NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Respiratory System Deck (116):
1

pneumothorax

air in chest (pleural cavity)

2

1. A penetration wound of the chest wall can lead to __ or __
2. in both these situations the surface tension that binds the lungs to the chest is eliminated and the lung will instantly __

1. hemothorax or pneumothorax
2. shrink to size of tennis ball

3

hemothorax

blood in the pleural cavity (chest)

4

the right and left lungs are separated by the

mediastinum

5

the mediastinum contains the

heart, blood vessels, and other midline structures

6

__ divide each lung into lobes

fissures

7

each primary bronchus enters its respective lung at the

hilus

8

the bronchi and pulmonary BV's are bound together by CT to form the _ of the lung

root

9

the _ is the inferior surface of the lung and rests on the diaphragm

base

10

the _ is the most superior portion of the lung and projects above the clavicle

apex

11

the right lung has _# lobes and the left lung has _

right = 3
left = 2

12

1. the right lung has _ lobes and _ secondary bronchi
2. the right lung?

1. 3 lobes (superior, middle, and inferior) and 3 secondary (lobar) bronchi
2. 2 lobes (superior and inferior) and 2 secondary bronchi (lobar)

13

1. the right lung contains _ bronchial segments called the tertiary bronchi
2. the left?

1. 10
2. 8

14

1. the right lung receives _ bronchial artery
2. the left receives

1. right 1
2. left 2

15

the right/left lung has a slightly larger capacity than the other

right

16

the left/right lung has a cardiac notch on its superior lobe

left lungs - cardiac notch is an indentation providing room for the heart

17

the _ lung contains a lingual = tongue-shaped portion of superior lobe that corresponds to the middle lobe of the other lung

lingual (think Left = Lingula)

18

1. The left lung has _ lobes, _ secondary bronchi, and _ bronchial arteries.
2. it has _ bronchial segments

1. 2, 2, 2
2. 8

19

the right lung has _ lobes, _ secondary bronchi, _ bronchial artery, and _ bronchial segments

3, 3, 1, 10

20

each lung is enclosed in a double layer

pleural sac

21

the ridge that marks the bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left primary bronchi is the:
carina
lingual
bronchial tree
mediastinum

carina

22

the _ connects the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract

trachea

23

the trachea bifurcates into the right and left main stem bronchi at a location called the __, which is located at the level of the __

carina,
sternal angle (T4-T5)

24

the trachea is in ___ esophagus and _ to the thyroid

in front of esophagus and behind thyroid

25

a series of C shaped rings of _ strengthen the trachea and prevent it from collapsing during inspiration

hyaline cartilage

26

the trachea is lined with _ epitheliums and _ cells which trap inhaled debris

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and mucous-secreting goblet cells

27

the right lung is larger and heavier than the left but it is _ and _

shorter and wider bc of the right dome of diaphragm is higher and the heart and pericardium bulge more to the left

28

trachea branches into the right and left PRIMARY BRONCHI which lead to the lungs. Each bronchi in the lungs branches into the bronchial/respiratory tree. The first of these branches is the __branch

lobar (secondary branch). each lobar goes into one lobe

29

the terminal bronchioles gives rise to

respiratory bronchioles

30

which do not have cilia:
tertiary bronchioles/primary bronchioles/terminal bronchioles/respiratory bronchioles/alveolar ducts

alveolar ducts

31

conducting bronchioles do not have alveoli in their walls and are nearer the hilum of the lung. they deliver air to passageways that have alveoli. the last generation of conducting bronchioles are called

terminal bronchioles

32

__bronchioles continue from the terminal bronchioles.

respiratory

33

the first generation of passageways of the respiratory portion of the bronchial tree are the

respiratory bronchioles

34

the __ zone of the respiratory system is the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

conducting zone aka dead zone bc no O2 exchange

35

function of conducting zone is

filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it to the lungs

36

the _ zone is the site of oxygen and co2 exchange and composed of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

respiratory

37

bronchioles have a diameter of _mm or less

1mm

38

bronchioles epithelium progresses from ciliated pseudostratified columnar to

cuboidal (respiratory bronchioles)

39

small bronchioles have non ciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells called _ that secret a surface active lipoprotein

Clara cells

40

walls of bronchioles are devoid of

cartilage or glands

41

the _ arteries supply blood to the bronchi

bronchial arteries

NOT the pulmonary artery/subclavian/etc

42

each lung is shaped like a

cone

43

each lung has a blunt__ and a concave ___ that sits on the diaphragm

blunt apex
concave base

44

in the middle of the mediastinal surface, the _ is located, which is a depression where bronchi, vessels, nerves that form the root enter and leave the lung

hilum

45

the root of the lung contains what structures

primary bronchus (from the trachea), pulmonary artery carrying oxygen poor blood, and pulmonary veins carrying oxygen rich blood, bronchial arteries

46

branches of the _ nerve pass behind the root of each lung to form the __

vagus
posterior pulmonary plexus

47

the lung is innervated by

PNS nerves via vagus and sympathetic nerves from the 2nd and 4th thoracic sympathetic ganglia.

48

when foreign objects are aspirated into the trachea, they usually pass into the right/left primary bronchus

right bc it is larger, straighter, and shorter than the left and more direct line with the trachea.

49

in the dental chair if patient swallow an object it tends to lodge in the

right bronchus

50

TB is more common in the right or left lung

right bc it is shorter

51

why is TB usually restricted to the apex of the lung

bc ventilation/perfusion ratio is high, TB are obligate aerobes

52

which is not part of lower respiratory tract:
trachea/alveolar duct/primary bronchus/laryngopharynx

laryngopharynx

53

the mediastinum contains all the thoracic viscera except the

lungs

54

the mediastinum upper portion is above the

upper pericardium

55

the lower mediastinum is subdivided into what 3 parts

anterior (in front of pericardium) middle (containing the pericardium) and posterior (behind the pericardium)

56

respiratory system consists of

lungs, upper and lower respiratory tracts and thoracic cage

57

the upper respiratory tract structures

nose mouth nasopharynx oropharynx laryngopharynx and larynx

58

the upper respiratory tract functions

warm and humidify inhaled air, provide taste, smell and chewing and swallowing of food

59

the lower respiratory tract structures are

trachea, bronchi, lungs

60

bronchi branch into bronchioles which in turn branch into

lobules

61

the lobule contains

terminal bronchioles and alveoli

62

mucous membrane containing hair like cilia lines the _ tract

lower

63

functionally the lower tract is subdivided into _ and _

conducting airways (trachea, primary, lobar, and segmental bronchi) and alveoli = sites of gas exchange

64

sphenoid sinus drains into the

sphenoethmoidal recess

65

the bony roof of the nasal cavity is formed by the

cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

66

the lateral walls of the nose have bony projections called

conchae (superior, middle, and inferior) aka nasal turbinates

67

the nasal conchae form shelves that have spaces or grooves beneath them called

meatuses (superior middle and inferior)

68

all of the paired paranasal sinuses drain into the nasal cavity by way of the meatuses except for the __

sphenoidal sinus which drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess

69

the nasolacrimal duct drains tears from the eyes and empties into the

inferior meatus

70

the floor of the nose is formed by the

hard palate

71

the nasal cavity opens posteriorly into the nasopharynx via a funnel like opening called the

choanae (posterior nares)

72

1. conchae =
2. choanae =

1. bony projections of lateral walls of nose
2. opening into nasopharynx

73

maxillary sinus drains into the _ thru the _

middle meatus thru the semilunar hiatus

74

the vestibules of the sinuses are lined with

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia

75

the conchae of the nasal fossae are lined with

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

76

the olfactory epithelium is very prominent in the upper medial portion of the nasal cavity. both olfactory and respiratory epithelium are

