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Flashcards in 3/17 Deck (44):
1

What diseases might you give sulfasalazine for? MOA?

IBD

Inhibit cytokine, PG, leukotriene synthesis during inflammation

2

What causes failure to thrive in young CF patients?

Malabsorption due to obstructive fibrosis and progressive insufficiency of the exocrine pancreas. Pancreatic lipase supplementation is needed.

3

Neural tube defects lead to increased WHAT in amniotic fluid?

AFP and AChE

4

What are the two examples of anterior neural tube defects?

encephalocele (herniation of brain tissue through cranial defect)

anencephaly (total absence of brain and calvarium)

5

What are three examples of posterior neural tube defect?

Spina bifida occulta
Meningocele
Meningomyelocele

6

What is Hirschsprung's disease?

Failure of neural crest cells to migrate to intestinal wall

Leads to absence of myenteric and submucosal nervous plexi in a segment of colonic wall

7

What reabsorbs CSF?

Arachnoid granulations

8

What is suggested by fever, jaundice, and anorexia in an IV drug user?

Acute viral hepatitis

9

What are Councilman bodies?

Acidophilic (apoptotic) bodies found in apoptotic hepatocytes, which can be seen in acute viral hepatitis

10

Where are Peyer's patches located?

Ileum

11

Where are Brunner's glands and crypts of Lieberkuhn located?

Duodenum

12

What artery supplies the femoral head?

Obturator artery

13

Why is the obturator artery clinically significant in children?

It supplies the femoral head proximal to the epiphyseal growth plate

14

Sx of paresthesias, weakness, dizziness, n/v, hyporeflexia, and diarrhea after consuming fish points to what toxin?

Tetrodotoxin from puffer fish

15

What toxins inhibit protein synthesis?

Diptheria toxin, exotoxin A (pseudomonas), shiga toxin, shiga-like toxin (EHEC, incl O157:H7)

16

How do diptheria toxin and exotoxin A work?

Ribosylate and inactivate elongation factor-2, inhibiting human cell protein synthesis

17

What is the best auscultatory indicator of Mitral stenosis severity?

A2-OS interval, shorter = worse

A2 is the aortic component of S2

18

Hypopigmented or hyperpigmented skin patches are associated with what organism?

Malassezia furfur fungus
Called tinea versicolor (or pityriasis versicolor)

19

What are the cutaneous mycoses?

Dermatophytosis
Pityriasis versicolor

20

What type of mycosis is sporotrichosis?

Subcutaneous

21

What are the mycoses with systemic involvement (esp the lungs)?

Histoplasmosis, coccidioidoses, blastomycosis

22

What are the opportunistic mycoses?

Candida, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus

23

What organism has a "spaghetti and meatball" appearance?

Malassezia furfur

24

How do you diagnose pityriasis (tinea) versicolor?

KOH tx of skin scrapings

25

Dextrans produced by Viridans group streptococci allow it to attach to what?

Fibrin

26

What type of genetic material does parvovirus B19 have?

non-enveloped linear (-) ssDNA

27

Genetic material of EBV?

enveloped ds DNA

28

What viruses have circular dsDNA?

Nonenveloped: HPV, JC virus (PML in HIV), BK virus (renal infx)

Enveloped: HBV is partially circular, but also dsDNA

29

Patients should be tested for what before receiving TNF-a inhibitor like Etanercept?

Latent TB infx or any other underlying infx

30

Why would you administer Etanercept? MOA?

For moderate to severe RA

TNF-a inhibitor

31

What do you give an alcoholic with pneumonia? Why?

Clindamycin, to cover anaerobes from oral flora, commonly the cause of aspiration PNA in alcoholics

32

What are the sx of theophylline toxicity?

Abd pain, vomiting, seizures

33

What drugs cause lupus?

Hydralazine
Procainamide
Isoniazid
Especially with slow acetylators

34

Bleeding, secretory diarrhea, and partial intestinal obstruction indicate what type of adenomatous polyp?

Villous adenoma

35

What does adding cyanide then nitroprusside to urine test for?

Detects sulfhydryl groups, particularly for cystine, which turns it purple, indicating cystinuria

36

What is tamoxifen's effect on breast? Endometrium? Bone?

Breast: reduce cancer
Endometrium: increase hyperplasia/cancer risk
Bone: reduce osteoporosis

37

Tubular proteinuria is associated with loss of what kinds of proteins?

Low molecular weight proteins, e.g. b2-microglobulin, Ig light chains, amino acids, retinol binding protein

38

Overload proteinuria is associated with loss of what kinds of proteins?

Low molecular weight proteins that are filtered by the GBM, but overwhelm the reabsorption by proximal tubule.

E.g. overproduction of Ig light chain in multiple myeloma

39

What are the causes of functional proteinuria?

Exercise, high fever, emotional stress, cold exposure

40

What function do ApoE3 and ApoE4 serve?

Uptake of chylomicrons and VLDL by hepatic apolipoprotein receptors

41

What function does ApoB-100 serve?

Uptake of LDL by receptor mediated uptake in extrahepatic tissues

42

ApoA-I function?

LCAT activation for cholesterol esterification into HDL

43

ApoB-48 fxn?

Chylomicron assembly and secretion

44

ApoC-II fxn?

Lipoprotein lipase activation