Flashcards in 3/31 - UW 37 Deck (50)
What is the embryonic source of the anterior pituitary?
What organs are derived from the surface ectoderm?
Rathke's pouch (anterior pituitary), lens/cornea, inner ear, nose/mouth, epidermis, sweat/mammary glands
What organs are derived from the neural tube?
CNS, posterior pituitary, retina
What organs are derived from the neural crest?
Pia/arachnoid mater, ganglions, Schwann cells, aorticopulmonary septum and endocardial cushions, branchial arches, melanocytes, adrenal medulla
What organs are derived from the mesoderm?
MSK, CV sys (incl blood and lymphatics), serosal lining, spleen, internal genitalia, kidney/ureters, adrenal cortex
What organs are derived from the endoderm
GI tract (incl liver, pancreas), lungs, thymus, para/thyroids, middle ear, bladder/urethra
Block glucan synthesis, for CELL WALL!!!!
Amphotericin B, nystatin
BIND (as opposed to azoles) ergosterol, for the cell MEMBRANE
Inhibit ergosterol SYNTHESIS, for the cell membrane
What is Caspofungin most effective against?
Candida and Aspergillus
What tx for isolated HTN in a nondiabetic can cause peripheral edema and flushing?
What drug can cause blue-gray skin discoloration and corneal micro-deposits?
How do NK cells mediate destruction of cells with decreased or absent MHC I expression?
1. Perforins open membrane holes
2. Granzymes enter through holes to induce apoptosis
What CD # do NK cells express?
CD16 or 56
When do Cheyne-Stokes respirations occur?
Advanced CHF, stokes, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury
What are common side effects of arteriolar vasodilators (hydralazine, minoxidil)?
Reflex tachycardia and edema, due to lower arterial pressure causing baroreceptor stimulation
Hypersensitivity to everyday noises results from injury to what?
Paralysis of the stapedius muscle (from injury or facial nerve lesion) will cause hyperacusis.
Where does Galactose enter the glycolytic pathway?
Where does Mannose enter the glycolytic pathway?
Where does Fructose enter the glycolytic pathway?
Glyceraldehyde 3P (after PFK-1)
An ulcer not in the duodenal bulb (proximal duodenum) suggests what syndrome?
Zollinger Ellison syndrome (caused by gastrin-secreting tumors)
Where do gastrinomas arise?
Where are PUD ulcers typically found?
Lesser curvature of the stomach or the proximal duodenum (duodenal bulb)
What type of gastritis spares the antrum?
Autoimmune (not H pylori)
What are the most common clinical manifestations of Vit E def?
Neuromuscular disease (myopathy, ataxia, pigmented retinopathy), hemolytic anemia
What drug has a similar structure to pyridoxine (B6)?
Resistance and flow is proportional to radius of a vessel to what power?
In acute viral hepatitis, what is seen histologically?
Diffuse ballooning degeneration (hepatocyte swelling), mononuclear cell infiltrates, Councilman bodies (eosinophilic apoptotic hepatocytes0
What lab findings are usually seen in Klinefelter's?
Elevated gonadotropins (esp FSH) and estradiol, reduced testosterone
What is the rate limiting step of the HMP shunt?
Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase
What two reactions/enzymes reduce oxidative damage in RBCs?
G6PD and glutathione reductase
What drugs are purine analog antimetabolites?
What drugs are pyrimidine analog antimetabolites?
How does Cladribine achieve high intracellular concentrations? What is it used for?
Resistant to adenosine deaminase. Used for Hairy Cell Leukemia.
Where are Major Basic Proteins found?
In eosinophil granules, help defend against parasites
What type of colonic polyp can transform into malignant cancer?
Adenomatous polyps, especially VILLOUS (villain!)
What are the most common histologic features of Glioblastoma multiforme?
New vessel formation
Small round cells, bizarre giant cells, mitotic figures
Where is Glioblastoma multiforme most often found?
Butterfly distribution in the brain: Frontal and temporal lobes, crossing the midline
What is the cell of origin of Glioblastoma multiforme?
Transtentorial (uncal) herniation can compress which nerve?
What are the 3 Ds of Botulinum?
Diplopia, Dysphagia, Dysphonia
What is the most common cause of recurrent lobar hemorrhages in an elderly patient?
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Where are Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms typically found? In what patients?
In the arterioles of the basal ganglia, internal capsule, and deep white matter. In patients with long-standing hypertension
What is responsible for the green color of pus and sputum?
What are the cardiac anomalies seen in Turner patients?
Bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation
When would you see pulsus paradoxus?
When would you see pulsus alternans?
LV dysfunction (beat to beat variation in pulse pressure, with regular rhythm)
When would you see a dicrotic pulse?
Severe systolic dysfunction: 2 pulse peaks, one during systole, one during diastole. Best palpated in the carotid.
When would you see pulsus parvus et tardus?
Aortic stenosis: a pulse of low magnitude and delayed peak