Flashcards in 3/31 - UW 37 Deck (50)
What is the embryonic source of the anterior pituitary?
What organs are derived from the surface ectoderm?
Rathke's pouch (anterior pituitary), lens/cornea, inner ear, nose/mouth, epidermis, sweat/mammary glands
What organs are derived from the neural tube?
CNS, posterior pituitary, retina
What organs are derived from the neural crest?
Pia/arachnoid mater, ganglions, Schwann cells, aorticopulmonary septum and endocardial cushions, branchial arches, melanocytes, adrenal medulla
What organs are derived from the mesoderm?
MSK, CV sys (incl blood and lymphatics), serosal lining, spleen, internal genitalia, kidney/ureters, adrenal cortex
What organs are derived from the endoderm
GI tract (incl liver, pancreas), lungs, thymus, para/thyroids, middle ear, bladder/urethra
Block glucan synthesis, for CELL WALL!!!!
Amphotericin B, nystatin
BIND (as opposed to azoles) ergosterol, for the cell MEMBRANE
Inhibit ergosterol SYNTHESIS, for the cell membrane
What is Caspofungin most effective against?
Candida and Aspergillus
What tx for isolated HTN in a nondiabetic can cause peripheral edema and flushing?
What drug can cause blue-gray skin discoloration and corneal micro-deposits?
How do NK cells mediate destruction of cells with decreased or absent MHC I expression?
1. Perforins open membrane holes
2. Granzymes enter through holes to induce apoptosis
What CD # do NK cells express?
CD16 or 56
When do Cheyne-Stokes respirations occur?
Advanced CHF, stokes, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury
What are common side effects of arteriolar vasodilators (hydralazine, minoxidil)?
Reflex tachycardia and edema, due to lower arterial pressure causing baroreceptor stimulation
Hypersensitivity to everyday noises results from injury to what?
Paralysis of the stapedius muscle (from injury or facial nerve lesion) will cause hyperacusis.
Where does Galactose enter the glycolytic pathway?
Where does Mannose enter the glycolytic pathway?
Where does Fructose enter the glycolytic pathway?
Glyceraldehyde 3P (after PFK-1)
An ulcer not in the duodenal bulb (proximal duodenum) suggests what syndrome?
Zollinger Ellison syndrome (caused by gastrin-secreting tumors)
Where do gastrinomas arise?
Where are PUD ulcers typically found?
Lesser curvature of the stomach or the proximal duodenum (duodenal bulb)
What type of gastritis spares the antrum?
Autoimmune (not H pylori)
What are the most common clinical manifestations of Vit E def?
Neuromuscular disease (myopathy, ataxia, pigmented retinopathy), hemolytic anemia
What drug has a similar structure to pyridoxine (B6)?
Resistance and flow is proportional to radius of a vessel to what power?
In acute viral hepatitis, what is seen histologically?
Diffuse ballooning degeneration (hepatocyte swelling), mononuclear cell infiltrates, Councilman bodies (eosinophilic apoptotic hepatocytes0
What lab findings are usually seen in Klinefelter's?
Elevated gonadotropins (esp FSH) and estradiol, reduced testosterone