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

77

olfactory epithelium is unique bc it contains

olfactory sensory cells

78

the nasal cavity receives sensory info from the _ nerve for smell and _ nerve for other sensations

olfactory nerve (CN1) and trigeminal (V) for other sensations

79

the nasal cavity blood supply is from branches of the

ophthalmic and maxillary arteries

80

the pharynx (throat) is a tube that serves as a passageway for the respiratory and digestive tracts. it extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the_ and _

larynx and esophagus

81

the pharynx has 3 sections named

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

82

the nasopharynx is the most superior division of the pharynx. it lies _ to the sphenoid bone at the level of the __

inferior to sphenoid at level of soft palate

83

The __ palate is the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth

soft

84

the soft palate is distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain _.

bone

85

the pharynx is lined with _ epithelium

ciliated pseudostratified epithelium (respiratory epithelium)

86

the nasopharynx has 4 openings name them

2 auditory (Eustachian) tubes: each opening out of a lateral wall and connecting with the middle ear (tympanic cavity)
and 2 opening of the posterior nares (choanae)

87

the nasopharynx is the location of the _ tonsils

pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsils

88

the soft palate and uvula form the _ wall of the nasopharynx

anterior wall

89

the superior inferior and middle turbinate are aka

nasal concha = turbinate

90

the tensor veli palatini and the levator veli palatini muscles prevent _

food from entering the nasopharynx

91

the oropharynx is lined with

stratified squamous epithelium

92

oropharynx extends from

soft palate to hyoid bone

93

fauces

opening from mouth into oropharynx

94

the __ tonsils protrude into oropharynx

lingual tonsils from base of tongue

95

the anterolateral walls of the oropharynx support which tonsils

the palatine

96

the oropharynx is a _ and _ passageway

air and food

97

the laryngopharynx extends from the _ to the _

hyoid bone to the opening of the esophagus

98

1. the oropharynx and laryngopharynx are both lined with
2. the nasopharynx is lined with

1. stratified squamous epithelia
2.ciliated psuedostratified

99

the laryngopharynx and the oropharynx are both passageways for

food and air

100

air entering the layngopharynx goes into the _ and food goes into the _

air = larynx
food = esophagus

101

woman has HPV and warts on her larynx and respiratory tract. in order to allow her to breathe an emergency airway maybe established by opening into the trachea:
a. thru the thyroid membrane
b. bw the thyroid and cricoid cartilage
c. bw thyroid cartilage
d. above the level of thyroid cartilage

bw the thyroid and cricoid cartilage

102

an emergency tracheotomy (tracheostomy) is made by making incision thru the

cricothyroid ligament. = runs bw thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage and is inferior to the space bw the vocal cords (rima glotidis) where aspired objects usually get lodged.

103

the space entered by emergency tracheotomy is called the

cricothyroid space

104

a cricothyrotomy is preferable to tracheotomy for ___

non surgeons in emergency respiratory obstructions

105

in cricothyrotomy an incision is made thru the skin and __ for the relief of acute respiratory obstruction

cricothyroid membrane

106

tracheotomy are rarely performed and limited to patients with extensive laryngeal damage and infants with severe airway obstruction. why

bc presence of major vascular structures: carotid arteries internal jugular vein, thyroid gland, nerves (recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve), pleural cavities, esophagus

107

laryngeal prominence is aka

adam's apple

108

laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple) is a protuberance formed by the

angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx. more pronounced in men than women

109

function of surfactant

lowers surface tension by reducing cohesive force of water

110

surfactant are made by type _ alveolar cells

II

111

surfactant reduces surface tension throughout the lung, and stabilizes the

alveoli

112

neonatal respiratory distress syndrome =

premature infants w insufficient surfactant

113

_ cells are dome shaped cells w short microvilli in small airways (bronchioles), in ciliated simple epithelium. secrete glycosaminoglycangs (GAGs) to protect the lining

Clara cells

114

Type I pneumocytes are responsible for

gas exchange in alveoli and cover majority of alveolar surface 95%

115

Type II pneumocytes

granular and cuboidal . cover 5% of area produce surfactant (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine)

116

alveolar macrophages aka

dust cells