Flashcards in 4/5 - UW 46 Deck (30)
What is heteroplasmy?
Presence of different ORGANELLE genomes in a single cell
Aside from mediating symptoms of septic shock, what other syndrome does TNF-a mediate?
Cachexia (anorexia, malaise, anemia, weight loss, general wasting)
TNF-a is also called CACHECTIN
How does Flutamide treat prostate cancer?
Competitive antagonist of testosterone and DHT
What are the "-relin" drugs? MOA? What other drug is in this class?
GnRH agonists (goserelin, nafarelin, histrelin, also leuprolide)
Binds to GnRH-R, inhibit LH and FSH synthesis from AP
What coag factor is inactivated by protein C?
Factor V (Leiden mutation renders it resistant, causes HYPERcoagulability)
MSUD causes defective breakdown of what AAs?
Branched chains! Leucine, isoleucine, valine
For what use is LIVER heme synthesis?
P450 enzyme system (as opposed to BONE heme synthesis for hgb)
What are 3 drugs that prevent reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate? What do they inhibit?
TriMETHOprim, METHOtrexate, and pyriMETHamine all inhibit dihydrofolate reductase
How does Sulfamethoxazole synergize with Trimethoprim?
While TMP inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, SMX is a PABA analog that inhibits dihydrofolic acid synthesis
How does metronidazole work?
It binds to DNA, unraveling it and breaking its strands
How does Cilastatin help increase Imipenem effectiveness?
Cilastatin decreases the renal metabolism of Imipenem (which binds to PBPs, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis)
What aspect of cell walls does Bacitracin inhibit?
Prevents mucopeptide transfer into a GROWING cell wall, so only works for GROWING bacterial populations
Which nerves innervate the CAROTID sinus baroreceptors? What about the AORTIC arch?
Carotid sinus: Hering's nerve off the Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
Aortic: Vagus (CN X)
Where do afferent nerves of the baroreceptors terminate?
Solitary nucleus of the medulla
What disorder is described as "superficial blanching nests of distended capillaries"?
The genetic defect in Ataxia-telangiectasia affects what?
ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) gene is responsible for DNA break repair, making them hypersensitive to Xrays
What disease has defective sphingolipid degradation?
Niemann Pick (AR disease leading to death in early childhood)
Cherry red spot on the macula? (2 diseases)
What artery runs with the radial nerve?
What roots give rise to the phrenic nerve?
What causes hypercalcemia in granulomatous disorders (sarcoidosis, Hodgkins lymphoma)?
Extrarenal production of 1,25(OH)2 vit D (calcidiol) by macrophages, activated by IFNy from Th2
What organ can the tip of the 12th rib lacerate?
Which ribs overlie the spleen?
9, 10, 11
What are 4 sequelae of asbestos exposure?
1. Pleural plaques (dense collagen/calcifications in lower lungs)
2. Asbestosis (diffuse pulm fibrosis and asbestos bodies)
3. Bronchogenic carcinoma (most common malignancy)
4. Malignant mesothelioma (rare, only caused by asbestos)
Cancer type associated with dietary nitrates?
Cancer type associated with Aflatoxin and hemochromatosis?
Cancer type associated with charred or fried foods?
Cancer type associated with occupational exposures (rubber, amines dyes, textiles, leather)?
Bladder (transitional cell carcinoma)
Hemorrhagic cystitis is a concerning ADR of what drugs?
Cyclophosphamide and Ifosfamide (from ACROLEIN, a metabolite)