3/31 - UW 37 Flashcards Preview

Step 1 > 3/31 - UW 37 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3/31 - UW 37 Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the embryonic source of the anterior pituitary?

Surface ectoderm

2

What organs are derived from the surface ectoderm?

Rathke's pouch (anterior pituitary), lens/cornea, inner ear, nose/mouth, epidermis, sweat/mammary glands

3

What organs are derived from the neural tube?

CNS, posterior pituitary, retina

4

What organs are derived from the neural crest?

Pia/arachnoid mater, ganglions, Schwann cells, aorticopulmonary septum and endocardial cushions, branchial arches, melanocytes, adrenal medulla

5

What organs are derived from the mesoderm?

MSK, CV sys (incl blood and lymphatics), serosal lining, spleen, internal genitalia, kidney/ureters, adrenal cortex

6

What organs are derived from the endoderm

GI tract (incl liver, pancreas), lungs, thymus, para/thyroids, middle ear, bladder/urethra

7

Caspofungin MOA?

Block glucan synthesis, for CELL WALL!!!!

8

Polyenes? MOA?

Amphotericin B, nystatin

BIND (as opposed to azoles) ergosterol, for the cell MEMBRANE

9

Azoles MOA?

Inhibit ergosterol SYNTHESIS, for the cell membrane

10

What is Caspofungin most effective against?

Candida and Aspergillus

11

What tx for isolated HTN in a nondiabetic can cause peripheral edema and flushing?

Amlodipine (CCBs)

12

What drug can cause blue-gray skin discoloration and corneal micro-deposits?

Amiodarone

13

How do NK cells mediate destruction of cells with decreased or absent MHC I expression?

1. Perforins open membrane holes
2. Granzymes enter through holes to induce apoptosis

14

What CD # do NK cells express?

CD16 or 56

15

When do Cheyne-Stokes respirations occur?

Advanced CHF, stokes, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury

16

What are common side effects of arteriolar vasodilators (hydralazine, minoxidil)?

Reflex tachycardia and edema, due to lower arterial pressure causing baroreceptor stimulation

17

Hypersensitivity to everyday noises results from injury to what?

Paralysis of the stapedius muscle (from injury or facial nerve lesion) will cause hyperacusis.

18

Where does Galactose enter the glycolytic pathway?

G6P

19

Where does Mannose enter the glycolytic pathway?

F6P

20

Where does Fructose enter the glycolytic pathway?

Glyceraldehyde 3P (after PFK-1)

21

An ulcer not in the duodenal bulb (proximal duodenum) suggests what syndrome?

Zollinger Ellison syndrome (caused by gastrin-secreting tumors)

22

Where do gastrinomas arise?

Pancreas mostly

23

Where are PUD ulcers typically found?

Lesser curvature of the stomach or the proximal duodenum (duodenal bulb)

24

What type of gastritis spares the antrum?

Autoimmune (not H pylori)

25

What are the most common clinical manifestations of Vit E def?

Neuromuscular disease (myopathy, ataxia, pigmented retinopathy), hemolytic anemia

26

What drug has a similar structure to pyridoxine (B6)?

INH

27

Resistance and flow is proportional to radius of a vessel to what power?

4th

28

In acute viral hepatitis, what is seen histologically?

Diffuse ballooning degeneration (hepatocyte swelling), mononuclear cell infiltrates, Councilman bodies (eosinophilic apoptotic hepatocytes0

29

What lab findings are usually seen in Klinefelter's?

Elevated gonadotropins (esp FSH) and estradiol, reduced testosterone

30

What is the rate limiting step of the HMP shunt?

Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase