104

the retina has many layers including the

rods and cones

105

cells in the retina transform light into what kinds of energy

chemical and electrical energy

106

the back center of the retina contains the ___ which is a highly sensitive part of the retina responsible for our DETAILED VISION

macula

107

the center of the macula is called the __ which has a major role in DETAILED PERCEPTION

fovea

108

when there is damage to the _ we are unable to see FINER DETAILS

macula