3/22 - UW 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3/22 - UW 18 Deck (34):
1

What are the two acid buffers used to trap H+ in the renal tubular lumen?

HPO4 and NH3

2

What maternal disease is associated with fetal Caudal Regression Syndrome?

DM

3

Maternal overdose of what vitamin causes fetal sx similar to DiGeorge syndrome?

Vit A

4

Which of the 5 glucose transporters (GLUT) are responsive to insulin?

GLUT 4 (muscles cells and adipocytes)

5

How do Eosinophils defend against parasitic infxn?

Ab dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), with IgE

6

What ligament is displaced in a "nursemaid's elbow"?

Annular ligament

7

What happens to the endometrial cells upon withdrawal of progesterone?

Apoptosis (not atrophy)

8

Straddle injuries are associated with anterior or posterior urethral

Anterior urethra

9

What color is hemosiderin?

Golden yellow brown

10

What do you give for absence sz?

Ethosuximide or Sodium valproate

11

What are the most feared, but uncommon side effects of Carbamazepine?

Agranulocytosis
Aplastic anemia

12

Displaced lens in a child (3-10 years) = ??

Homocystinuria

13

Homocystinuria looks like...?

Ectopia lentis, marfanoid habitus, osteoporosis, thromboembolic episodes

14

What vitamin to give homocytinuria patients?

B6 (pyridoxine)

15

Which 2 enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway are sensitive to lead inhibition?

d-ALAD and ferrochelatase

16

What infection presents with flu-like prodrome followed by neurologic syndrome (agitation, disorientation, pharyngospasm, photophobia)?

Rabies encephalitis (Rhabdoviridae)

17

What receptor does CMV bind to?

Cellular integrins

18

What receptor does EBV bind to?

CR2 (CD21)

19

What receptor does HIV bind to?

CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5

20

What receptor does Rabies bind to?

Nicotinic ACh receptor

21

What receptor does rhinovirus bind to?

ICAM1 (CD54)

22

What promoter region resides 25 nucleotides upstream from the target gene?

TATA box

23

What promoter region resides 70-80 nucleotides upstream from the target gene?

CAAT box

24

What are the two COMT blockers?

Entacapone and tolcapone, blocking catecholamine metabolism

25

How does COMT blocker improve levodopa activity?

Decreasing peripheral methylation

26

What are the major side effects of metformin?

GI upset
Lactic acidosis

27

What labs should you check when administering metformin?

Creatinine
LFTs

28

What type of cardiotoxicity from anthracyclines?

Dilated cardiomyopathy

29

What should you give for doxorubicin (anthracycline) cardiomyopathy?

Dexrazoxane (iron-chelating agent that decrases O2 free radical formation)

30

Lansoprazole MOA?

Proton pump inhibitor

31

Cimetidine MOA?

Histamine H2 receptor blocker

32

What are bony prominences at the costochondral junctions and bowed legs suggestive of?

Vit. D def

33

What changes in bone structure are seen in vit D def?

Unmineralized osteoid matrix accumulation

34

What does bromodeoxyuridine uptake tell you about a tumor?

Grade