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Flashcards in 3/8 Deck (15):
1

Meconium from the umbilicus results from persistence of what embryological structure?

Yolk stalk (vitelline duct)

2

What is an omphalocele?

Incomplete closure of anterior abdominal wall: protruding viscera covered by peritoneum

3

What is a gastroschisis?

Viscera protrudes through anterior abd wall without a peritoneal covering

4

Lipoic acid as a cofactor for what 3 enzymes?

1. PDH (def. leads to lactic acidosis)
2. alpha-ketoglutarate DH
3. Branched-chain ketoacid DH (def. leads to maple syrup urine disease)

5

Deficiency in which enzyme leads to maple syrup urine disease?

Branched chain ketoacid DH

6

What is indicated by seeing distended macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria?

Whipple disease

7

What is indicated by collections of neutrophils in the crypt lumina?

Ulcerative colitis

8

What is indicated by intestinal inflammation with scattered noncaseating granulomas?

Crohns disease

9

Stop codons

UGA (you go away)
UAG (you are going)
UAA (you are away)

10

What receptors are stimulated by organophosphates (like in pesticides)?

Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors

11

Defects in which steps of porphyrin synthesis cause photosensitivity?

Late steps: URO decarboxylase, COPRO oxidase, PROTO oxidase, ferrochelatase

12

CD15 is marker for what?

Granulocytes, Reed-Sternberg cells (good marker for Hodgkin lymphoma)

13

CD16 is found on what cells?

CD16 is a low affinity Fc receptor found on surface of NK cells, neutrophils, macrophages

14

When is natriuretic peptide secreted?

In cardiac myocytes in response to volume overload

15

Mechanism for reperfusion injury?

generation of oxygen free radicals and/or local complement activation